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II CVDflDTTDRnC PROLONG USEFULNESS OF THE PEACH TREE LAr nil i iiiHiir THE CMTf FIO 1 INSPIR 0 0 SHOWSBIG GAINS Mm Shipments of Products Hn Furnno Wnro I nrnro 4 111 t MUCH GOLD COMING HERE. Statistics Show That $26,500,000 Worth of Iron and Steel Was Sent Abroad During One Month Oil! For Oil Amounts to $12,800,000, For Flour $9 800,000 and For Leather $8,500,000. Olllclal figures of foreign commerce for, Mny tell n story with which the American business man lias heconio very familiar during tho past sis months. There has been a largo Increase In exports of nil Hues of goods that nre required as war supplies, such as Iron nd steel products, packing house stuffs, Ulll'll IIIUIUILIIIS, lUllUliSl'lTU U1I nrl rnko nit inntnl i-noris nvrimt cnn. r, leather goods, automobiles and cks. rnMnii n-nndu nnil i-nflnml snirnr. stance, are not classlflcd strictly as ar supplies, but arc In demand be- nstrlmi nnil IMisxhm Kiitmlles from hat Imnort nil tlio xiTf.'ir thpv run. IITTIO The falling off In foreign trade dur- nir Mnv nnnenrs ilirppflr in nil? pointer. uicii is u iur cum less man in irn; poorus nun planus, ou per cent less; agricultural implements, .10 per cent less; electrical apparatus, 10 icr cent less, and naval stores, 30 per cent less. The principal Increases, ns shown In round figures, are given In the follow- ing table, the comparison being with the exports of May, 1014: May. 1013, May. 1314. Iron and steel manu factures t2C,D00,000 19,"00,000 Refined mineral oils.. 12,800,000 Flour 9.800.000 12.C00.000 4,000,000 400.000 3,000,000 4,000.000 100,000 2,900.000 500,000 E.-Mloslves 8,000,000 Ljflther 8,500,000 Cotton goods 6,800,000 Commercial automo biles G.G00.000 4,000.000 4,100,000 3.400,000 Passenger automo biles Brass Cars and carriages. ... 1,100.000 1,000.000 Cottonseed oil 2,400,000 The volume of gold coming Into the country during May was $31,130,000. In May, 1914, It was $1.755,0G2. Dur ing the past May gold came In at New York to the amount of 513,403,035, and at Ogdcnsburg to the amount of $13,- 510,803. The receipts of gold from Canada during the eleven months end cd with May were 02,740.122. and from Great Britain In the same period $1,953,740. Canada's transfer of gold to this country during May was $14, 404.530, as compared with $1,045,917 the same month last year. France sent us. in May, tills year, $11,500,000 of goTil, having sent us In the preceding ten months of the fiscal year but $52,- 020. Our export of gold to all coun tries In the eleven mouths ended with May was $031,720. The total Import of gold from all countries for the clov en months of the fiscal year ended with May was $110,227,015. The grand balance of trade for tho eleven months ended with May, 1015. is of Interest to those who desire to tako a broad view of the trade situa tion. The total exports for the period named were $2,500,011,024 as compared with $2,207,507,101 for the eleven months ended with Mny, 1914. Im ports were down to tho end of Mny, 1015, $1,510,475,000 and for the same months the previous year were $1,730, 390,207. The total of exports and Im ports for the eleven months ended with .May this year was $1,010,510,524. and the total of exports and imports for tho same months ended with May, 1014, was $3,013,903,303, giving nn In crease for this year over last in tho grand total of foreign trade. Including both exports and Imports, of $72,013,- 210. While this year exports havo In creased by $202,534,823 In the eleven months. Imports have fullen off by $210,921,007. At tho same time tho balance of trade for tho eleven months ended with May, 1915, bad reached the enormous amount of $983,507,324 and, as is well known, with the balance for tho following month of June, passed the billion mark for the first time In tho history of the country. COPS TO MEASURE SKIRTS. antlo City Bathing Dresses Must me Within Three Inches of Knees. no thing of the utmost Importance for the future guidance of summer ktrls in Atlantic City has been settled Definitely and beyond recall. It re flates to the minimum length of the frothing skirt Chief Surgeon Dossert lrector of the bathing beach, pro- ulgatcd an order so explicit that either summer maids, propriety police or beach guards can fall to under- and precisely what it means. "Every bathing skirt worn upon the Untitle City beach must not bo short- tbau threo inches above tho knee thi winror" nnva thn uknKp lA applies with equal force, Beach lector Dossert said, to tall girls and ort sisters, a tape measure nas been tdded to tho equipment of beach head uarters. Her Peanuts Were Dope. The mysterious "plumed lady" of Cleveland, who banded peanuts to Irhmds sbo met in her strolls, has been Wat to the workhouse for distributing teeaue in peanut shells. WijfWmi i mm m Fig. 1 Elflht.Year-Old Peach Tree InWhfch New Growth Has Been Mado at Points Remote From Main Trunk. (Prepared by the United States Depart- the top Is tho samo as that for doing mcnt of Agriculture.) the annual pruning for tho shaping Tho accompanying illustrations of ,h(J trces and thc removal of super. often bo removed bo as to prolong tho U3efulne53 of the tree for several years. If a. peach tree is neglected as to pruning during its early years and tho branches aro allowed to become long and slender; if, as it attains con siderable nge, tho bearing wood, In splto of the pruning which It has re ceived, has grown out of convenient reach In harvesting; or If for other reasons It becomes desirable to re new tho top of a tree, it is usually entirely practicable to do so, provided tho trunk and main limbs are sound and healthy. Fig. 1 shows nn eight-year-old peach tree which has becomo rather "leggy." Tho annual growth for several seasons has nearly all been mado near tho extremities of tho limbs. Very little now wood has grown In tho interior of the tree. Tho samo tree was severely headed in, or "deheaded," with a view to de veloping a new top, and Fig. 2 is a sec ond view of tho tree shown in Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Second View of Same Tree In Second Season's Growth, After Be ing Deheaded. well advanced In its second season's growth after being deheaded. It should bo stated that this particular tree was somowhat lacking in vigor and its growth following the treat ment for tho renewal of the top wan not as satisfactory ns it would other wise havo been. Fig. 3 shows a seven-year-old Elberta tree which was thrifty when It was headed back to about the extent Indicated in Fig. 2. This illustration chows this trco near the end ot its first season's growth after being deheaded. It should bear a crop ot fruit the next season. If a treo which lacks vigor is treat ed in this way, tho results shown in Fig. 4 may occur. On a portion of tho stubs there- wero no buds etrcng enough to develop; hence, tho top was only partially renewed. It the tops aro cut back to wood that is not more than threo or four years old. a stronger, moro symmetrical growth may bo expected than where the stubs left in deheadlng are older than tho age mentioned. Occasionally, where the trunk remains Bound and retains Its vigor, the tops aro renewed two or three times. As a rule, however, it ia impracticable to dehead for re newal more than once. Sometimes, when for any reason Fig. 3 Elberta Peach One Year1 Growth After Heading Back. it is desirable to renew the top ot a comparatively young tree, the head ing in may be mado much more so- vero than that suggested by Fig. 4 the annual pruning for the shaping This Is shown in Fig. 5, where all tho branches have been cut back to the trunk of the tree. The season for deheadlng to renew W vJ'l L' When the vigor of peach trees has been well maintained by good cultural Fig. 4 A Peach Tree That Was De headed, but Failed to Develop Sym metrical Top. methods, suitable pruning, and wise management In every respect, their lifo of commercial usefulness Is gen erally from about eight to nearly twenty years after tho full-bearing ago is reached. It varies, however, quite widely under different conditions. In some sections It is rarely profitable to contlnuo them after they reach tho age of twelve to fifteen years; In others they are expected to last until they are from fifteen to eighteen or twenty years old, whllo occasionally an orchard from twenty to twenty-five years old is found which Is still of commercial value. Instances of indi vidual trees remaining productive un til a much greater age are not uncom mon, but they seldom, if ever, repre sent orchard conditions. The United States department of agriculture, Washington, D. C, will send interested fruit growers, free of charge, its Farmers' Bulletin (No. 632) on "Growing Peaches" which gives in detail much information on the pruning of trces, renewal of tops, iV si ft' Fig. 5 A Tree That Shows Possibili ties of Developing New Top When Limbs Are Cut Back to the Trunk. thinning, interplanted crops, and spe cial practices. GOOD PROTECTION FOR GARDEN PLANTS Avoid Injury by Cutworms, Rab bits and Frost by Use of Ordinary Tin Can. (By L. a SMITH.) Cutworms work havoc on tho new ly set plants. Jack rabbits, cabbage hungry, clean up tho patch by eating tho plants. Jack Frost comes along and finishes what may be left. To offset theso disasters we keep on hand a lot of cans (ends removed by heating) which wo place over the plants as we set them. In caso of danger from frost, a handful of straw placed on top of tho can will ward off any ordinary frost. Tho cans aro not removed until fall. In case of drought, one can fill tho can full of water and it will soak away gradually. It will not increase the labor one tenth to do this for your garden plants and will save 25 per cent of your plants from being destroyed. . rill -j ,, , mmwiim By Peter Radford. When you enter tho agricultural de partment ot tho county fair, you feci yout soul uplifted and your llfo takes on a new power that is tbo inspira tion of the soil ITou nre overpowered by the grandeur and magnificence ot the scene that Is tho spirit of tho harvest You can hear tho voice of nature calling you back to tho soil that Is opportunity knocking at your door. It Is a good chance to spend a quiet hour In contact with the purity and perfection of nature and to sweet en your life with It3 fragrance, elevate your Ideals with Its beauty nnd expand your Imagination with its power. Theso products as food are fit lor the gods, and as an article ot com merce they ought to bring tlp-tt .i prices on any market In tho world Tho products of the soli are teacheM and preachers ns well. ' Their beauty gives hitman life Its first entertain ment, their perfection stirs the genius In artists; tliclr purity furnishes mod ols for growth of character nnd their marvelous achievements excite our curiosity and wo Inquire Into the won ilerful process of nature, lleforo leaving tho parlor of agrlcul turo where nature ia piradlng in her most graceful attlro and science Is climbing tho giddy heights of perfec tion, lot us pauso and take a retro spective view, j low many or you know that after these wonderful prod ticts aro raised, they can seldom be marketed at a profit? Tako tho blush ing hibertn, ror example they wore fed to tlio hogs by the carload last year. Tho onion tho nation's favorl'o vegetable every year rots by tho acre in the Southwest for want of a market and as a result hundreds of farmers havo lost their homes. Cot ton nature's capitalist often goe,3 begging on tho market at less than cost of production. It Is groat to wander through the oKhlblts while tho band is playing "DIxlo" and boast of the marvelous fertility of the soil and prldo ourselves on our ability to master science, bit it Is also well to remember that there Is a market side to agriculture that does not reflect Its hardships In tho exhibits at a county fair. UNIVERSAL FEACE This nation is now In tho midst of a controversy as to how best to pro mote universal peace. That question wo will leave for diplomats to dls cuss, but peace within nations Is no less Important than peace between nations and it Is heavily laden with prosperity for every citizen within our commonwealth. Many leading politicians and ofttlmes political platforms have declared war upon business and no cabinet crisis ever resulted. Many men havo stood In high places and hurled "gas bombs" at industry; thrust bayonets Into bus iness enterprises and bombarded ag riculture with Indifference. Party leaders have many times broken dip lomatic relations with Industry; sent political aviators spying through tho affairs of business, and political mib marines have sent torpedoes crushing into the destiny of commerce. Dur ing tho past quarter of a century wo havo fought many a duel with prog ress, permitted many politicians to carry on a guerrilla warfare against civilization nnd point a pistol at tho heart of honest enterprise. No man should bo permitted to cry out for universal peace until his rec ord has been searched for explosives. for no vessel armed or laden with munitions of war should bo given a clcaranco to sail for the port of Uni versal Peace. Let us by all mcan3 havo peace, but peace, like charity, should begin at home. GRASPING AT THE SHADOW No man especially If he Is mar ried would deny woman any right she demands. Take the earth and give us peace, but why does woman long for the ballot? When all Is said and done, Is not tho selection of the butcher more im portant to the homo than tho election of a mayor; Is not tho employment ot the dairyman a far moro Important event In tho life of the children than the appointment of a postmaster; is not the selection of books for the family library more Important than voting bonds for Jail and court house? Why docs woman lay aside the im portant things In life? Why leave tho substanco and grasp at the shadow? De it said to the credit of woman hood that it is not, 'as a rule, the woman who rocks tho cradle that wants to cast tho ballot; it is not the mother who teaches her children to say "Now I lay me down to sloop" that haranguos tho populace; it is not the daughter who hopes to reign as queen over a happy home that longs for the uniform ot tho suffragette. It is, as a rule, the woman who despises her home, neglects her children and scorns motherhood that leads parades and smashes windows. Queries and Replies Covering Matters of Importance to the Man Who Runs a Car & Will you please furnish mo with soma information regarding brazing process es? Itrazhig metals, which menus that they nru Joined by n film of brass, re quires u red heat and borax Is gen erally used its a flux to protect the metal from oxidation and to dknolvo tho oxides formed. Heating must bo dune by means of n blowtorch, gas forge, coke or charcoal furnace nnd cannot be done by means of a solder - hnr Iron, lief ore work Is assembled for. brazing it should bo carefully cleaned.! The parts are then fastened together, generally by pinning, but sometimes' wire bolts or clamps are used. If pos- slblo thu pieces should bo fastened In Hlloll 11 wnr Hint flu, Wfirlr mnv 1m iirn.' ed over during the process of brazing 1 without changing the relation of the parts. My motor doss not firo regularly. Sometimes it misses on one cylinder and then again two become affected. The missing ckips from ono cylinder to another. Position of gas and spark lovers does not ceem to make any dif ference, and the trouble is equally bad on magneto and battery. Can you ex plain this? Tho missing Is undoubtedly caused by faulty Ignition or curburctlon, and It seems more likely that the former Is the cause. First look for short cir cuits. Operate tho motor In the dark at a moderate rate of speed and note whether any sparks Jump from any part of the wiling to the motor or frame. Inspect thu insulation of all the wires for worn or broken spots where a short circuit to the frame might be produced. Any such spots should be taped or the wires replaced. Next examine the brushes on tho mag neto. Any that lire worn on the ends should be smoothed off or replaced so that a good electrical contact is ob tained. Sec that the breaker points nre smooth enough to meet squarely and in adjustment that Is, the gap between them, when they nru beparated. should bo between one-thirty-second and one-sixty-fourth ot an Inch. Also note whether the insulation In the breaker box Is in good condition anil whether there is nnv nosslbllltv of a short cir cuit either due to this or dirt or oil. ! Take the switch apart and examine thu , Insulation nnd tighten any loose parts. I Providing all electrical connections , , I urc tight ami the gaps of spark plugs, adjusted to one-thlrty-secoml of an inch, the trouble must be either In the carbiiretloii system or In the coll or magneto. Assuming that the carbureter adjust ment Is correct, see that there are no nir leaks In the intake manifold. Look for dirt In the gasoline system and see that the float is not soaked with gaso - Hue and that the needle valve nnd tloat valve or their seats are not worn. While you may drive with the spark lever properly advanced and thu mag neto may bo correctly timed. It Is pos sible tbnt the linkage connecting the spark lever with the magneto Is loose, so that when the lever Is ndvanced the breaker box Is not acted upon. See that the lubrication system Is In P'-oper working order and check up the vi.lve timing. What is tho cause of carbon? Carbon deposit Is caused by thu car bon la the oil or gasoline being set free by the heat of combustion, if the mixture Is too rich there will not be enough air for combustion of all the carbon In the gasoline, and there fore after the explosion takes place some carbon In the form of a very tine powder will remain. This Is caught by thc oil on the walls of the combustion chamber, and the bent gums the oil, holding tho carbon until the final re- suit Is a bard mass of carbon held to-, gether by a tough, cement-llko gum- j med oil. In the same way. If too much oil is fed to the motor, an ex cess reaches the combustion chamber, and the heat burns part of It, but leaves some of the carbon, which re mains on the wall until removed. My car starts badly. It has a four cylinder, 425x5.5 inch motor, but only magneto for ignition. The motor works evenly when onco under way. If it can be started rolling down grade and then thrown into gear it start readily enough. Can you suggest a remedy for the trouble? Your magneto lu probably causing the trouble, although It is well to make sure that tho dllllculty does not He In the carbureter adjustment or Is not due to leaky valves. Seo that the spark plugs' points are Inch apart, that all connections are tight and that there are no short circuits. Then ex amine the breaker points on tho mag neto. File them until they meet squarely, nnil then adjust them until tho motor runs evenly nt nil speeds. riic exact distance depends upon the magneto, but should be somewhere be tween 1-32 and 1-U Inch. If the points nre 'oi fur apart thu motor will not start or will miss at slow speeds, while If thc points arc too near togeth er It will miss nt high speeds. There Is nlso n chance that thc magnets aro weak. If ho it will bp difficult to ob- talu a spark nt low motor speeds. Make sure that all the brushes are making good contact Is It common practico to reprind the cylinders when a motor Is worn or Is it better to get new pistons and rings? All depends upon the condition of theso parts. .Sometimes It Is ndvlsablo to regrlud the cylinders, which Is tho case when they are worn oval. In tula case the fitting of new pistons Is u dif ficult Job, and the previous troubles would return again. If the cylinders retain their circularity, then new pis- J tons nnd rings may bo lilted. s it a good plan to place graphite in the crank case with tho regular oil? Graphite shows excellent results when used as a lubricant for the mo- - tor. Its nction Is one of n filler, the minute holes in tho cylinder being fill ed In with thu graphite, thus reducing friction nnd wear. Some owners uso ordinary Hake graphite, while others prefer the delloccillnted form. There is a swishing sound Issuing from tho neighborhood of tho right front wheel of my car when it is in motion. It seems to occur once every revolution. What can bo causing it? There are two vrry likely causes of such a noise. It may bo due to tho 1 speedometer gears meshing too tightly or the demountable Hm has u wedge loose. Jack up the wheel and rotato it slowly, and you can soon determine whether the gears are too close. If this Is thu caso loosen up the arm that carries the driven gear and move the gear only far enough uway so that the noise is eliminated. If the trouble is not found in the speedometer gears tighten up tho wedges on the rim.' One loose wedge will make n noise similar to that you have described, duo to thc lack of support at this point What, in your opinion, is the best way to crank a motor, with the throttle open or nearly closed? It Is preferable to crank tho motor with the throttle only opened n small amount, say an Inch or nn Inch and a quarter movement on the quadrant With some carburetors It is Impossible to start the motor with tho throttle wide open, while with others It Is gen erally done with dllllculty. 1 have always been bothered with mot"- knocking when throttle was op?nef. hard necessitating my retarding the spark to the extreme lim- it. and tJhat. ofpcoursfi. ,,,, I havo been told that it was caused by too high compression. Will it helD matters to reduce compression by rais ing the cylinder and placing a plate beneath to make a larger compression space? The high compression reason which has h(xli nsslgned to your case is very ' Ios!bly correct, although It might bo ' tUi,t carbon trouble Is at the bottom of the difficulty. If you have noticed that tho knocking continues even after tho motor has been cleaned of carbon It Is probably due to the high compression or to a loose connecting rod, wrist pin or crank shaft bearing or part. It Is never u good Idea to reduce compres sion until you nre sure that It is too high, and It will 1kj better to have this measured by gauge and see what It really Is before attempting to cut it down by means of a plate. A com pression pressure of seventy pounds la Kiilllcient, mid for ordinary purposes you should not have higher than this. If It is below this a reduction of com pression will reduce tho power corre spondingly, us It influences tho mean effective pressure in the cylinder. If a motor is equipped with a high tension magneto, does each cylinder receive alternately one effective spark and one surplus spark? The ordinary four cylinder high ten sion magneto only produces sparks when required that Is, at the begin- nlng of tho working stroke. Such n mngneto produces a spark every half revolution of tho armature, and there fore by connecting it to tho motor so that it revolves at the same speed Just tho right number of sparks nre gen crated, since a four cylinder, four cyclo motor requires a spark every half rev olution. These sparks aro distributed to the proper cylinders In turn by. meaus of a rotating brush which makes consecutive contact with the tour seg ments which are connected to tho high tension wires runnlug to each of the four cylinders. Tho distributer runs nt half tho speed of tlio nrmature, and tho two are positively connected by gears. The two nre so set that the brush Is lu contact with ono of tho segments when tho breaker points sep arate and thc spark occurs. Will you kindly give me any informa tion you can on soldering aluminium? Aluminium Is soldered by tho uso ot a blowtorch. A solder which may bo used without a flux Is composed of seventy-five and tlve-tenths parts of tin, eighteen parts of zinc and two and five-tenths parts of aluminium. Tho liarts should bo slightly heated before applying. Tho solder should bo forced tu place by means of a stiff metal brush. Another solder which requires a flux, however, is mado up of 80 per cent tin and 20 per cent zinc, stearic add being used as a flux. The objec tion to soldering aluminium is that the joint is not very strong.