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NASHVILLE GLOBE, FRIDAY, MARCH 28, 1913.
7 FHF' "I mm By GEORGE EDMOND HAYNES. Ph. D.. Professor Social Scienc. risk University. W A Mr. Chairman, Members of th eMid dle Tennessee Teachers' Asscoia tion, Ladies and Gentlemen: I count it a privilege to greet you upon this occasion, because there Is no other body of meu and women" anywhere to whom it is greater pleas ure to speak than to a body of teachers. I regard the teacher's pro fession as the great profession, for it is the largest factor in giving to the people the great boon of educa tion. Again, it is a pleasure to be with you tonight because of the per sonnel of this Association. I congrat ulate Middle Tennessee upon its teachers. And these words come from years of personal contact with many of your number, for I take pride in the fact that my first experience in a Summer Normal and my first ex perience in a State examination were had here in Nashville some thirteen years ago. Although opportunities for training and work elsewhere have filled most of the intervening years, I was glad when the call came to return to "Sunny Tennessee." I come to you tonight to discuss the "Dead-Hand" in Education, but the expression, "Dead-hand," has as much reference' to the "Dead-head" and "Dead-heart." The words "dead hand" have been applied to legacies and bequests, usually of money, which dying donors have left to benefac tors. Over and over again in the development of educational and phil anthropic institutions', it has happen, ed that some will of a donor long since dead has so limited the use of the money that the gift begins to serve as a hindrance rather than a help to the cause for which it was originally given. There is a college up in Pennsyl vania for orphan boys. The value of original gifts for it has increased with the years, but instead of an in creased usefulness the cause of the boys is being injured by the condi tions imposed in the will of the founder upon the trustees in expend ing the wealth. This condition of property in trust is known as the "dead-hand," be cause future generations are ham pered in their use of funds by the will and idea of some donor long rlnce dead who could not .foresee the changed conditions which have arisen. Now, in the transmission of intel lectual and spiritual property from generation to generation, worn-out or antiquated ideas are often adhered to, long after their originators are dead and their usefullness has di minished. Thus progress is ham pered and the people harmed. In the field of education, we may often figuratively speak of the "dead-hand" from the past. In this case it is not a legacy of money that often binds us, but a legacy of dead ideas, of dead views, conceptions and prac tices about the aim of education, about educational methods, about the organization and content of edu cation. . Why 6hould the aim of the Greeks in education Influence the aim we fiave in our educational efforts to day, unless the Greek aim harmonizes and helps the purposes of our life today? Of what value is the content of Roman education, unless it has educational values for onr children and our youth of the present time? Why should the methods of Comenius or of Pestalozzi control the methods of the school-room today unless those methods' are effective in devel oping the thinking power and knowl edge of the children of our time? Why should we as teachers follow the principles worked out by Iler hart, unless ITerbartian principles can fin.' their application in the educa tional needs of the hour? Whv should -ne theories of Froebel, with their influence of play attitude of children In the kindergarten, so permeate nil of our dealing with chil EXCURSION ROUND TR1D RATFCl TO MUSKOGEE, OKLA. Sunday-School Congress Forces Have Been Granted a Very Low Round Trip Rate on Account of the Eighth Annual Session to Be Held June 4-9. Tickets on Sale June 14. Announcement has Just been made by Chairman Jos. Richardson of At anta Ga., in a letter to Henry A. Boyd, Secretary of the Sunday-School i Congress, containing the following: "The fares, rules and regulations herein published are the separate fares, rules and regulations of each of the following Individual carriers and its connections from points on their respective initial lines herein specified, to Muskogee, Oklahoma, and return, on account of the eighth annual session of the Sunday-School Congress of the National Baptist Con vention, as outlined in Joint Passen ger Tariff No. Exc 5567, in effect June 1-4, 1913, inclusive. Dates of Sale June 1-3, inclusive, except that tickets will be sold at Cairo, 111., Baton Rouge, New Or leans, La., Natchez, Trotters Point and Vicksburg Miss., June 1-4, in clusive. Form of Tickets Use contract form It. Such tickets must be signed by the original purchaser in the pres ence of the ticket agent at the time of purchase, but do not require vali dation at destination Sample of form R. herein designated is embraced in revised report of the committee on standard ticket contracts, dated April 15, 1912. Going Trip Must begin on date of sale as Indicated on each ticket by sale agent. Final Limit (a) Tickets sold at Cniro, 111., Baton Rouge, New Orleans, dren in grammar, high school and college today as to be a serious hin drance to educational results? The play attitude toward school activities is all right for the kindergarten but the doctrine of interest does not de mand that it continue to other years! of school and to the serious work of after life. These are questions which make us consider seriously whether or not the dead ideas of the past are not having too much influence in our educational thought and practice of the present. You will see from the above, the drift of my discussion, ladis and gentlemen. Let me divide the sub ject for further discussion into four heads as follows: The relation of past ideas In education First, to the aim of education; Second, to the content of education. Third, to the methods of education. Fourth, to the organization of ed ucation. Taking up first, then, the question of the "dead-hand" in the aim of education, let us consider an idea, which grew up in the Middle Agos, namely, the idea of knowledge for knowledge's sake: or culture for culture's sake. At .the time this aim developed, the blanket of ignor ance was over all Europe and If a man enjoyed any knowledge at all he had to seek it largely for knowl edge's sake, since the prevailing no tions allowed little connection be tween knowledge and the needs of the people. The pursuit of knowl edge, therefore, came to be an end In itself, excent where it became a hand maiden to thosp who intended. to enter the holy orders of the Church. Now, in later centuries when there came to be a closer connection be tween education and the people, be tween the learning of the schools and the universities and the needs of the community, this idea persisted and ven continues to our own tlmme. Like a "dead-hand," it. has? hampered us when we have attempted to formu late a new aim of education to meet the new conditions. Do we want knowledge simnly for knowledge's sake or do we want it for the power of service to the people which Its possession gives? We want culture for the sake 6f cultivating the masses of the people; we Want knowledge and culture for the sake of human welfare!! Shall we let. the "dead-idea" of knowledge for knowledge's ;ake hold us so tight ly in its grin that we shall not be able to grasn the greater idea and formulate clearly the aim of knowl edge and culture for the sake of hu man welfare? There 1s another idea about the aim of education which still fetters many of those who follow the path to the Pierian spring. It is the notion that culture and learning are suita ble only for selected cjasses of the neople: that the masses of mankind have little capacity for thinking and little asniration .for truth. This Idea In our democracy , today has reshaped itself to the extent of admitting that the people can learn the rudiments of knowledge, but when it comes to the higher reaches of knowledge and culture and achievement, they say that the capacity for such has been vouchsafed of God Almighty to the few only. In a word, there Is a per sistent notion that latent genius is the particular possession of only the few, "the talented tenth" of humani ty. Like a "dead-hand" from out the nast this idea hampers much of our activity and results. It is an error lhat grew un out of the mediaeval theology of predestination which was nursed by aristocracy and monarchy. It nersists today under the scientific sruKe of hereditary genius. It per sists i" our democracy in spite of our nrofession of faith in the capacity of th neonle. But let me hasten to guard against I.a., Natchez, Trotters Point and Vicksburg, Miss., will be void after June 12, 121.1, prior to midnight of such date, return trip must bo com pleted. (b) Tickets' sold at other stations will be void after June 14th, prior to midnight of such date return trip niust be completed. Instructions for Non-Coupon Agents Non-coupon agent snot supplied with necessary through coupon ticket, should endeavor to ascertain if there will be persons at their stations de siring to purchase excursion tickets for this occasion, v and anticipating such sales, should obtain necessary through tickets from the nearest cou pon agency, or from the G. P. A. of fice, lf time will permit Persons re siding at non-coupon stations desir ing to avail themselves of these re duced fares and purchase coupon tick ets will be required to give the agents at their station ample notice of their proposed trips, in order that each agent may be enabled to obtain through tickets. Ordinarily it re quires notice of two or three days, but five days Is considered ample notice.) Extension of Limit of Ticket on Ac count of Illness, Wash-outs and Other Emergencies Extension of limit of tickets on account of Illness, wash outs and other emergencies, will be granted in accordance with the regu lations relative thereto contained in Joint one-way tariffs named herein on page 10. supplements thereto and re issues therefor. Stop Overs Stop overs will not be allowed on tickets sold under this tariff except where stop overs are au thorized in accordance with the reg ulations contained in the tariff of the carriers, over whoso lines the tickets read as lawfully on file with the In terstate Commerce Commission. Fares and Routes The following! total excursion fares will apply from stations named, amount opposite: a misunderstanding of the truth needed to enable us to let this "dead past buty its dead." I do not mean for a moment to say that all men have equal capacity. From ancestors for generations unnumbered even person has received a different heri tage, nut more powerful by far than heredity, so far as education ran ef fect anything, is the environment those conditions of life which sur- round the Individual from the cradle to the grave. To use a figure of speech borrowed from another, hu manity may be likened to one of the great underground streams of water. Here and there walls are sunk. In one. place the soil has Iron In it, In another place sulDhur. In another nrv. tassium and so on. As the water rises In the well it takes on a chemi cal tincture from the elements of the soil. What we want to do tod.iv la to prevent the Dure stream from rnn- tamination anywhere by sinking our j wens and curbing so as to br ns- op portunity for full development to all. you ana i as teachers cannot tell what black boy that sits before tis today is a latent DuBois, or Booker wasnington, or Frederick Douglass. There are more of them in pmhrvn than we have ever dreamed of In our philosophy of education and of life. They are waiting only to get the op portunity to develop. How do any of us know which of the whito boys we meet on the street corners will develop into an Edison, a Wilson, or an Abraham Lincoln There are more latent heroes in our midst than we suspect, if they only have oppor tunity to awaken and develop their talents. Let ns turn next to the content of Rome and the Mddle Ages, before the Rime and the Middle Ages, before the birth of modern democracy. In these times the larger number of the people were in serfdom or slavery and, of course, their main business was to toll and create wealth that the upper classes might have leisure and devote it to learning, in the form of literature, history, the sci ences and liberal arts, subjects which were for the Interest of gentlemen of leisure only, who. sought knowl edge for knowledge's sake. But with the growth of modem democracy in the last 300 years, with the increas ing development of inventions and manufactures, there has come a ris ing tide of demand from the people that they shall have Rome knowledge and some culture for the elevation of their lowly lives. In addition, the occupations that engaged the tim and the attention of the lady and gentleman of leisure of the past are not the occupations of the men and women In a democracy. Also, we have cast aside the "dead-hand" of disapproval upon manual labor and Instead of leveling down some men and the work that they do, democra cy is leveling up all men and the occupations In which they are en gaged. So It comes about, that the ditch digger, the farmer, the me chanic, workingmen and women in all the avenues of Industry, are be ginning to want to find education and culture through the develop ment In the lines where they know most, where tliev are most Interested, nnd where their capacities have greatest outlet. Besides, they are demanding that much of the literature and other liberal studies which were wont to be confined to only the upper classes the leisure classes, shall now be dis tributed to enlighten and to uplift all the people. In fact the very life of democracy demands that this ave nue of intelligence be thrown wide open to all the peonle. It comes about, therefore, that the best thought as to the content of education would not limit it to the few liberal arts ntd sciences, but education should include everything that develops body, mind and spirit. Thus, you ALABAMA. Gurley Ilaleyville . . . HartseHs ... . Heflln Hobbs Island . Huntsville . . . Hurtsboro . . . Isbell ... . Jackson . . Jacksonville . Jasper Kennedy .. .. Lafayette . . . Littleton ... . Livingston . . . Loxley . . Maplesville . . Marlon Marion Jet. . . Mobile Montevallo . . Montgomery . Myrtlewcod . , New Decatur . New Market s Northport . . . Oneonta . . Opelika.. .. , Oxford Ozark Parrish . . Pell City .. . Piedmont . . Prattville . . . Reform . . Roanoke Russellville . . Scottsboro . . , Selma Sheffield .. .. Silverhill . . . Springvllle . . Stevt.nson . . Sulllgent .. .. Suninieriale . Sylacauga . . . Talladega . . . . Thomasville . Troy Tuscaloosa . . , Tuscunibla . . Union Springs Uniontown .: , Valley Head .. Abbeville $14 S. Akron 2Ck70 Albertvllje . , .27 20 Alexander City. 2S 75 Andalusia . . . . 11 20 Anniston 2S 00 Athens 21y55 Attalla 27a20 Auburn 10 C5 Bay Minette.. . 29 25 Bessemer . . . . 25 95 Birmingham . . .25 50 Boaz 27 20 Brewton 29 ?5 Bridgeport '. . . . 20 75 Calera . . . . . . ?r. R5 Camden I 25 Carbon TTill 21 10 Centreville. . . . 26 20 Chehaw 10 f.5 Childerburg .. 27 ?0 Citronelle 29 ?5 Clayton 11 10 Colllnsville . . . 27 90 Cordova 24 15 Cuba 20 ?0 Cullman 25 15 Decatur 2lyfto Pemopolis . . . . 27 55 Dothan 14 05 Elba 14 SO Ensley 25 75 Enterprise 14 00 Epes 27 20 Eufaula 12 45 Eutaw 27kn5 Evergreen . . . . 29 25 Fayette 21 15 Fiomaton 29 ?r Florala 11 i 5 Florence 21v00 Foley 29 ?5 Fort Payne ?7 90 Fruitdalt 2? 55 Ondsden 20ai0 Ceorgiana . . . . 29 ?." Greensboro . . . . 27 r. do 2S 5" Creenvllle . . , . 20 ?r. Crimes 11 75 Ouin 22 00 Gnntervville . . . 2fi 95 fee the so-called industrial education is education la a real sense. Educa tion is the development of the powers of the individual to the limit of his capacity that he may best meet all the duties, opportunities and privi leges of work, leisure and friendship. It is not so much a matter of what means are used to educate a man so long as his full capacities and power are developed that he may meet all the duties and privileges of work, of leisure and of friendship. For some this development may be greatly helped by tools and shops; for others it may be done by laboratories; for others by fields and woods, for still others by books, libraries, travel and the like. Now we want the content of education to contain all the ele ments of our civilization from art, literature and 'science, to those of the shop, the business establishment, the farm and the home. For only In this way may all the different capaci ties of all the people be developed. Let us turn next to the dead hand In methods of education and take an example In the methods of teaching leading. The old idea of teaching the alphabet and a bare system of vowel phonetics has long since been shown a poor stick as compared with the word and sentence methods; yet you will find in many a school-room today the old McGuffey's chart, or a substitute, and other inadequate de vices that were used before the better methods were tried and proven. This condition, indicated by the ex ample In special method, obtains In many directions in general method. I shall ' not take time to indicate In detail the need here of our shaking loose from the "dead-hands" of the past. Many of you know of school rooms where teachers are so thor oughly harnessed to Herbartlan gen eral method as to allow no chance for the individuality of the child and no onportunity for the teacher him self to exercise his own originality in adaptlne instruction to the needs of the punlls and the community. So conservatively bound are we, that when a Col. Parker comes along and ts successful in breaking away from traditional methods, wp hall him as a wise man from the East and flock to his school to see the thing that is come to nass. The fact is, if many of us dared sit down and study out mir own school problems on our own initiative and if many of us tried to ue the methods which would fit the conditions of our own particular Kfhool md our community, we would eften discover methods and nrincl lf ns valuable as thos discovered rv Col. Parkpr or any other nloneer of proeress In educational methods. Let us give our nttent'on. now, to the question of educational organi zation and see if there Is not some "dead-hand" in that phase of educa tion which is blndine us too closely to thp past. T shall here confine my attention to the common schools of our own country pnd particularly as they ore being developed in the Soth. Whpn our Country was being set tled, th Idea of a district schoool In each school division of the townshin with one or two teachers, who gath ered the children of that particular neighborhood, was thought to be an Ideal nlan for carrying the founda t'ons of common school education to all the neonle in the towns and ru ral districts. A second Idea which went along with the district school conception, was one which grew out of the monitorial system of sehool or ganization and management, so large ly developed by Bell and his follow ers. As you know, this plan proposes that ch;'dren can be developed with one- teacher heine able to properly discipline and instruct anywhere from 75 to 150 children. These two !deas, varying a little here and there because of local conditions, came to bo the orthodox opinion. When dif 24 C5 22 15 21y50 28 75 25 C5 23y95 31 55 .22 20 .29 25 28 50 23 85 .24 15 .30 G5 24 75 2C 85 .29' 25 .27 25 28 55 28 55 .29 25 .27 15 29 25 .31 00 .21y00 .24 75 24 95 2fi 95 10 G5 28 00 .12 95 .24 15 2G 90 .28 75 2Ss70 .23 75 10 f,5 22 05 25 05 28s55 .21v15 29 25 20 00 .20 15 21 45 29 25 27 00 .27 80 29 25 11 35 21 95 .21v10 30 90 28 35 .27 90 Wetumpka Winfield . Woodstock York .. 29 25 22 30 .20 C5 2G 45 TENNESSEE. Algood . . Aliens Creek Athens . . . Bell Buckle Bethel .. .. Bluff City .. Bristol .. . Brownsville Bulls Gap . . Butler .. .. Cameron . . do Carthage . . Oentnevilfe . Charleston . Chattanooga Chestoa . . . Church Hill Clarksville . Cleveland . Clinton .. . Coal Creek . Collierville . Columbia . . CookeviUe . Copperhlll ,. Covington . . Cowan . . , . Crossville . 2S 55 25 CO 3015 .24 75 .19 20 37 15 37 55 17 85 34 55 38 25 16 S5 .37 35 27 50 24 35 29f55 27f90 .37 35 35 85 .21 55 29f05 .12 15 12 15 16 45 24 75 27 95 32 15 16 05 25 05 .10 00 14 73 29f40 24 75 23 10 12 15 15 70 IS 50 17 55 11 f 00 .12 15 .17 20 Cumberland Dayton .. Deeherd . . Dickson .. Domett .. Dyer . . . . Dversburg Gap Flizabethton. Fmorv Gap nglowood Erwin do Pfcwah .. .. ayettevllle. . Fnrdtown . . do Gallatin .. . . .17 .12 21 75 16 85 .17 15 .23 80 12 15 .17 55 jOlcn Mary .. . ! Grand Junction ferent ideas more suited to solving our public school problems begin to be advocated headway must be made against these old opinions. Those who advance the new ideas are re garded as dreamers, theoretical en thusiasts, or radicals. Now, why should we stick to the old rural school in every rural dis trict when the idea of the central country school house with a trans portation system furnished by the township or county have been shown to be a better plan of school organi zation than we have had before? You know so well the system of con solidating the district schools into one and having a large well equippva centrally located schoool with adequate building accommoda tions, that I need not take time to discuss the plan. But why should we also cling to a modified idea of the monitorial sys tem and overload one teaehpr with too many pupils and require him to leach too many subjects when better management and organization have been demonstrated. Whv should wp been demonstrated. Whv should we he content to deny our children of the country districts good high school facilities because we cannot furnish the high school on the old district school plan, when we know now, that by a system of transpor tation of pupils and consolidation of districts, such schools can be pro vided? Another Idea that comes to us from the past, and like a "dead-hand" still holds many of our communities, is that the teacher who simnlv knows something of the subjects lu advance of his pupils Is fitted to teach. Fortunate for the South, that grad ually we are beginning to learn that we must have normal schools and col leges to train the teachers who are to teach our children, If the teaching is to be properly done. In this re spect, we should certainly be proud of the State of Tennessee In its re cent magnificent provision for the normal school tra'ning for both white and colored teachers. This should be carried furthpr hv enennrniHni? some or these normal school gradu ates tes to go on through the colleges nd universities for advanced train - ng. And. I think, it is rot too much a ing. And, I think, it is not too much to ask our State authorities for po. operation with the normal Rrhonln colleges and universities in offering extension courses and allowlne teachers credit for the pursuit of these courses. The State Superintendent of Public Instruction and his associates also de sprve our hieh commendation for ad vocating the magnificent plan for the consolidation or the district schools and for the development of consoli dated common and county high schools. Every thoughtful citizen Is back of the Superintendent In the nlan for a better county high school tax plan and for an Increase of the State School fund from 25 to 33 1-3 Per cent, of the gross revenues of the State. We are back of him In the development of the compulsory school low. Mav we not hope also that, with the enlareed plans and in creased revenups of both the State and counties', that thee will be am ple nrov'sion for consolidation of the Npgro schools and for county high sphools for Negro boyj nnd elrls in the several counties of the State. WP are encouraged to ask this from thp- Sunerintndent and his as sociates from the State and from thp counties, since there has been such ""nerous provision for the State Nor mal Sehool for rolored students, at the sumo Mme that, piich Instruction was nrovided for white students. Tn eo'ipcptlon wfth this svstem for the ppiorod rjehtfilfl M p hor that there Is going to he developed a system of ninerintendance which has proved so elective In other regions, namely, Negro assistants to the Superinten dent both in the county and the State, who not only know accurately the Graysvllle . . . Greenback . . Greenevllle . . . Harriman . . . Harriman Jet.. Hartsville .. . Helen wood . . Henderson . . . Humboldt .. .. Hunter . . . . Huntingdon . . , Jackson 29f20 12 15 33 30 31f20 .31fl0 26 75 .12 15 19 20 .18 70 .37 70 . 20 60 lSb70 31 50 . 32 15 36 55 .17 35 .21 65 16 25 16 85 .17 35 12 15 12 15 .27 40 .31fJ5 .24 75 26 00 ..31 MO 19 95 Loudon Lynnvillp . . McKenzie . . McMlnnville ... Madisonville. . Martin Maryville .. .. Memphis . . . Middleton Milan .. Monterey. . . . Mnrristown . Mountain City Murfreesboro . Napier Nashville . . , New Market . Newport . . Oakdale Oliver Springs Paris Perryville . . , Persia Pikeville . , Pinknev .. .. Pulaski . ... Rathburn .. .. Ripley Jefferson Jellico . City Johnson do .. ' City' Jolinsonvllle . Jonesboro . . Kingsport . . do Knoxville .. LaFolette . . Lancaster . . IJancing . . Lawrenceburg Lebanon . . . Lenoir CUy . Lexington . . Limestone . .5i No Rives Sharp-Flaingan-Hamilton Furniture Co. are prepared toJshowyou the most urMo-datelfaiif ture at the most reasonable prices and terms of furniture store in'Nashville. 1 Give Us a Look Before Buying ReedSliarP Martin Flaingan - 311-313 Second Avenue, North great principles and methods of edu cation, but who know intimately the Tnner life and aspirat'ons of the Ne tro people. The Jeanne Fund, In ts policy of employ!"?? Ne?rro super visors to take superintendence of the schools and show the teachers how to adapt the common schools to the needs of the community, is blazing the way for the public school authori ties of the States and counties over the entire South. This step of the Jeannes Fund is based upon sound principles of social psychology. We are slowly coming to see that to help any people most effectively members of their own ranks must be select ed, thoroughly trained and sent among them as leaders In -education and in other lines. Let nie in closing attempt to re state the thought I have tried 'to present to you this evening n iu that out of the past have come ideas which teachers and leaders of edu- -V " , erl ?d 1('aders ' "du- i1 ther agc have V" . pu ,nto Practice. The 01 "lis thought and practice are before hut ' thu i U1 ur,e Ul mem hould be governed by the helpfulnrss they offer us for our educational problems of today. They should not be adopted simply because they have been handed to us with the sanctity allowed to bury its dead and leave with r?n that which 18 Pulsa"ng with life for our use today We should shake off the dead ideas of the aim of education, that knowl edge should be sought principally Z Jl' Bake and that, only a small fraction of the people have capacity or learning and culture; we should aim at knowledge and culture for all the people bv all the from he idea that the content ot education must be only that which is contained in the ancient languages and literature of the past and we f Lth10 t,hom' i -StS tor them, the sciences and activities of the present. We should no longer he bound by methods that have long since been proven ineffective., We f oiiuuiU Ut? I winn th i ?".r scho1 oran 1 PV,J ans a"d i(as wHch we !v,d7nt1'' outgrown, and adont :u' mpet new conditions by moans of centralized county lorn mon and high schools with teacEs trained ,n normal schools, . college nJckllv "V ","d With "PeriSS men f 1? S0,tPd 3nd tralDeJ tO word P, prob,,ms of the hour. The ahJad." PrgreSS ,S "fu" PS rJTf -f" d0thl9 lf we U; we can tlilnk we can. The stSy k-olf nf engineer, whose train"? JSnH at a steep grade. After one or two nd fir0 PUl1 the gradp' tne engineer 2onndduficrran Flnat 4 t "aid. "Well j ft the inductor ntJ"!':' think we? cab of h ,mpea back '"to the cao of the engine and becan shove, coal into the fJJna The engineer backed the train i Tr i,ine seemed to iav m iui T can Wp th7i, 7' e think we thl' VVhink we can!" Finally a thouehtaVlPu!$URht CU,d: the rdnrationa" nrZi thro,,?h which to climb tt P gradp un initiative dene (lsUS Zn'U fln,d anient of durational alms n, content and organization hds 31fl3 Rorkwood 24 75 ' R ofi.ro,r:ii .19 90 Sewanec ShelbyvillV Shouns . SonierviUe " "' South Pittsburg Snarta .... Snring City '" Springfield .' ' ' Sfn'iy point Sunbrlgbt .." ' SurgoinsvIllV Sweetwater . " Sweetwater Tazewell. ' Tellien rin" ' ' 26 80 .32 15 18 7n 12 25 15 20 IS 60 18 70 29 10 34 00 38 95 24 75 25 40 .24 75 33 15 9? Trenton ' SlfflO Unicoi. M 10 20 90 Union "pi;- .34 85 1 Vasper ' ' .28 CO j Wartrae'e ""jrtown". V. 5 I u averlv 2Sf75 I Whiteville 17 55 ' 'inrhneti IS Uj infield Tn mm n " 11 i.Yi.-;.i i j - . . . . va i c i