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DIRE FOOD AND FUEL SHORTAGE Inadequate Supply of Heat Im peded to Cause Much Suffering. HOW THE ENEMY STANDS People Have Less to Eat This Winter Than Lact, Is Belief Two Foddar Discoveries Disaffection In Austria. London. Europe Is going to load the simple life this winter and for a long time thereafter. There is not a country t lint does not now realize the real danger of extreme food shortage. But food shortage Is not the only or in most eases the worst of the men aces. The nations fare nnd realize as never before the exhaustion of nil nec essary supplies. Although food will be scarce In all countries, whether bellig erent or neutral, it Is doubtful whether that will Impose as much hnrdship on people as the shortage of fuel, writes Judson C. Wllllver lu the New York Sun. In Europe's cllmnte food 13 fuel to the body quite as much as It is nour ishment. Sharply restricted supplies of food, and that of a doubtful qual ity and poor vnriety, might be endured If there were jplenty of fuel. It Is when the supply of fuel, both outside and Inside, falls below the necessities Of physical effort that people begin to suffer. Europe hns neither carbon for its food nor carbon for its fireplaces, nnd In some respects the northern neutrals are even worse off than the belliger ents. Rations of Important food nec essaries have been reduced by some of them even below the amounts allowed In Germany. England is by fnr the best supplied country in the matter of food, and the authorities are making desperate efforts to make the popula tion, realize that rationing will soon be compulsory unless food consump tion is considerably reduced. The food authorities have announced a policy of accumulating sufficient reserve to feed the country for three months, even if no imports shall be received during this time. Question of Shipping. In the case of England It Is entirely a question of shipping. Big stocks of food have been gathered In Australia, New Zealand, Canada and elsewhere, but there are no ships to bring them here. England Is probnbly better situ ated in the matter of coal supplies than any other country, but must di vide with Its allies, France and Italy, and so fur as possible some of the neu trals hope to be taken care of from the English mines. The German food situation is puz zling. Apparently the authorities are not nearly so confident about it as they would like the public to believe. The year's harvest turned out more sat isfactory than seemed probable dur ing the period of droughts and hail storms in midsummer, but on the oth er hand reserves were heavily drawn upon before the harvest of 1017 was gathered. Reserves, Indeed, may fair ly be said to have disappeared. The carefully cultivated official un- PRINCESS JEANNE Little Princess Jeanne, youngest member of the Italian royal family, photographed while on a visit to wounded soldiers recently, returned from the Italian battlefront. The princess is one of the most popular members of the king's family, espe cially with the Italian public. She la Idolised by the soldiery. 1 i SanlS derstnnrting In (iormnny Is Him ineru will be a better food supply this win ter than last. The specific statement Justifying this expectation are highly WlSallsfUliUtJi The Munich Medical union hns declnred that there will he less food, except potatoes, this win ter than Inst. Throughout Oermnny there Is apparently a pretty general bellet that this is true, nnd wide spread demand Is voiced for na In crease In the nllowance of potatoes. 'In Oermany. ns In Englnnd, the Im mediate result of the harvest was a great Increase in the marketing of po tatoes with the consequence Hint In many plnces there were not storage facilities to take care of them. The fenr Is expressed that n not Inconsider able portion of the potato yield will be wasted, uirfly heenuse of overronsump tlon In the agricultural areas and part ly from inadequacy of storage facili ties. So from many (lermnn authorl-' tics comes the warning that despite a big yield of tubers the coming winter Is likely to seo conditions quite na bad regarding them, and worse as to many other things than last winter. Ominous Suggestion. The ominous suggestion Is made by some of the Oerman food authorities thnt It will not do to be too free with porntocs. because later It will he neces sary to ndx more potato flour with ce real flour to stretch the supply. Also as there was a short crop of fodder throughout the country potatoes are likely to be required to feed domestic animals. The fear of such nn event has caused widespread demand thnt more hogs he slaughtered that they may not require to be fed with potatoes that the peo ple will need. The number of hogs In the country has been Increasing this year, and the fact gives concern be cause the pig Is an active competitor of n munition worker or anybody else In the matter of food requirements. German authorities have determined that beyond providing n moderate meat ration the transmutation of vegetable Into animal food is a dangerously wasteful process. So there Is nn effort to Induce farmers and village dwell ers to restrict the number of hogs and cattle to the point where it will be Just possible to raise the absolutely necessary meat ration. The relntlon of the general economic breakdown to agriculture Is indicated In both Englnnd and Germany by mat ters nffectlng the supply of agricultural machinery. In Germany there Is a most serious sbortnge of all kinds of agricultural tools and machines, be cause the old ones have worn mt and there Is neither metal nor manufactur ing cnpnelty to provide new ones. In England the complaint particular ly concerns the supply of motor plows. The government long ago promised that thousands of these would be fur nished In time to put a greatly in creased acreage in cereals under culti vation In 1918. Now when the fall plowing season Is on It develops' that want of shipping or other reasons have prevented the delivery of nnythlng like an adequate number of these ma chines. A Dresden physician who is quoted as an authority, has recently dis cussed the German food situation as regards the requirements and supplies of various classes of consumers. He finds that children up to eight years of age are receiving a reason ably satisfactory ration, but the amount allowed to those from eight to eighteen Is utterly Insufficient nnd thnt the shortage seriously threatens the physical vitality of the next genera tion. Some of the German Jurisdictions have recently announced that newly married couples will be granted a double food allowance for the first six weeks of their married life! Else where provision has been made to double the food allowances of nursing and expectant mothers. Two Fodder Discoveries. The effort to find fodder for animals has started the professors on many Investigations and Inquiries. Doctor Degen, director of the seed testing sta tion in Budapest, claims to have dis covered two valuable articles of fod der. He writes: "The searush (Bolboschaenus mari tlmus) was known, as regards the' part above ground, as a fodder equal In value to straw. Recent experiments have, however, shown that the tubers growing on the roots underground are far more valuuble. They come very near to the horse chestnut In the amount of raw protein, raw fat and starch contents, without the bitterness. If they are used for the manufacture of spirits the wash, either wet or dried, can also be used for fodder. "The pond bullrush (Schnenoplec tus .Incustrls) also contains a valu able" underground organ. The horizon tal roots, containing a great quantity of starch, form a good concentrated fodder. If used In distilleries the wash is not so valuable as that from the searush. But In a time of need It is a raw materlul that can be used for various purposes." Milk famine confronts all Europe. The situation has long been bud, and grows steadily worse everywhere. There Is constunt and Increasing con flict between the various state and mu nicipal authorities dealing with the food question throughout (lerrnany. In this regard the German situation Is much more complicated nnd difficult to handle than the English. The state and municipal govern ments In Germany are very Jealous of their authority In their respective Ju risdictions, and the federal authorities dare not or cannot Impose universal regulations upon them. In Saxony ar rangements have been made to reim burse farmers who would Import from other states cows and heifers In calf. Farmers making such purchases will receive a premium of 30 per coot of JAPANESE BUILD 250 SHIPS A YEAR Toktn. .Tnpan Is able to hlld 2"0 hlps n year, their tonnage totaling T.onn.oon. according In 1 government statement. The shipbuilding business of .Tnpan hns had nn unprecedented growth since the beginning of the war, nnd on September 1 there were 118 shipbuilding slips own "d bv 42 firms, besides 24 slips which arc building and will be ready before the end of the year. These facilities are more than three times as great ns at the beginning of the war. Encli slip Is capable of turning out n shin of more than 1,(K)0 tonnage In less than a year. the price paid, not to exceed IMX marks. This arrangement has caused violent complaint because the prices of butt rr and milk are already fear fully high and the consumers complain lhat the farmers are making immense profits from producing tliem. From Frarkfurt comes the report thai at present milk dollv rles In thnt city amount to about one-sixth those of peace times. Receipts scarcely suf fice to take care of the privileged cus tomers. Invalids, nursing and expect ant mothers, nnd so forth. A large share ef what Is actually obtained is produced by the municipal authorities from their munlclpnl dairies nnd farms. It has been n very expensive method, yet the situation Is so bad that the town hns decided to extend It still further. Dissatisfaction In Austria. German speaking Austria has long been Jenlous of the comparatively fa vorable food situation In Hungary, and recently the disaffection has become ncute. It is charged that Hungary Is feeding herself bountifully and leaving the rest of the empire to shift ns It can. For whatever Hungary Is will ing to send Into the German spenklng regions outrageous prices nre chnrged, and the subject has been discussed with painful frankness In the legisla tive bodies of both states. It was said that recently Inrd from Hungnry had been sold In Austria at nearly eight times the price It would have cost in Hungary. The same gen ernl situation prevails as to many oth er Hungarian food supplies. The Hungarians complain with equal rancor that they are charged excessive prices for nil manufactured articles produced In Austria. The two gov ernments have been trying to agree upon n general policy of leveling down the prices of both. But at this point they nre confronted by the same diffi culty which hns been so many times experienced In Germany ; no system of price control will stretch Inadequate supplies to the point of adequacy. In Holland the state's control is be ing extended to almost all food sup plies. There are Indications that the rationing system Is going to be estab lished before winter shall have far ad vanced. The use of fnt nnd ninrgarlne by bakers nnd confectioners nnd by hotels, restnurnnts and clubs In pre paring food hns been prohibited. The government hns guaranteed prices for wheat, rye, oats, barley, etc. As to crops not nvallahle for food the areas that may be planted have been strictly limited; in some cases to not more than 40 or 50 per cent of the plantings of normnl years. A pre mium hns been offered for Incrensed areas of lund under the plow. The government Is going to requisition the entire crop of sugar beets, the factories will convert them Into sugar, and this will be turned over to the government nt a fixed price for distribution. The price demanded of the public will not be Increased. Although Denmark Is, In proportion to area and population, one of the greutest agricultural producing and exporting countries in the world, it Is now confronted with shortage of al most everything. The country's but ter production hus decreused alarming ly, and there is a demand for ration ing. The government Is undertaking to subsidize the production of butter so. as to reduce prices ; that Is, to ap ply to butter practically the same rule that was applied to bread In England. The English government Is subsidizing bread to the extent of about $40,000, 100 a year, thus making It iosslble to sell the English loaf of war bread for four and one-half cents. In Norway the government and the local food authorities are working to perfect a rationing system In time to save the country from disaster this winter. At Ohrlstlanlu u big scheme for storing reserve's of food hus been worked out und some 25 warehouses in various purts of the city are being stocked. Under a law pussed lust May the government has estiiblshed a mo nopoly of the Import of wheat, barley, oats, rye, beans, peas and lentils and other grains und meill used for human food except rice uud potatoes. Clawed by a Hawk. St. Murys, O. Cluwed some time age In u tight with a chicken hawk, Ben H. Strusburg, forty yeurs of uge, married and residing In the Fergusou school district, Is disabled with blood poisoning affecting one of his hands. The hawk was killed. It measured four feet between wing tips. Damages for Being Called Traitor. St. Louis. John H. Boyer has been awarded $1 actual and $200 punitive damages from Gus V. K. Mechln, who tried to force Boyer to stand while The Star-Spangled Banner" was be ing played. Boyer testified that ho was called a traitor and assaulted. SKLLF.TOrvS OF STONt AUt Clones of Ea:ly People of Japsn Show They Were Six to Seven Foct in Height. Fifteen human skeletons were un earthed In the province of Knwachl, near Osaka. This is consider il ill birthplace of Japanese clvlllzatbsi. Of the relics of the Japanese stone age, discovered by Professor Okushl, nine of the skeletons were In perfect preser vation, all bones being Inlnct, Fast and West Mews snys. It rarely happens, according to scientific records. Unit so Ml) perfect skeletons ure discovered In one place. Among Indications that people of that period lived on uncooked food, is Ikf fact that upper and lower teeih are evenly worn down. Decayed teeih are not found. The bony structure of the skeletons are RlnSSive shin bones, in most eases, are somewhat ll: t. Some of those skeletons -land seven feet high; even shorter 00 gl are over six feet I Skeletons wire found In 11 lying position, with knee drawn up. With out doubt, these people belonged to the stone g( in Japan B0fl00 years ago. at least. While making the excavation, stone implements, earthenware and two cop per arrowheads were found. Two while Jade earrings were discovered which may be of Chinese origin, and of a much later period. It Is thought this find may establish a link- between the stone and bronze ages In prehistoric Japan. AttflWoJogfeta hold that It surely Indicates the early people of Japan had iBtCrOOIiree with other parts of Aslu. The earthenware patterns are not necessarily Ainu; the bones cannot possibly be those of Ainus. This discovery, revolui ionizes BrejJpO logical theories of prehistoric Japan. WHEN ONE IS STRICKEN DEAF Affliction Accompanied by Depression Strangely and Intensely Over powering, Says Writer. The Invariable depression thnt comes with the beginning of deafness Is strangely ami Intensely overpowering It exists Sometimes indefinitely. The word depression, as commonly used, admits of varied shades of meaning, writes Margaret Baldwin, In the At lantic. It all but carries with it a vague impression of lack of will-power, a more or less voluntary indifference to moral effect. But lei no one suppose that its use here indicates any mere dull, dispirited outlook on life, or any oilier voluntary mental view of one's self or one's future. There Is nothing voluntary about It. It is n feeling deeply physical us well as mental n mingled condition of woe ful sickness and sadness that beggars description. The distress and shock over what has happened to one and the first experience of what it is like. Is the Initial factor, Hut considering What It ought to be as compared with tiie shock of blindness, which, it seems to me, must be suiliclent to produce permanent Mackeal despair, the de pression of deafness is out of all pro portion. Marriage or a Career. A woman writer, herself married and twenty-three years of uge, states that u woman who expect:; to follow I an Intellectual life should murry young ' This is u sound view, for the woman who fully appraises the value of her ! intellectual life realizes thut the best yean of the mind nre those thut come ufter the nge of most efficient child , bearing. It is 11 very different view from that of the young women in pro- ' fessions which serve only to bridge the 1 few. brief yeurs between school days and murrlnge, und for Wham marriage closes for all time participation in the world's work outside of the home. Clearly we can never huve an intel lctuul emancipation in the world's work on 11 program thut would confine professional life to the remurrinpe ' days or make it incompatible with marriage. The first gives too brief a period und must subordinate wonuiu to Inferior clerleul Inbor, while the second would win intellectuality lit the sacrifice of normal life and confine participation in the world's affairs to a small und abnormal group of woman. Physical Culture. Dislikes of Hens. "Hens ure funny sorts of creatures," observes a poultry fancier. "They huve their likes und dislikes especlul ly dislikes. If you move a hen she turns crusty, nnd won't lny eggs. She likes her old homo, and takes 1111 ulinm Inuhle time to get used to the new. "If you wuve u stall within slglit of tilt occupants of your fowl run, you will hear u shocking row. This pur tlculnr noise Is known us the 'danger signal,' und sometimes will be Indulged in without u single break for as long as 20 minutes. "if you take It Into your head to re arrange the nest boxes, depend upon It Biddy will pay you out. She will miss thut duy with her usual egg. "Provided they are good, It's wisest to stick to old things in poultry-keeping, and not to shift them unless you are compelled to do so. At leust, there's one thing yuu can change, and that's the fodder. Hens won't object to 1 hat ut all ; lu fuet, they like it." Haughty Youngster. James was starting out with his mother and the new baby. The baby was put Into the cub which had for merly been used for James. Feeling that it belonged to him, he protested that he should rMe, but was told that he must let the baby have the cab. Ho stopped short and said, "Well, I'll call aUUiC T(rtrit&irttti&irCr(rCrCrCrCrtrCrrhr HELPFUL TRACTOR HINTS Oil nnd grease on a factor are cheaper than repairs plus time lost In obtaining them and get ting started again. ttOOkaag over all parts of the machine regularly is Just as Im portant as regular feeding and watering of horses. The wrong kind of lubricat ing oil wnstes power and fouls (very working part. (let In structions from the builders ns to kind nnd quantity of oil. Sharp plows call for less pow er from the engine to do good work, hence less cost to operate and longer life for the tractor. Lengthening of hitches between engine nnd plow will often elim inate a large part of side draft, which Is another way of reduc ing the cost of the work. WINTER PLOWING OF VALUE Importance of Opening Up Soil Not Generally Realized by Farmers and Gardeners. The Importance of opening up the soil of all land that was not put hito fall crops In time for it to get the full benefit of disintegrating frosts and enriching snows is not so generally realized by farmers and home gar deners as It should be. More particularly are these atmos pheric effects of value on elny und other stiff soils, and in the vegetable garden nnd the orchard the turning over and loosening of the earth ex poses the hibernating forms of many Insects to the shnrp eyes of birds, poultry and the smaller rodents, while those that are not eaten perish from the disturbance. While it is altogether better that this working of the ground should he done in the full, before the ground has frozen, it can also often be done during open spells from midwinter until March, with the subsequent freezes and snows to produce the good effects desired. Of course, this can not he done unless the warm spells are of sufficient duration to have the ground thoroughly settled, else the Job would he dltlicult uud unsatisfac tory. LEGUMES ARE MUCH FAVORED Come Nearer to Giving Something for Nothing Than Any Other Plants Add NitrogCn. I Alfalfa, clover, beans, peas and the : rest of this family produce the most i nutritious food and nt the same time j add more nitrogen to the soil than 1 they remove. Legumes come nearer to giving j something for nothing than any other ' plants. Yet there Is nothing mysteri ous about these plants. They have Turning Under Clover Crop. bacteria that live on their roots. Thesi bueterln In return for being given a home (nodules) on the plant roots and for food from the plant take nitrogen from the air und leave It in the soil for the plant's use. There ure millions of dollars' worth Of this nitrogen over each acre; so the bacteria huve un utmost endless sup ply to draw on. The way to tup this greut weulth Is to grow these plants thut huve these wonderful bucterla on their roots. These plains do not do well without the bucterlu. When nlfnlfu, clover, pens, lien ns or uny of the other of these legume plants ure sown on a piece of laud for the first time it 1h usually necessury to sow the bucterlu as well us the plant seed. In these days when plant food Is so Important the greatest possible use should be made of the legumes, the greatest food producers for man und beast. OATS IN FATTENING RATION Good Feed for Brood Sows and Crow ing Pigs, But Not So Useful in Finishing Hogs. Ground oats will be found a good feed for brood sows and growing pigs but not so useful as corn for fattening hogs. When mude a part of the fattening ration outs should not constitute more than one-third of it, and probably one-fourth would be better. The great hog fatteuer Is com, and nothing else on earth equals It for gains or quality of product. But corn Is most effective In making gains when balanced by some tankage or oats or middlings, and here the oats may he useful in the fattening proc PROFIT IN W00DL0TS Birj Increase in Income Can Be Made With Good Handling. Wr Condlticns Make It Important That Every Cord of Wood Be Util ised Cost Is Scarce snd Prices Are High. trty f. a. Mu.f.i:u. Dean, i.iaho school of Forestry. The Fnlted States census schedules of 191(1 called for the value In de tail of woodlot products sold from or used on farms In HUM. This sched ule Included firewood, fencing mate rials, logs, railroad ties, telegraph nnd telephone poles, materials, fnr barrels, hark, stove wood, or other forest prod ucts. With proper handling the Income from the farm woodlots can be tre mendously Increased, and no other class of forest land lends Itself quite so readllv (o forest management ns Well-Cared for Woodlot. the farm woodlot, since the necessary labor can for the most part be per formed In the winter, or nt other times when the farm work Is slack. War conditions make it especlnlly Important that the farm woodlot be utilized to the fullest nt this time in particular as a source of fuel. Coal is high and scarce and even govern ment intervention cannot insure an adequate supply throughout the win ter on account of Ingot and trans portation difficulties. Every cord of fuel wood that Is used will relieve the tension by Just that much, and every farmer who can do so will doublless find It to be to his advan tage to put in a good supply of cord wood for himself, and to sell to oth ers wherever possible. Many farmers owning woodlots within hauling dis tance of towns and cities ore now finding n profitable sale for cordwood In large quantities. EFFICIENT SCALY LEG CURE Insects Which Cause Trouble Can Be Killed by Application of Sulphur and Lard. Poultry kept In dirty houses often is troubled with coarse scales on the legs. These nre due to the presence of mites, which have burrowed be neath the scales. They are air breath ing Insects, and the treatment consists in depriving them of nlr. This Is done by applying a mixture of equal parts of sulphur nnd lard, two or three times. It Is a simple remedy, hut an efficient one. A free application of nn ointment made by mixing a tea spoonful of coal oil with a tencupful of lard, will bring relief, und should in a short time work u cure. WHY RAISE LIVE STOCK? Because the by-products of live stock are from year to year advancing in prices and promise to continue to In advance. Among Heap ure wool and hides. Because no permanent system of agriculture Is likely to be adopted If the furnier does not base thnt on the growing of live slock, in part. I' Is the lack of a permanent system that has led to the exhaustion of our soil, both us to Its plant food und us to Its humus. Because the raising of live stock enables the farmer to util ize his pastures, which, rightly handled, ure umoug the most profitable ucros on his furiu. GOOD MIXTURE FOR POULTRY Blue Ointment and Vaseline or Lard Rubbed on Fowls Will Keep Away External Parasites. Don't forget to dose the hens nnd chicks, after feathering, with an oint ment made of equal purts of blue ointment und vaseline or lurd cure fully mixed together. Bub this thor oughly onto the skin under each wing and slso a little below the vent of each bird, using a portion of the oint ment the site of a small grain of wheat for each of the three places, and half as much for a half-grown chick. Repeat once In two or three months. This Is a sure remedy for all kinds of external poultry parasites, ex cept mites.