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The Madisonian. (Richmond, Ky.) 1913-1914, October 28, 1913, Image 7

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THE MADISONIAN
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A well regulated municipal abattoir
MEAT INSPECTION IMPORTANT PURE
FOOD PROBLEM OF THE PEOPLE
Question of Local Versus Interstate Meat Little Or No In
spection of Meats That Do Not Pass Interstate Com
merce and Inspected By Federal Authorities
(By R. M. Allan, Head of Food and Drug Department, Kentucky Agricul
tural Experiment Station.)
Meat Inspection Is one of the chief
pure food problems before the Amer
ican people. Better Inspection In
needed of meat after It leaves tbe
federal Inspected abattoir, especially
after It passes from tbe control of tho
federal government to tbe control of
state and municipal authorities.
The question should be taken up
from the standpoint of the needs of
Inspection, and not with respect to
whether It will be more desirable to
hare local meats than Interstate
meats. Meat Inspection has been well
established In Europe for centuries
past. Tbe "town of Aachen, in Ger
many, required Its "special pig Inspec
tors" to take oath as follows:
"You shall be pig Inspector for
foreigners as well a for native in
habitants and neither for love nor
money, nor goods nor threats, nor
from friendship nor enmity shall you
declare otherwise, and as you find the
pigs to be."-
-, The application of this point is that
inspection should not be directed so
as to benefit one branch of the trade
above the other,, but to Inspect all of
the meats and allow all meat supplies
equal opportunity In tbe market, Lo
- cnl meats, though, are in need of In
spection to give them an equal chance
before the consumer with federal In
spected meats. The high cost of liv
ing demands both local and Interstate
meat.
tit -tJl'H
A dirty local slaughter house.
The Pure Food Department ot the
Kentucky Experiment Station has
been studying tbe local meat problem.
Enough reports ot diseased meats, in
sanitary slaughtering houses and
stench from wasted offal has been ac
cumulated to make, if published, eveu
8t. Clair's "Jungle" a tame piece of
muckraklug. It was found that the
previous laws ot the state and cities
looked upon the slaughtering bouse us
a hopeless nuisance aud required it to
be built away from the city, without
sewerage, water, or inspection. The
rule has been to kill any kind of an
animal and get it out of the nuisance
aa suou as possible. Many animals,
which tho trade are afraid will irbt
pass federal Inspection, are killed by
many local butchers. Tbe chief means
for disposing of the offal Is ia feeding
to hog. The infection from a
dls- i
eased animal la passed on to Infect
another bog. This method of feeding
bogs Is probably one ot the sources of
bog cholera. Some of these bogs pass
ou for breeding and feeding, la roost
other Instances, where not fed to hogs,
the offal la wraped to the rear of (be
building to pollute surrounding air and
streams. Such by-products ot the ani
mal are one of the thief sources of
jirctu with the packer. Uased on con
ftrvuilve eatimates there Is not less
han IJ.OOO.OOO worth of such vast
going on In Kentucky every yur, and
which, if saved and reudered Into
taiikage, would soon build and equip!
nuclei abattoirs throughout tbe whole
of tfce kinte.
la many instances boneat butchers
ware syund with model plaiitu, and
with an Integrity wbUb exercises
rertuln asiount of lay Inspection over
(he animal slaughtered, la one of the
Krntmky tuwna the state and city
laws agaitist Ute location of slaughter
ing bouses within the city limits U
being advantssrouvly violated. In this
town two Utruian butchers maintain
very clean meat ma.'kets within s
b!ok of the loading hot.l. Tu meat
El'kois t'uve. Veii-equlpptft aud very
'.V, I i-
showing meat properly stored.
clean slaughtering rooms at the rear,
and slaughtering la conducted without
odor or. other nuisance. The fresh
offal Is hauled away after each killing.
The example of these two plants
shows that clean slaughtering Is not
necessarily a nuisance, and that it It
best to locate the slaughtering house
within tbe limits of the city, so as tc
secure not only an abundant watet
supply and sewerage - facllltieas, but
closer inspection on tbe part of both
the officials and the consuming public
Europe has found the municipal
abattoir to be tbe remedy for local
meat Inspection. The plan Is to erect
one abattoir for tbe smaller cities and
towns and more for tbe larger cltlei
and towns, depending on the number
of animals slaughtered. These abat
toirs are either erected by the butch-
ers through a Joint stock company, ot
by the city Itself. They are then de
clared to be the municipal abattoir,
and all animals are required to be
slaughtered therein. The abattoir it
open to all who desire to slaughter
A cholera hog, killed for meat. Not
. the hemorrhages en the skin.
After making the Investigations.
Kentucky started out to prosecute the
operators . of Insauitary shops, bui
touud that the enforcement of the law
lu this directlou ouly served to cause
the expenditure of more money In un
satisfactory Individual plants und
made the work of sanitary abattoir!
all tbe more difficult. The next step,
therefore, was to study a system tot
local meat Inspections which had beei:
tried out in Germany, and In sucb
American cities as Cleveland, Nash
ville and I'aris, Texas. After working
out plana vl a plaut for a city ot from
five to ten thousand, aud a city from
fifty to several hundred thor.saud in
habitauut, and the draft for a model
municipal muit ordinance, ih cit t
now beiug directed towards securing
the tnUblikhineut of this only prau-1
Ucal meat control lueitioa luruugliout
Kentucky cities, t'laus for boiii the
plant and the ordinascu van b had
from the Food Departiwut of the Ex
periment Station free of charge, to
gether with an Inspection und repM-t
upon any city's meat supply. Tbe as
tabllnhmeut of municipal abattoirs will
not come about, however, null! the
consuming public recognkes tin grave
danger of diseased aud unimpeded
Oieat, aud rwogulxes that this can all
be iloue out of iue rendering of the
offal, now a wflfitd nujsuncs around
most plants.
j i ' ' M.-
L
a ' f X ? K I
k&w
DIVERSIFICATION 0(1
SOUTHERN
ii
Oats Should Be Principal Stock
Feed in Cotton Belt.
MOST PROFITABLE IN SOUTH
Plant Would Reduce Washing and
Leaching to Minimum, Furnish
Grating and Add to Deficient
Supply of Humus,
(By O. II. ALKORD )
From October 1 to November 16, ac
cording to tbe latitude, Is the best
time to sow oats In tbe cotton belt.
The oat crop should be made the
principal stock feed grown In tbe cot
ton belt. Tbe area in oats should be
fully as large as that in com, but let
us not forget tbe facta that as a stock
feed and cash crop, oats Is one of the
best crops that can be grown in the
south.
Tbe chief crops grown all over the
cotton belt are cotton and corn. As
an average for a ten-year period of
1900 to 1909 there was planted from 10
to IS acres of corn for each acre of
oats In the various cotton belt states.
During the same time an average of
tbe oat crop per acre was $10.09, while
the average value per acre of corn was
$11.02. Figuring the cost of growing
an oat crop and a corn crop, wa find
that the oat crop was the most profit
able. There are several Important rea
sons why we should sow millions of
acres of oats In the cotton belt The
oat crop would reduce washing and
leaching to the minimum, furnish graz
ing, add to tbe deplorably deficient
supply of bumus, add to tbe always
short supply of feed stuffs and supple
ment the money crop cotton.
Of course, there are better winter
cover crops than oats. Burr clover
and crimson clover are tbe vetches,
and In some cases some of the other
winter cereals are better. We do not
claim that oats alone or that oats and
hairy vetch combined should be grown
for the sole purpose of supplying a
cover crop. However, In view of tbe fact
that oats will grow on poor land poor
ly prepared, and It costs little to seed
an acre. It Is a good winter cover
Good Oat Crop.
crop for the many thousands of farm
ers who have not learned to grow
winter legumes.
Two and one-bait acres were plant
ed in oats at the experiment station
at Baton Rouge, La., for a grazing ex.
perlment on September 28. October
29 seven Poland China hogs, weighing
in total 276 pouuds, were put on this
plat and were given no feed but the
green oats during tbe winter. Febru
ary 17 the pigs weighed a total of SC8
pounds. There was an average gain
og .37 pound per pig per day for 110
r'ays. From October 29 to January 1
45 head of sheep were pastured on this
name plat. Of this number, eight
ewes and nine lambs were pastured
continuously there after February 17,
at which date the lambs averaged 68
days old and 35.5 pounds each. Allow
ing six cents per pound for the lambs,
we have a return of $13.40 per acre,
plus the pasturage of the cheep not
considered in the estimate.
The loss of humus In tbe soli re
sults In the Increasing of its power ot
storing, up and properly supplying
crops with water. Soils with a liberal
supply of humus are capable of more
effectually withstanding drought than
similar soils with lens humus. The
oat crop fills the soli full of roots, and
the stubble aluo ad-Js much humus to
the soil.
The oat grain is very valuable toed,
especially for young animals, because
of its moderately high protein content
and tbe large amount of anh and min
eral matter, found for pound, oats
are not as valuable for feeding ma
ture animate as corn, four pounds of
corn being equal to about five pounds
of oats. However, when we consider
the cost of growing the two crops and
the fact that feed Is always scarce
when tbe oat crop Is harvested, we are
forced to admit that every farmer In
the cotton belt should grow oats. '
In attempting to build up tbe worn
out cotton lands, we must depend very
largely on the leguminous crops. Now
tho oat crop Is harvested early enough
to permit the gro Ing of a leguminous
crop. Tbe leguminous crop may be
plowed under or it may be used as
feed, and the manure returned to tbe
Ut,d. If ee are going to build up our
land and raise good stock, we must
grow cat crops and foMow with legume
crops. -
Oats are probably the best paying
mall (rain crops that can be frown
it)
ver practically the entire cotton belt
The same soli that will produce one
bale of cotton or 40 bushels of corn,
per acre will produce 60 bushels ot
oats. At the average price that has
prevailed for oats during tbe last five
years, the 60 bushels will aell for from
$36 to $40 and tho straw, when baled,
will often pay for growing the grain.
It Is best to plant oats after corn
and ptnn. Cut the corn stalks and pea
vines Into pieces with disk harrow.
The dirk harrow Is the best possible
Implement In preparing the corn and
pea fields for oats. The drill will
clog In trashy ground and particularly
when working In uncut stalks arid pea
vines. When the disk harrow Is used
before tbe land Is broken, tbe drill
runs freely and easily, thus depositing
HOW CAN I INCREASE THE
YIELD AND QUALITY OF
MY OATS?
1 Fan and Grade 8eed.
2 Seed Early.
9 Early and Medium Varieties
Best.
4 Better Prepared 8eed Bed.
5 Drilling Better Than Brosd
. csstlng.
6 Treat Early Oats for Smut.
7 Always 8ow Clover.
8 Save the Crop by Good Shock
ing and Stacking.
tbei seed evenly. After using the disk
harrow to cut the corn stalks, plow
the land deep, then disk and doublo
disk, and harrow and cross harrow
until every Inch of the soil has been
stirred and broken as fine as possible.
A mixture of 300 pounds of 16 per
cent of acid phosphate, 100 pounds ot
cotton seed meal, and 200 pounds of
potash, followed In March with a top
pressing of 60 to 75 pounds of nitrate
of soda per acre Is good fertilizer for
oats on average soil
The best variety for fall sowing in
the south are Red Rust proof type.
The original Red Rust proof, the Ap
pier and Bancroft are so nearly alike
that no one can tell them apart if
shown side by side. The Burt oat is
for spring sowing.
The quantity of seed that Is neces
sary to sow sn acre of oats Is variable.
If sown early In the season or sown on
very fertile soil a smaller quantity of
seed may be used than if sown late
or sown on poor land. If the crop la
planted 25 per cent, less seed may be
used than It the same crop were to be
sown broadcast
There are three methods commonly
practiced of planting oats, namely
Sowing broadcast, open furrow and
drilling. Drilling of the seed is to be
preferred, since considerably less seed
can be used if drilled by machine; the
seeds are covered at a uniform depth
and, same up, grow, and ripen uni
formly-,, the small ridges made by the
drill afford a slight degree ot protec
tion from the cold; and the yield from
drilled oats Is usually greater than that
from broadcost oats. Tho seed saved,
and the larger crops that usually re
sult from drilled oats, will soon pay
for a good drill on the farm.
It is well nigh impossible to discuss
oats In tbe cotton belt without discuss
ing lespedeza, cow peas, soy beans and
peanuts, as these crops are almost as
much a counterpart ot oatc s ths
Siamese twin Ang was of his brother
Chang.
As soon as all danger of frost ia
past, sow about one bushel of Icspe
deza right on top ot the growing oats,
and make no attempt to cover what
ever. It Is advisable to divide tbe
bushel Into two halves and sow them
broadcast first one-half over the land
walking east and west and the otbet
half walking north and south.
The oats will bo ready to cut tu May
and June. At this time the lcspedeza
plants will be so small as to be hard
ly perceptable, though yo'i can see
whether you have a stand or not. L p
to that time the oats have been taking
the strength and water from the soil
but the first summer rain makes a dif
ference. The weeds come with a rush
and threaten to choke out the loupe-
OATS.
COST OF GROWING.
Seed $ 1.58
Preparing Ground 1.45
Harvesting 1.25
Stacking 50
Thrashing U0
Rent and Repairs 4.16
Total $10.14
AVERAGE OF 26 FARMERS.
iea plants. At this time it la neces
sary to set tho mower blade so high
as not to touch the lespedexa and top
tbe weeds once or twice.
The lespedeza begins to btuom in
September and October, and ia ready
to harvest. It Is best to cut when in
bloom aud all grettn.
Do not cut when wet front dew
or rain. Mow In forenoon, windrow and
cock In five or six feet high, 200 to
:00 pounds to the cock and cover with
lowella or eight-ounce duck covers
about nine feet situate. After about
three days opou out. air U needed, and
haul to barn or stack. It Is, ot course,
unnecessary to offer suggestions rela
tire to the growing of cow peas, soy
buans and peanuts after oats. The
farmers of the cotton bell have had
some little experience In growing these
crops after oats.
The development of the diversified
agriculture and the increasing of the
creage devoted to the oats and the
leguminous crops will do, much to
hasten the day of Independence co
$ cotton bWt farms.
For the Indian
i'l ! -wUif, , -. -4 I
-ls s V-et :ri-h A I
tUll W Ms II
ONE of those pretty outer garments
(made of brocaded crepe or char
meuse or other soft and supple fabric)
of which so many styles are worn, is
Just the thing for wear during autumn.
Indian summer days are too warm for
heavier wraps and too cool for none
at all. The plain coats with tailored
suits are always practical, but by way
of variety and to be a little more
dressed up a coat like that pictured
here is a pleasant change.
The liking for mole-skin gray or
"taupe" color as it is generally called
has brought out a great numbvr of
these coats developed in supple ma
terials in taupe. In some of them
the figures are in raised velvets.
There are, of course, very rich and
they are expensive.
Like so many of our fashionable out
er garments, this coat is cut with a
klmona sleeve. A heavy cord covered
with the fabric la used for embellish
ing the coat and accentuating certain
lines in it. They keep It shapely.
Without them the coat would not bang
well. As in the present styles It is the
hanging' and not the fitting which la
of paramount Importance, such cords,
or something to take their place In
providing weight. Is necessary la
making up the clinging and light
weight materials.
This little cont is provided with ?.
plain sailor collar In the samu mate
rial as the body of the coat At Ute
front fastening two shirred puffs are
placed, one at each side. They are
made by shirring two strips ot the
material, leaving a ruffle about a half
Inch wide at cn side of the puff.
To proteot both the coat anj the,
neck of the wearer, a little halting
of fine net Is worn. The net ia plain
and knife-plulted. Nearly every gar
ment to be worn during thi coming
senson, including coats, plush and fur
neckpieces, waists and dressps, is pro
vided vlth a washable plaiting. Wo-
PRETTY NECKWEAR
ELDERLY WOMAN
WILL APPRECIATE
ABIT of neckwear, especially suit
ed to elderly women, will prove a
pleasing gift to somebody's grand
mamma. This Jajot is made of
black taffeta silk and lace in a deep
cream color. It is not as simple as
roost such pieces. Shaped pieces of
silk, cut double, and sewed logoiher
in a uarrow seam, lcaWiig au opening
through wbich to tutu tluui right side
out. The edges at this rpt'iliig are
then carefully blind stitched together.
Older women appreciate tlue vetting,
aud it pleases them to seti palLStult
Ing aork in the gifts they receive.
The two triangular piecek of silk
prepared la this way are Jciied t-y r
r ' -c?r
lV st--
Summer Weather
men will appreciate this, for furs; be
come soiled or the dye in them rubs
off and it Is impossible to keep the
neck clean without a protection of
some sort.
Finn, wafcbable laces are used for
this purpose, especially in gowns, and
are wired at the back to keep them
upstanding.
This coat fastens with small hooks
and eyes at the front It slants away
from the bust line.
The small hat worn with It is of
brilliant corded silk in the same color.
It has a drooping brim with puff of
velvet about it. A Numldi feather in
the natural color Is mounted In rather
eccentric fashion at the back. It may
be placed at the front and be equally
fashionable, for those who would like
It better there.
A reath 11 y velvet roses' .f.
placed about the crown, with velvet
foliage. Tbe corded silk is laid in
plaits about the crown, and the raw
edge turned under. The rose-wrsutU
defines the line at which the crowu
and brim meet.
This hat is made on a lightweight.
Buekratn frame. It is one of the hnts
which the heme milliner may. under
take and accomplish successfully. A
fabric like that in the coat, or match
ing it, may be used over the croT-n,
instead of the corded silk.
As the weather grows colder thir
coat may be used by wearing a wjrui
Jacket under it and a fur or plus.!
neckpiece v.-ith it. The hat Is sultaMe
for this tn:ire season. It would be :i
pretty development to maUe a ruu!T
mittclilrg the hat, using the Bame vel
vet aud silk, as there is a fancy Vr
odd necklecei worn with bats and
muffs that natch.
No one tthottld face cold wiiatln-r
without a muff of some sort, or wait
until the last moment to make one.
JL'VIA EOTTOMLEY.
narrow tar.d of the silk about time
Inc hes lone. This hand purport. lU.
pliiiting of line net ov allow r l.'.cc
which is sewed to it. Tills ruffle i
edged with a plaitlun of luce nf tlie
bqttom, mace of edpir.g three inc'.:fe
wide. Tho ruffle of all over lace is a
little less than six iuches deep, uiid
the lace pluli'.iig is set on ut lw extreme-
eu J making the Jabot betv cu
eight aud a half and tlno Inches ia
depth.
Shadow lace is selected for the Ja
bot in either deep cream or butter-color.
As a finishing touch the small
est rhliicbtouo buttons, set lu b';ic&
euuiuel, are used on the lower poiutx
of the tilangular pieces.
The combination of lace and ti.ick
kllk is not the only one In which thi
pretty .surprise ean be developed
with pleasing results. The lavender
and purple tones aud certain khades
of green aud brown with cream or butter-colored
lace make jabots suitable
to older women and quite as effective
as black and white.
JULIA BOTTOM LEY.
Mending Corsets.
Of:cn eoraeu, otherwise in good
condition, will break at the hips. Ti
iiiUi.e ititai as good as new, cut snips
of fatherliui:e about four inches lorfe,
rinlt-hing the euds tbe same as for col
lars, and stitch thee over the brokca
steels. Whan a large steel Is broken
doublo the featherboue to make it
more durable.
Children's Coats.
Woolen ratine and velvet are com
bined in children's coats in different
ways. One coat, of rich brown vel
tit, shows a belt aad collars and
cuff collar, buttons and belt of black
tttlvel
I

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