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3s.. JSY THE PUESSE3W Nj4 OC (CONTINUED. But it was one thing to protest against measures to come and quite another to - oppose' their execution when enacted Into laws. - The one -was constitutional agitation; the other, flat rebellion little less. It was very ominous to read the words of the extraordinary resolutions passed by the burgesses on the 30th of May, 1765, after the Btamp act had become law, and note the tone of re strained passion that ran through them. ' ; . Plain Speech From the Burgesses. They declared that from the first the settierb of "his -majesty's colony and domain" of Virginia had pos sessed and enjoyed all the privileges, franchises, and immunities at any time enjoyed by the people of Great. Britain itself; and that this their free dom, had been explicitly secured to them by their charters, "to all intents and purposes as if they had been abid ing and born within the realm of Eng land;" "that the taxation of the peo ple by themselves or by -persons chosen by themselves to represent them" was "a distinguishing char rteristic of British freedom without which the ancient constitution" of the realm itself could not subsist; "and that his majesty's liege people of this most ancient colony" had "uninterrup tedly enjoyed the right of being thus governed by their assemblies in the article of their 'taxes and internal police," had never forfeited or relin quished it. and had seen it "constantly rpfoetmpd by the kings and people of Great Britain." . An Uncompromising Conclusion. Sicken as it was in protest against actual leg' Nation already adopted by parliament in direct ' despite of al'i euch privileges and immunities, this declaration of rights seemed to lack its conclusion. The constitutional rights of Virginians had been - in vaded. What then? Resolved, there fore, "that his majesty's liege people, the inhabitants of this colony, are not bound to yield obedience to any law or ordinance whatever designed to im rc?e any taxation whatsoever upon them, ether than the laws or ordi nances cf the general assembly afore srid," arid "that any person who shall, by speaking or writing, assert or maintain" te contrary "shall be deemed an enemy of his majesty's col ony." Such had been the un compromis ing conclusion drawn by the m ver of the resolutions. What other, conclusion could any man draw- if he deemed the color Ists men, and proud men at that? The Burgesses feared to speak treason; they were content" to pro test of their rights, and let the issue bring conclusions to light. It had been hot fighting to get oven that much said. The men hitherto accepted always as leaders in the house had wished to hold it back from rash and heated action, and there had been bitter debates before even those significant premises for a revolution ary conclusion had been forced to adoption. Old leaders and new, young men and old alike, had willingly united in the memorial of 1764; but now that the Stamp Act was law, conservative members shrank from - doing what must look so like a flat defiance of parliament. - - Only young men would have had the audacity to urge such action; only very extraordinary young men would have had the capacity to induce the house to take it But such young men were at hand,, their leader as veritable a Democrat as had ever taken the floor in that assembly. A Leader From the Plain People." Patrick Henry was not of the aris tocracy of the colony. Good Scots blood ran in his veins, quickened by the lively strain of an old Welsh stock. His father came of race of scholars, and, good churchman though he was, knew his Livy.and his Horace better than his Bible. His mother came of a vivacious line of easy-going wits and talkers, which had a touch more of . steadiness and energy might any day have made' famous. . - His father had served his county of Hanover very capably and acceptably as surveyor, colonel, magistrate, and his uncle had been beloved as the faithful pastor of quiet parishes. But they had been no long time in the col ony; they lived back from the tide water counties where the real aristoc racy had its strength and supremacy; they were of that middle class of yeomen-gentlemen who love liberty, but do not affect rank. - ; "A vigorous aristocracy favors the growth of personal eminence even in those-who are not of it, but only near it," and these plain .men of the mid dle counties were the more excellent and individual in the cultivation of their powers by reason of the contact. But there was a touch of rusticity,, a neglect of polish, a rough candor of speech .about them which set them apart and distinguished them sharply enough when they came into the pres ence of the courtly andS formal gentle men who practiced the manners of London in the river counties. " J . A Rustic Figure In the Home. Patrick Henry, rat any rate, must have seemed a very rustic figure to, the Burgesses when he first CameJ to m rmoK-Arr take his seat amongst them on a May day in 1765. He was known, Indeed, to many. This was the man, they must have known, who had won so strange a ver dict from a jutywa years ago in the celebrated parsons'-ease at Hanover court house, against the law and the evidence. But his careless dress and manner, his loose, ungainly figure, his listless, absent bearing, must have set many a courtly member staring. For such men as Washington, in deed, there can have been nothing either strange or unattractive in the rough exterior and unstudied ways of the new member. Punctilious though he was himself in every point of dress and bearing, Washington's life had most of it been spent with men who looked thus, and yet were, stuff of true courage and rich capacity within. The manner of a man could count as no test of quality , with him. . His experience had covered the whole variety of Virginian life. He was an aristocrat by taste, not by prin ciple. And Patrick Henry had, in fact, come to the same growth as he in essential quality and principle, though by another way. Henry's life had been wilful, capricious, a bit hap hazard, Washington's all the while subject to discipline; but both men had touched and seen the whole en ergy of the commonwealth, knew its hope, could divine its destiny. . There was but one Virginia, and they were her children. It could not take long to bring them to an under standing and comradeship in affairs. ' A Winner in Debate. It was characteristic of the new member that he sboald 6tep at once and unhesitatingly to a place of lead ership when debate of the Stamp Act stirred the house, and that tie should I r Carpenter's Hall. instantly sweep the majority into his following with a charm and dash of eloquence that came like a revelation upon the quiet 'assembly. He was but twenty-nine years old, but -he had sjtent'all his life in learn ing how the world went, and by .what manner of speech, it was moved and governed. He had roamed the woods with no thought bat for sport, or a quiet hour with a book or his fancy in the shape of the trees. He had kept a country store, and let gossip and talk of affairs of colony and coun try side take precedence of business. Finally he had turned with a per manent relish to the law, and had set himself to plead causes for his neigh bors in a way that made judges stare and juries surrender at discretion. In everything he had seemed to read the passions of men. Books no less than men; the chance company "of an old author no less than the constant talk of the! neighborly land he lived in, seemed to fill him with the quick prin ciples of the people and polity to which he belonged, and to lend him an in evitably every living phrase in which to utter'tnem. ' . -; ' His- Power Over Men. The universal sympathy and Insight which made his' pleasantry so engag ing to men of every stamp rendered his power no less than terrible when he turned to play upon their passions. He was not conscious of any audacity when he sprang to his feet upon the instant he saw. the house resolved in to committee to consider the Stamp Act. It was of the ardor of his nature to speak when conviction moved him strongly, without thought of propriety or precedence; and it was like him to stand there absorbed, reading his resolutions from a fly-leaf torn from an old law-book. It Beemed no doubt a precious piece of audacity in the eyes of the pre scriptive leaders of the house to hear this almost unknown man propose his high recital of Virginia's liberties and his express defiance of parliament in tones which rang no less clear and confident upon. the clause which! de clared "his majesty's liege people" of the colony In no way bound to yield obedience, than in the utterance of the. accepted matter of his premises. - Astounds the Old Leaders. Debate flamed up at once, hot, even passionate. 1 The astounding, ; moving elouquence or the young advocate, his tostant hold upon the house, the di rectness with which he purposed and executed action' in"so grave a matter, I3tirred the pulses of his opponents jihd his followers with an equal power, and roused those who would have checked him to a vehemence as great as hid own. r;7"' r ' The old "leaders; of the house, with -whom be now stood face to face in ithln critical business, were the more formidable -because of the strong rea ison of their position. No one could hiRtw doubt that they wished to see ithe Old Dominionkeep and vindicate r iriniii,ii)(ni, .qgaw- - ..-J..,,.--.- - - ;; her liberty, but they 'deemed it folly to be thus intemperately beforehand with the issue. Almost to a man they were sprung of families who had come to Virginia, with the . great migration that had brought the Washlngtons, in the evil day when so many were 'flee ing England to be quit of the Puritan tyranny royalists all, and touched to the quick with the sentiment of loy alty. - .; '-.-' v ;"- . - 'Twas now a long long time since Cromwell's day, indeed ? generations had passed, and a . deep passion for Virginia had been added to that old reverence for the-wearer "of the" crown in- England. - But these men - prided themselves still upon . their ' loyalty ; made it "appoint of honor to show themselves no agitators, but constitu tional statesmen. It made them grave and deeply anx ious to see the privileges that ' were most dear to them thus violated and denied, but It did not make them hasty to quarrel with the parliament of the realm. They had intended opposition, but they feared to throw their cause away by defiance.' "Twas as little wise as dignified, to flout thus at the sover eign power before all means had been exhausted to win it to forbearance. ' The Speaker of the House. - It was not the least part of the diffi culty to face the veteran's speaker,John Robinson, so old in affairs, so stately in his age, so gravely courteous, and yet. with such a threat of good man ners against those who should make breach of the decorous traditions of the place. But the men chiefly to be feared were on the floor. There was Richard Bland, "wary, old, experienced," with "something of the look," a Virginian wit said, "of old musty parchments, which he handleth and studieth much," author of a "treatise against the Quakers on water-baptism;" with none of the gifts of an orator, but a veritable antiquar ian in law and the precedents of pub lic business, a very formidable man in counsel. Quiet men trusted him, and thought his prudence very wise. - George Wythe was no less-learned, and no less influential. Men knew him a man of. letters, bringing the knowl edge of many wise books to the prac tice of affairs, and set great store by his sincerity, as artless as it was hu man, and sweetened with good feeling. The Elder Orators. . It made Randolph and Pendleton and Nicholas, the elder orators of the house, seem the more redoubtable that they should have such men as these at their elbows to prompt and steady them. And yet they would have been formidable enough of themselves. Edmund Pendleton had not; indeed, the blood or the breeding that gave his colleagues prestige. He had won his way to leadership by his own steady genius for affairs. He read nothing but law books, knew nothing but . business, cared for nothing but to make practical test of his powers. But he took all his life and purpose with such a zest, made every stroke with so serene a self-possession, was so quick to see and act upon every ad vantage in his business of debate, and was withal so transparent, bore him self with such a grace and charm of manner, was so obviously right-mind ed and upright, that it meant a great deal to the house to hear him inter vene in its discussions with his me lodious voice, his cool, distinct, ef fective elocution. Robert Carter - Nicholas added to like talents for business and debate a reverent piety, a title to be loved and trusted witnout question, which no men ever thought to gainsay. The Loyal Randolph. - And Peyton Randolph, with his "knowledge, teca'per, experience, judg ment, integrity" as of a true Roman spirit; was a sort of prince among the rest No man could doubt he wished Virginia to have her liberties. J He had gone over sea to speak for her in Din widdle's day, though he was the king's attorney, and had lost his office for his . ooldness. But there were traditions of loyalty and service in his breeding which no man might rightly ignore. ills tatner before him had won knighthood and the royal favor by long and honorable service as his majesty's attorney in the colony.- Pride and loy alty had gone hand in hand in the an nals of a proud race, and had won for the Randolphs a prestige which made it. impossible Sir John's son should very long be kept from the office he had so honorably inherited. And so Peyton Randolph was now once, again the king's attorney. ... ' It was not as the king's officer, how. ever, but as an- experienced parliamen tary tactician, a ' trained debater, a sound man of affairs, that he had set himself to check Henry in his revolu tionary courses. "Accused of Treason. Henry found himself, in truth, pas sionately set upon. Even threats were uttered, and abuse such as proud men find ill to bear. They cried "Treason! treason!" upon him when he dared de clare the 'king would do well to look to the fate, of Caesar and Charles I for -profitable examples. .,. But he was not daunted a whit. Tf this be treason, make the most of it," was his defiance to them. - '- ' ' . One ally who might have stood with him, had he known, was absent. Rich ard Henry Lee would have brought to his support a name as ancient and as honorable as any of the colony, and an eloquence - scarcely less than his own. But, as it was, he was left al most alone, and won his battle -with no other aid than very plain men could lend by vote and homely utterance." The vote was very close, but enough. Randolph flung out of the house, mut tering in his heat that he "would have given five hundred guineas for a sin gle vote. ;..; Not Inflated by His Triumph. JHenry, taking the triumph very slm- r. --V - i. '-5 - ir- - t Peyton Randolph. ply, "as "was his wont, and knowlngliis work for the session done, quietly made his way homeward that very day, striding unconcernedly down Duke of Gloucester street, chatting with a friend, his legs clad in buck skin as if for the frontier, his saddle bags . and the reins, of his lean nag slung carelessly over his arm. " The assembly had adopted Henry's declaration of rights, not his resolu tion of disobedience, and had softened a little the language he would have used; but its action seemed seditious enough to Fauquier, the governor, and he promptly dissolved them. It did little good to send Virginians home, however, it the object was to check agitation. The whole manner of their life bred thought and concert of action. Where men have leave to be individual, live separately and with a proud self-respect, and yet are much at each other's tables, often in vestry council together, constantly coming and going, talking and x planning throughout all the country side, ac customed to form their opinions in league, and yet express each man his own with a dash and flavor of inde pendence; where "there Is the leisure to reflect, the habit of joint efforts in ousiness, the spirit to be social, and abundant opportunity to be frank withal, If you will you may look to see public views form themselves very confidently, and as easily without as semblies as with them. Washington a Silent Observer. Washington . had taken no part in the stormy scenes of the house, but had sat calmly apart rather, concerned and thoughtful. He was not easily caught by the ex citement of a sudden agitation. He had the soldier's steady habit of self possession in the presence of a crisis, and his own way of holding things at arms-length for scrutiny "like a bish op at his prayers," a wag said. He had a soldier's loyalty, too, and slowness at rebellion. His thought, nc doubt, was with the conservative whatever may have been the light -that sprang into his quiet eye when Henry's voice rang out so like a clarion, call ing Virginia to her standard; and he went home, upon the dissolution, to join and aid his neighbors in the slow discussion which must shape affairs to an Issue. "The Virginia Resolutions" had run like a flame through the colonies not as the burgesses had adopted them,, but as Henry had drawn them, with their express threat of disobe dience. Nor was that alL October, 1765, saw delegates from nine colonies come together in New York, at-the call of Massachusetts, to take counsel what should be done. Every . one knew that Virginia, North Carolina and Georgia, the only "olonies absent from the "congress," would . have .sent delegates, too, had their governors not prevented then: by the dissolution of their assemblies before they could act on the calL Excitement in the Colony. A deep excitement and concern had spread everywhere throughout the set tlements. Not only did the impending enforcement of the act engross "the conversation of the speculative part of the colonists," as Washington wrote . to Francis Dandridge in London ; it promised to engross also the ener gies of very active, and . It might be very violent, men in many quarters, and it began to grow evident that some part of government itself, would be brought-to a standstill by its prc- cesse. ; ' "Our courts of adjudicature,' de clared Washington, "must inevitably be shut up; 'for it is impossible (or next of kin to it) tinder our present circumstances, that the act of parlia ment can be complied with . . . and if a stop be put to our Judicial pro ceedings, I fancy the merchants of Great Britain trading to the colonies will not be among the last to wish for a repeal of If . -1 : : ' ; A Bill cf Right:-.: The congress at New York drew up nothing less than a bill of rights and immunities, and sent resolutions over sea which arretted the attention of the world. The Virginia assembly despatched like papers for Itself ; and Richard Henry Lee, when he had as sisted to draw its - memorials, hast ened home to form In his own Cava lier county a "Westmoreland associa tion," whose membei-s (four Washing tons among the resi:) bound them selves by a solemn covenant to "exert every faculty- to prevent the execution of the said stamp act 1A any Instance whatsoever within tills colony."- The ministry could not stand the pressure. They gave way to lord Rockingham, and the act wns reptsaled. ' , Washington Takes It Calmly. . Meanwhile Washington, his calm mm s Tv""-' n . w :;-.v.-; ""n A A temper ..unshaken, was slowly coming to a clear vision of affairs in all their significance. Fox hunting did not cease. He was much in the saddle and at table with the Fairfaxes, whom nothing, could shake from their alle giance, and who looked with sad fore bodings upon the temper the colony was in. . - ' - - ' - " . It was proper ,tbey should speak so If they demed tt Jwrt, and Washington had no intolerable for what ' they urged. But TJedrg Mason the neigh bor whom he most trusted, was of a very different mind, and strengthened and confirmed him in other counsels. Mason was six years his. senior; a man, too, cast by ' nature to under stand men and events, how they must go and how be f raided. They con ferred constantly, " at -every turn of their intimate life, In thjeo. field or in the library, mounted, or; afoot In the forests, and, came very deliberately and soberly to their statesman's view. Randolph and Pendleton and Wythe and Bland had themselves turned, after' the first hesitation, to act with afdent men like Lee in framing the memorials to king, lords and commons which were to go from the burgesses alon with the resolutions of the stamp act congress inNew York; and Washington, who had never hesitated. but had only gone slowly and with his eyes open, with that self poise men had found so striking In him from the first, came steadily with the rest to the at last common purpose of reso lute opposition. Repeal of the Act. The repeal of the act came to all like a great deliverance. . Governor Fauauier had deemed it his duty to dissolve the assembly upon the passage of Henry's resolu tions, but he had acted without pas sion In the matter, and had kept the respect of the men he dealt with. He was not a man, indeed,' to take public business very seriously, having been bred a man of fashion and a courtier rather than a master of affairs. He loved gay . company and the deep ex citement of the gaming table, not the round of official routine. Affable, gen erous. elegant, a scholar and real lover of letters, he vastly preferred the talk of vivacious women and accom plished men to the business of thfe general court, and was a man to be liked rather than consulted. A Royalist Governor. Washington, always admitted to the intimacy of official circles at Will amsburg, very likely relished the gal lant Fauquier better than 'the too offi clous Dinwiddle. It was, unhappily. no portent to see a man still devoted to dissipation at sixty-two, even though he were governor of one of his majesty's colonies and a trusted ser vant of the crown; and Fauquier's gifts as a man of wit and of Instructed tastes made his companionship no less acceptable to Washington than to the other men of discernment who fre quented the ballrooms and receptions. ate formal dinners, and played quiet games of cards during the brief season at -the little capital. . It did not seriously disturb life there that the governor upheld the power of parliament to tax, while the bur gesses strenuously opposed it Wash ington, for one, did not hesitate on that account to be seen often in friendly talk with the governor, or to accept frequent invitations to the "palace." He was of the temper which has so distinguished the nobler sort of Englishmen In politics; he might regard, opposition as a public duty, but he never made it a ground of personal feeling or private spite. A Man of Influence. In a sense, indeed, he had long been regarded as belonging to official cir cles in the colony, more intimately than any other man who did not hold office. He has been put forward by the Fairfaxes in his youth; men in the council and at the head of affairs, had been his sponsors and friends from the first; he had been always, like his brother before him, a member of one of the chief groups in the col ony for influence and a confidential connection withj the public business. MRS. PRESCOTT had just heard of the illness of a dear friend. She was about to leave town that morning for an extended trip. ; There was no time to call.' rTurhing to the telephone, she got the florist and -ordered a choice selection of Toses sent with her card to the address bthe invalid. : ;i . rT. i Without the telephone she would hive, be en unable to do this little act of kindness. I TELEGRAPH COMPANY V5"' ' INCORPORATED It' was even understood that, he was himself destined for the council, when it should be possible to put him in it' without seeming to give too . great : a preponderance to the Fairfax interest already so much regarded in its make up. , The first flurry of differing views and conflicting purposes among . the Virginian leaders had passed off. The judgment of high-spirited men every where sustained Henry- gave him un mistakable authentication as a leader; put all public men in the way of un derstanding their constituents. Some were bold and 'some were timid, but all were anlmated-by the same hope and purpose and few were yet intem prate 1 ' ' ' ! ' Henry' an Accepted Leader. "Sensible of the importance of unan imity among our constituents," said Jefferson afterwards, looking back to that time when he was young and in the first flush of his radical senti ments, "although we often wished to have gone faster,' we' slackened our pace, that our less ardent colleagues might. keep up. with us; and .they, on their part, differing nothing, from us in principle, quickened their gait somewhat beyond that which their prudence might of , itself have ad vised." , ... .,, Patrick Henry was received to the place, he had earned ; and although the older leaders resumed that sway In .counsel to which their tried skill and varied experience in affairs fairly en titled them, there was no longer any Jealous exclusion of new men. Hen ry's fame crept through the colonies as the man who had first spoken the mind not of Virginians only, but of all just men, with regard to the liber ties of Englishmen in America. Before a year was out Richard Bland himself, parchment man and conservative that he was, had written and published a pamphlet entitled "An Inquiry into the Rights of the British Colonies," which said nothing less than that in all that concerned her George Mason. internal affairs Virginia was "a dis tinct, independent state," though "uni ted with the parent state by the clos est league and amity, and under the same allegiance." A colony "treated with injury and violence," he exclaim ed, "is become an alien." When antiquarians and lawyers, fresh from poring upon old documents, spoke thus, there were surely signs of the times. (TO BE CONTINUED.) Back numbers of this Story can be obtain ed at this office. oo " We make a special selling ftoy nothing but the best grades of Clover, Timothy, Clean Blue Grass, Orchard Grass, Red Feed and Seed Oats. Give us a call. Phone 72 and 144. Covington, Thorpe & Co. 11-tf -oo- This paper stops when your time is out. Look at the address. 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