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The Madisonian. (Richmond, Ky.) 1913-1914, February 05, 1913, Image 4

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn86069163/1913-02-05/ed-1/seq-4/

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FlEiU) IRE
j BRAHAM LINCOLN called hU
V I cabinet together on September
f I I 22, 1862. to read to them hit first
I proclamation of emancipation. In
I the dlarlet of two of the mem-
" "" Vw.n A that mififttl IM Blveil
vivid running account of that
meeting, telling of Lincoln's sol
emn vow and Its consummation.
This Is the story of that day as
told by Salmon P. Chase, seer
Ury of the treasury:
To department about nine.
BUte department messenger came with notice to
heads of departments to meet at twelve. Re
ceived sundry callers. Went to the White House.
All the members of the cabinet were In attend
ance. There was some general talk, and the
president mentioned that Artemua Ward bad sent
him his book. Proposed to read a chapter which
he thought very funny. Read H. and seemed to
enjoy it very much; the heads also (except
Stanton), of course. The chapter was "High
handed Outrage at rtlca." The prealdent then
took a graver tone, and said:
'Gentlemen: I have, as you are aware, thought
a great deal about the relation of this war to
slavery; and you all remember that, several
weeks ago, I read to you an order that I prepared
on this subject, which, on account of objections
made by some of you, was not Issued. Ever
ft s
made, but he wished his paper announcing his
course as correct in terms as it could be mads
without any change in the determination. He
read the document One or two unimportant
amendments suggested by Seward were approved.
It was then handed to the secretary of state to
publish tomorrow.
After this, Blair remarked that he considered
It proper to say he did not concur In the ex
pediency of the measure at this time, though ho
approved of the principle, and should, therefore,
wisn to me nis oojecuons. tie siaiea ai soma
TO PROTECT INSECT EATERS
Measure Rsasensbly Sure of Passsge
by Congress for Preservation
of Little Birds.
One of the three hills pending In
congress for the protection of birds
is ressonably sure of passage, be
cause publlo sentiment, in the first
place, is against the destruction of
birds, and, secondly, because there is
an Important economic reason for the
enactment of strong laws in this di
rection. Officials of the biological sur
vey of the department of agriculture
estimate that 20 per cent, of the aver
age annual crops of the country is
destroyed by Insects. Away back as
far as 1904 It was found that the dam
age done through the ravages of In
sects amounted to $420,000,000. This
is a direct loss to the nation, and one
which must have a very appreciable
effect In determining the price of prod
ucts. The farmer must depend on the
birds more than any other agency to
eliminate this lots, yet the bird slaugh
ter continues. The destruction of In-
f
Meadow Lark.
sectlvorous birds is of special concern
to many sections of the country, be
cause of extensive fruit growing. An
the destroyers of insects, birds have
come to he recognised as agents for
conserving national wealth. The kill
ing of a bird indirectly is a contribu
tion to the strength of the Insect
horde which infest the vegetable products.
DEHORNING IS NOT PAINFUL
Operation Is Not Difficult When Clip
per Is Used, Taking Horn Off
Without Crushing.
: . r ,
(By C. It BRASHKAR. Missouri College
of Agriculture.)
Dehorning is not the painful opera
tion it used to be. The clipper is
taking the place of the dehorning
saw. Its advantages are that it is
T3 Biawu b nviui , .11. I
length his views, which were substantially that : " qu'CKiy opuraieu uU ... B.rB
he ought not to put in greater Jeopardy the pa- tno animal "ess pain.
.i.m.nt tn .h h,,r,w stP iht the re. It has the further advantage that
suits of this proclamation would be to carry over
those states en masse to the Secessionists as
soon as it was read, and that there was also a
class of partisans In the free states endeavoring
to revive old parties, who would have a club put
Into their bands of which they would avail them
selves to beat the administration.
The president said he had considered the dan
ger to be apprehended from the first objection.
the close confinement of the animal
necessary for the operation of the
saw is not needed in the use of the
clipper. It is used successfully with
out a dehornlns chute.
The animal is tied to a tree with a
rope, passed around the neck. A ring
with a rope attached is placed in the
nose and pulled In the direction oppo-
.Sttart.rwbe Jj-fe.ThIs throws Ihe head
" was Plainly its' great not toUct; as regarded I In Jlion 'or dehorning. )
lnce then my mind has been much occupied with
this subject, and I have thought, all along, that
the time for acting on it might probably come.
I think the time has come now. I wish it was a
better time. I wish that we were In a better con
dition. The action of the army against the reb
els has not been quite what I should have best
liked.
"When the rebel array was at Frederick. I de
termined, as soon as It should be driven out of
Maryland, to Issue a proclamation of emancipa
tion, such as I thought most likely to be useful.
I said nothing to any one, but I made the prom
ise to myself and (hesitating a little) to my Mak
er. The rebel army Is now driven out, and I
am going to fulfil that promise.
"I have got you together to hear what I have
written down I do not wish your advice about
the main matter, for that I have determined for
myself. This I say without intending anything
but respect for any one of you. But I already
know the views of each on this question. They
have been heretofore expressed, and I have con
sidered them as thoroughly and carefully as I
can. What I have written is that which my re
flections have determined me to say. If there is
anything in the expressions I use, or in any
minor matter, which any one of you thinks bad
best be changed. I shall be glad to receive the
suggestions
"One other observation I will make. I know
very well that many others might. In this matter
as In others, do better than I can; and if I was
satisfied that the public confidence was more
fully possessed by any one of them than by me.
and knew of any constitutional way In which be
could be put in my place, he should have It. I
would gladly yield It to htm. Hut, though I be
lieve that I have not so much the confidence of
the people ss I bad some time since, I do not
know that, all things considered, any other per
son has more; and. however this may be. thers
la no way In which I can have any other man put
where 1 am. I am here; I must do the best I can.
and bear the responsibility of taking the course
which I feel I ought to take,"
The president then proceeded to read his
Emancipation Proclamation, making remarks on
the several parts as be went on. and showing
that he bad fully conaidered the whole subject.
In all the lights under which It had been present
ed to hi in. After h had closed, Covernor Sew
ard said:
"The general question having been decided,
aothlng can be said farther about that. Would
It not, however, make the proclamation mors
dear and decided to leave out all reference to
the act being sustained during the Incumbency of
the present president; and not merely say that
the government 'recognizes' but that It will main
Cala, the freedom It proclaims?"
I followed, saying:
T.'fcat you have said. Mr. President, fully
satisfies me that you have given to every proposi
tion which has been made a kind and candid con
sideration. And you have now expressed the con
clusion to which you have arrived clearly and
distinctly. This It was your right, and, under
your oath of office, your duty to do. The procla
mation does not. Indeed, mark out exactly the
course 1 would myself prefer. But I am ready
to take it JuBt as it is written, and to stand by it
with all my heart I think, however, the sugges
tions of Governor Seward very Judicious, and
shall be glad to have tbem adopted."
The president then asked us severally onr
opinions as to the modification proposed, saying
that he did not care much about the phrases he
had used. Every one favored the modification,
and it was adopted. Governor Seward then pro
posed that, in the passage relating to coloniza
tion, some language should be introduced to
show that the colonization proposed was to be
only with the consent of the colonists and the
consent of the states in which colonies might be
attempted. This, too, was agreed to, and no
Dther modification was proposed.
Gideon Welles, secretary of the navy, also re
corded in his diary the events of that day. He,
too. alluded to the solemn covenant Lincoln had
made, to free the slaves in the event of a victory.
The victory had come, and Lincoln had made up
his mind. This is Welles' narrative, written un
der date of September 22:
A special cabinet meeting. The subject was
the proclamation for emancipating the slaves
after a certain date, in states that shall then be
In rebellion. For several weeks the subject has
been suspended, but the president says never lost
sight of. When It was submitted, and now, in
taking up the proclamation, the president stated
that the question was finally decided, the act and
the consequences were his, but that be felt it
due to us to make us acquainted with the fact
and to Invite criticism on the paper which he
had prepared, There were, he had found, not
unexpectedly, some differences in the cabinet,
but he had. after ascertaining tn his own way
the views of each and all. Individually and collec
tively, formed his own conclusions and made his
own 'decisions.
In the course of the discussion on this paper,
which was long, earnest, and. en the general
principle Involved, harmonious, he remarked
that be had made vow, a covenant, that If God
gave us the victory In the approaching battle, he
would consider It an Indication of Divine Will,
and that It was his duty to move forward In the
' cause of emancipation. It might be thought
strange, he said, that he hsd In this way submit
ted the disposal of matters when the way was
not clear to his mind what he should do. God
had decided tbls question In favor of the slaves.
He was satisfied It was right, was confirmed
and strengthened in bis action by the vow and
the results. His mind was 'fixed, bis decision
the st. It had not much weight with him.
Thu question of power, authority. In the gov
ernment to set free the slaves was not much dis
cussed at this meeting, but had been canvassed
by tlie president in private conversation with the
members Individually. Some thought legislation
advisable before the step was taken, but con
gress wu clothed with no authority on this sub
ject, nor Is the executive, except under the war
power military necessity, martial law, when
there can be no legislation. This was the view
which I took when the president first presenud
the subject to Seward and myself last summer,
as we were returning from the funeral cf Stan
ton's child a ride of two or three mlls from
beyond Georgetown. Seward was at that time
not at all communicative, and. I think, not will
ing to advlso, though be did not dissent from the
movement.
It is momentous, both tn its Immediate and re
mote results, and an exercise of extraordinary
power, which cannot be Justified on mere hu
manitarian principles, and would never have been
attempted but to preserve the national existence
The slaves must be with us or against us in the
war. Let us have them. These were my convic
tions, and this the drift of the discussion.
The effect which the proclamation will have
on the public mind Is a matter of some uncer
tainty. In some respects it would, I think, have
been better to have Issued it when formerly first
considered.
There Is an Impression that Seward has op
posed, and la opposed to, the measure. I have
not been without that Impression myself, chiefly
from ntu hesitation to commit himself,, and per
, haps because action was suspended on his sug
gestion. But In the final discussion be has as
cordially supported the measure as Chase.
For myself the subject has, from Its magnitude
and Its consequences, oppressed me, aside from
the ethical features of the question. It is a step
In the progress of this war which will extend
Into tho distant future. A favorable termination
of tbls terrible conflict seems more remote with
every movement, and unless ths rebels bssten
to avail themselves of the alternative presented,
of which I see little probability, the war can
scarcely be other than one of emancipation to
the slave, or subjugation, or submission to their
rebel owners.
There U In the free states a very general Im
pression that this measure will Insure a speedy
peace. I cannot say that I so view it No one In
those states dare advocate peace as a means of
prolonging slavery, even If it is his honest opin
ion, ami the pecuniary. Industrial, and social
sacrifice . Impending will Intensify the struggle
befors us. Wbllo, however, these dark clouds
are above and around us, I cannot see how ths
subject an be avoided. Perhaps It Is not de
sirable it should be. It Is. however, an arbitrary
and despotta measure In ths cause of freedom.
MUST BE KEPT FROM HEAT
Something te Be Remembered by the
Weman Pond of the Perfume
ef the Violet.
Apropoa of violet perfume It may
be well to whisper In the ear of every
woman the secret which every per
fumer so well knows, a very simple
little secret, but very Important to
the preservstlos of perfume. It Is
that no bottle of violet should at any
Vat be put Mr the beat, nor la the
strong lliht. either artificial er nat- Ground sandalwood and orris may
ural. for a decided chemical change also bs hsd for about one dollar tyr
takes place not only In the color of a quarter of a pound to make into (ti
the perfume, but In the odor.
Tbe wistaria blossoms have sur
rendered their color and strange
sweetness to tbe skill of ths Oriental,
and may be had tn sachet. There are
also the bars of sandalwood which
may be lit Id among one's frocks but
many, comparatively speaking, do not
care for Its pungent quality com
pared to the blossom? outdoor fra
grance of the real flower scents.
dividual sscbets. but no sachet fs
Isstlng, and too much should not be
expected of it la the way of durability.
Perfume burners have found their
way into vogue. The correct way i o
nse these artlstio combinations bt
gun metal and brass, which look ao
like a tiny and much beautiful alcohril
lamp. Is to uilx the perfume with wtv
tsr and let It botL As II does so tfae
rrssu..ess or tne piossoma floats of
with tbe vapor and tbe room Is lightly
filled with frsgrsnce.
All perfumes which are Imported
have risen In value. It Is the higher
duty which baa brought this, not any
scarcity of Sowers, as tbe many
manufacturers would have us believe.
A Bride's Wsy.
Mrs. Exe Is Mrs. Youn, bride a
good housekeeper?
Mrs. Wye Well, when I dropped in
on her she wss trying to make bread
La a chalog dish.
The horn is more often cut too high
than too close. In fact, it Is hard to
cut the horn too close, and the horn
cuts easier low. The wound also heals
quicker and the head is given a nicer
shape. A ring of skin should be tak
en off with, tbe horn.
' It is a good plan to grease the clip
pers with grease that is mixed with
some disinfectant, such as creollne.
The best clipper on the market has
V-shaped notches In the blades. It
clips tho horn off easily, without
crushing. The knife with straight
edges tends to crush the horn and is
harder to operate.
FOWLS NEED SOME EXERCISE
When Confined Toe Closely Birds
Are Constantly Trying to Secure
Liberty, Making Poor Returns.
If fowls are too closely confined,
they will constantly be striving to get
at liberty they will try to fly over
the highest fences, and In every way
show how well they love the range
of field and pasture. Such uneasiness
and anxiety to get out militate against
their good health, and a hen that Is
not In good health will not lay eggs.
Bays the New York Farmer. They
should, therefore, have all the space
that may be allowed them, and this
may not be furnished at all, then bow
much more Important it la that one
does not keep too many fowls con
fined within the limit of the poultry
house exclusively.
However well tbe poultryman may
feed and tend them, when thus re
stricted, if there be an excess of num
bers crowded together, the bens will
cease to lay, they will get 111, they
will lose their flesh, become miser
able In a short time, and in no case
can tbey be made to give good returns
whoa thus restricted in thslr quar
ters. If you bad no room for the hens
to exercise in, you would better get
rid of them.
Kerosene Emulsion.
Kerosene emulsion, one of the best
mixtures to use in combatting mites
in the poultry bouse, is made by rail
ing two gallons of kerosene oil, H
pound of whale oil soap, one quart of
home-made soft soap, and one gallon
of water. Dissolve the soap by boil
ing In water, then remove from tbe
fire and add tbe kerosene at once.
Churn this mixture rapidly and vlo
lonlly until it Is as smooth as beaten
cream. One part of emulsion to sev
eral parts of water Is used to dilute
the mixture for application to build
ings, '"opplng boards or nest boxus.
Add one or two ounces of carbolic acid
to the emulsion Just before applying.
Hsalth Essentials.
Pure air, pure water and pure food,
as well as thorough cloaolluess, are all
essential to the chicken's hnal'b. Tho
fowl's power to resist disease is due
to these.
CARING FOR FARM DRAFTERS
Farmers Should Keep Horses I
Proper Condition In Winter by
Keeping Them at Work.
(By WILLIAM A. FRKBHOFK.)
Most farmers do not get full use of
their horses through failure to pro
vide work for tbem during the winter
months. There Is generally not much
doing on the farm then, except per
haps hauling of a little produce to
town, dragging In the logs for fire
wood and scattering manure on the
snowy fields.
' Altogether they are kept Idle for
so many days that the average num
ber of hours worked per day for a
year Is even less than two, counting
those days In summer when overtime
Is the rule for man and beast.
This condition Is unprofitable from
an economlo point of view, and from
the standpoint of tbe horse's health.
Heavy drafters in good flesh and
fed liberally on oats and timothy will
need exercise and plenty of it to keep .
In fair health during the winter. Tbey
will need warm stables properly ven
tilated; there must be no oement or
other damp floors for them to He on;
there must be plenty of air and sun
shine. One winter we fed scarcely any
thing but straw and Just a little grain
and the horses came through In bet
ter shape than those of a neighbor
who fed liberally, but who did not
have any more work for his horses
than we had. There was not so much,
rich stuff to poison the blood.
I know of a farmer who regularly
hires a teamster to take his magnifi
cent drafters out into the employ of
the local Ice company and so keeps
them busy during the winter. An
other engages his two teama In the
cordwood business for the same pur
pose. Neither of these men matte very
much money through the deal, but
they force their horses to pay for
their winter board and to come
through in splendid shape for the
summer's heavy grind.
STAPLE FOOD FOR POULTRY
Grain Is Beneficial to All Farm Fowls,
but Variety Is Necessary for
Egg Production.
Grain Is the staple food for poul
try, and will oe used for that purpose
as long as fowls are kept on farms;
but hens can not give good results
on grain alone. It is beneficial to
them and will be at all times rel- .
ished. but the demands of the hens
are such as to call for a variety. In
the shells of eggs as well as their
composition are several forma of min
eral matter and nitrogen, which can
only be partially obtained from grain.
Even grains vary in ' coro'v''ui.
and' when fowls are fell' on i .
for a long time, they will begin tTTTe
fuse It. as they may be oversupplled
with the elements of the food par
taken and lack the elements that are
best supplied from some other source.
For this reason they will accept a
change of food, which is of Itself
an evidence that the best results
from hens can only be obtained by
a variety of food Com and wheat
may be used as food with advantage,
but must be given as a portion of
the ration and not made exclusive ar
ticles of diet
SAW HORSE FOR SMALL LOGS
Directions Given for Making Ordinary
Buck for the Purpose of Cut
ting Up Timber.
For sawing up heavy timber where
an ordinary saw horse would not be
strong enough, take a log about 1
foot in diameter and 10 or 12 feet
long. Bore four 2 or 3 inch holes
In which to Insert four strong, round
Saw Buck for Small Logs.
sticks for legs, and when the lees are
in place bore six 2-iuch boles along
the upper side and Insert foot long
pegs, having two pairs quite closo to
gether for convenience la sawing:
short lengths.
To Avoid the Runty Pig.
Runty pigs stand a poor show at
the feeding trough with a bunch ot
their husky brothers and sisters. As
they are crowded out of plaoe natur
ally they do not get enough to eat to
keep them growing, and they stay
runty.
A trough arranged with V-shaped
partitions set strongly In the trough
would give tbe little fellows an equal
show with the big ones, and the
weaker ones could get then share ot
food. A handy man can make such
a trough arrangement lu an hour or
so, and even tbe growth of his plga
would more than pay tor hU trouble.
Boll for Grapes.
It Is claimed that grapes grown in
a clayey soil are darker and mora
glossy than when grown on gravelly
land; but the sweetest and richest
tasted grapes are grown ou gravelly
soil.
Vegetables for Hsns.
Vegetables are great for tbe bens,
especially when they can't get green,
feed in tbe fields.
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