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Mount Vernon signal. (Mt. Vernon, Ky.) 18??-current, June 15, 1906, Magazine Section, Image 8

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Did you ever see a rat or mouse Or
wild rabbit sick from what might
be termed natural causes Any
one who can contribute such an animal
to the Department of Agriculture may
unwittingly confer a benefit of mil
lions of dollars annually on this
country What the Department wants
is a fatal and contagious malady
which it Is working hard to get now
w but up to date the work is merely
promising there having been no satis
factory result to record So if any one
has a hutch of rabbits swept off by
7 a sudden and mysterious disease or
If he notices any swift and sudden
mortality among the rats and mice
in his locality that may be the very
thing the Department is looking for
One of the Pests of the West I
and one of the rodents should be forth
Wlth dispatched to Secretary Wilson
He will be glad to get it
Of course every one knows that the
gopher problem is a serious one in
many parts of the West and the rab
bit pest has at times threatened to
devastate Australia and even Cali
fornia Altogether the small animals
do a great amount of damage but
most people do not realize what its
aggregate really is Yet in one COUL
ty of the state of Washington last
yV year field mice destroyed at least
3 half a million dollars worth of prop
erty while in the same time wolves
In Wyoming alone mulcted the stock
men of 1000000 worth of cattle
While the damage from field mice and
similar little varmints throughout
the United States especially in the
West and South amounted to many
To cope with these pests is 4J il of
the most interesting task of the I
biological survey of the Dci irtment of I
Agriculture It has hen working in
a quiet way for several years and has
about come to the collusion that al
though it is possibly to trap poison
and otherwise reduce the pests in
many instances the thing that is
really needed is a contagious disease
that can be bottled up in the labor
atory and distributed to do its own
Work on an infinitely more effective
scale than can traps and poisons
That there is some such disease or
that one can be produced the scien
tists of the department do not doubt
The trouble up to date has been
to find it The biological survey is
working in conjunction with the
bureau of animal industry Some
promising leads have been struck but
none of them have turned out to be
just what was wanted For instance
while they are working with one dis
ease now that is fatal to a certain
breed of field mice it will not touch
Others and the rats laugh at it in
conscious immunity Also there are
plenty of contagious animal diseases
that could be turned loose on the rats
ground squirrels and rabbits but as
they would kill a horse just as quickly
as they would a rat they are not
Some years back the survey lost
just the chance it has been looking
for Ernest Thompson Seton was p
In Canada where there was a pest of
rabbits and noticed that they were
rapidly dying out Some mysterious
disease was carrying them off and it
was not long before the country was
almost cleared of them He realized
that this disease might prove valuable
and managed to catch some sick rab
bits Which he shipped to a laboratory
in New York but the problem was not
just In the biologists line and he did
not realize the immense importance
of it so the secret was not grasped
Now the biological survey is looking
out for similar occurrences and if the
opportunity offers will make the most
Of them
i themThere is a field mouse disease that
IB harmless to domestic animals and
the survey is trying hard to make it
virulent enough to do business with
tome of the larger pests It promises
Well but the scientists have had too
many disappointments to be bragging
In advance They are however act
ually trying to reinforce the disease
and make it worse than it has proved
up to date This is getting pretty deep
Into the network of germology and
buItoxic science It means really breed
ing up disease germs on somewhat the
same plan that plants and animals are
now bred by the department But
P there is a hope that they may be able
to do something with it Anyhow
they are trying
there has been a number of reports
from abroad of the wonderful things
foreign bacteriologists have succeeded
IB doing in the line of contagious dis
eases for small animal pests but
though cultures have been bought
abroad and tried faithfully here no
results have ever been obtained Some
Sf the germs have proved fatal to the
ll tmals that ate them but the same
Is true of anysort ol fiQlQn that can
Efforts of the Government to Start a Plague Among Destructive Varmints
Ibe bought by the pound and spread
on bread The contagious quality
has not developed yet in any of the
foreign cultures tried
The biological survey has been able
to do a good deal in a practical way
with the rabbit pest Some time ago
the forest service set up a howl of in
dignation It had planted some hun
dred thousand young trees nursery
stock In one of the California forest
reserves and the rabbits ate them
up in about a week Then it seeded
several hundred acres with white pine
to restore the land after a fire and
the rabbits cheerfully set to work dug
up all the seeds and ate them But I
the biologists were loaded for rabbit
so to speak and they furnished the
forest people with a harmless wash
to soak their pine nuts in before plant
ing and with a cheap dip for the
nursery stock which a selfrespecting
rabbit will no more nibble than will
an ordinary human being smell auto
mobile odor for a perfume
In this the biologists confessedly
took a leaf out of the book of the
Piute and other desertdwelling In
dians The Piutes have been caching
food supplies of pine and pinion nuts
in the desert for hundreds of years
and they found that the rabbits the
ground squirrels and prairie dogs
wopld clean out their cache But
t py found by experience that there
rns a little desert weed that the
cAound animals disliked excessively J
lad that anything dipped in a tea i
steeped from the bark of the weed was
rabbitproof for a long time thereafter
So the rabbits were checkmated on i
that play and the forest officers have
no more trouble from that quarter
But it is the very presence of the
forest reserves that has bred the
present plague of timber wolves in
the West Xo hunting is allowed in
the reserves and they form nurseries
for game of all sorts But it seems
that they breed wolves quite as fast
as they breed anything else of which
fact the cattle raisers have been made
painfully aware
In the days of the buffalo on the
plains thousands of wolves lived on
the herds When the buffalo were
killed off the wolves disappeared also
till there was not one where there used
to be a thousand Then the cattle
men began to stock the ranges and
the wolves found conditions much the I
same as in the buffalo days They
promptly multiplied and increased till
they are now doing an immense
amount of damage aided largely by
their asylum in the forest reserves
The biological survey has sent out
Mr Vernon Bailey one of its best
men to study the wolf problem and
he has been skeeing and snowshoeing
through Wyoming and Montana while
the snow was on the ground and the
wolves were particularly easy to track
and study He has not done any
shooting but is trying the effects of
poisons and traps But the wolves are
about as cunning as foxes and after
you have trapped and poisoned a few
in a given district the rest grow wary
feeding the fowls and the facility
with zero weather during the winter
months Protection from rain damp
and vermin is the most necessary ad
junct to a properly constructed poultry
house when the poultry can not run
at large and range over the land
There is no month in the year in which
they can not find more or less animal
and vegetable life for food upon the
range This 12 months of food supply
reduces the expense very materially in
and the poisons and traps are rele
gated to seat 23 The wolves rele1
crafty that they will not swallow a
piece of meat without mouthing itI
and if they get the bitter taste of
strychnine or arsenic they drop It and
look for something else to eat
Whether or not the survey will be able
to kill them off with some contagious
disease is a question but they are
rapidly becoming as great a pest and
far more dangerous than the smaller
varmintSt e
c va
Egg Farms of California
Many years ago I assisted a friend
in the loading of a car of poultry for
California This car was shipped from
Central Ohio and the fowls contained
therein were very well selected from
flocks of desirable varieties The
owner of this car crossed the conti
nent in care of his birds and settled in
Central California Reports from
there a few years later told a direful
story of the impossibility of success
in poultrygrowing in California
It is unnecessary to relate the many
troubles experienced except to say
that the amateur in poultry at that
time imagined that the birds would
live and prosper in the California cli
mate without proper shelter within
houses during the cold damp weather
A close study of these conditions
has entirely eliminated all these mis
takes and today there is no place
in the United States where there is an
enthusiasm equal to that found
throughout California with reference
to this industry
The construction of proper houses
the selecting of proper breeds and the
proper caring for them has built up an
enormous egg business through that
section of the country
In the neighborhood of Petaluma
more Leghorn fowls are probably kept
for producing the whiteshelled eggs
for the California city markets than
can be found within the same number
of miles in any other place in the
world One enthusiastic visitor to that
locality has made the statement that
every acre in the fifty thousand acres
The climate of Southern California
the beauties of the scenery the pleas
ure of fruit cultivation and the profit
able growing of poultry have attracted
many hundreds to that section to em
bark in these pursuits under pleasant
A Mr Brownlow who purchased a
few acres of ground in that locality
ten years ago has built up for himself
with the assistance of his wife and
children a most profitable combination
of poultry fruit bees and squabs all
of which thrive continually under the
softer climates of that locality ena
bling these people to produce broilers
every month with a minimum amount
of care and attention the fruit and
bees being a remarkable source of
profit during the greater part of the
The buildings used for poultry in
these localities need not be so expen
sive In construction as is necessary in
that portion of the country visited
with which squab breeders can fl p
their birds at large continually add
vigor and strength to the breedin br
stock which naturally assists in thE
quick growth and size obtained in th e
The quotation of eggs dressec
poultry and squabs In the CalifornI
market while not the equal of thE
New York and Boston markets wll
grade well in vane with the averag
markets of our larger Inland cities
the expense of liying as to fool
and other necessities is not so
high as in the colder parts of
the country as much of it is
usually produced near at hand All
of these things combine to make the
regions of Southern California most
attractive to poultry growers who may
be seeking a softer climate to lessen
the aggravation which the rigors of
winter heap upon some member of
the family Many have gone there
seeking a place merely to benefit their
health and have been much Improved
by so doing but they have also been
able to make a living for themselves
and their families through the com
bination above described
All do not succeed This can not be
in any following of life Those who
do succeed usually have more or less
experience in the business before they
embark upon it The failures come
to the inexperienced and those who
are unable to contend with the diffi
culties always confronting one in the
upbuilding of a new home in any lo j
What are known in the San Fran
cisco market as range eggs the Nc 7f
York market designates as freshlaid
eggs Ranch eggs of California are
the freshlaid eggs that are brought
direct to the market and sold as such
During November and December last
this quality of eggs sold in the mar
kets of San Francisco as high as fifty
one cents a dozen and as low as thirty
cents influenced no doubt by the sip
ply and demand governing this pro
duct in every locality
Eggs sold in Chicago during the
year of 1905 as low as fifteen cents
In San Francisco the lowest price
quoted for the year was fourteen
cents When the lesser expense of
caring for them is cjnsidered the ad
vantages or profit from poultry grow
ing should be fully equal to if not bet
ter than would be the same pursuit in
Successful Kansas Farmer Who Has
Kept Trace of Receipts and Ex
penditures for Twenty Years
the Kansas City Journal of the suc
cess of A L Holljnger a welltodo
Kansas farmer who opened a set of
books when he began farming twenty
years ago and who has kept his ac
counts as accurately as a bank does
its The other day he struck a trial
balance and found himself 50OPO to
the good He has now retired from
the farm and will make a tour of
The compilation of his long record
beginning with 18SG shows the total
figures given as follows He has
raised 5205 acres of wheat a yearly
average of over 263 acres and on
that area has raised 98791 bushels or
an average per acre for twenty years
of 18 bushels During all the two
decades henever hadan entire failure of
wheat although an average of 112
bushels an acre in 1895 came very near
to it
His corn record Is equally Interest
ing He has raised 2846 acre ef
corn a yearly average of 142 acres
The total number of bushels was 72
672 or an average per acre for twenty
years of 25M1 bushels ffiho corn
made two entire failures one in 1895
and one in 1901 In 1895 it was very
near a failure only 3 bushels per
acre Less attention was paid to oats
and only 679 acres were raised This
averaged for the twenty years 25
bushels per acre In all these figures
the number of acres sown is given and
the number of bushels harvested
During the twenty years said Mr
Hollinger I have aimed to carry
enough cattle to use up the rough
ness and the corn raised on the farm
usually from 100 to 400 head Of late
years I have paid more attention to
cattle and alfalfa and have found
that it was a far more reliable com
bination than purely grain farming in
which I was chiefly engaged in the
earlier time of my experience There
is no question but that any intelligent
farmer can make a competency and
support his family in abundant com
fort in central Kansas I have done
no more than any of my neighbors did
or might have done Each yerr the
same income approximately can be se
cured if the work is carefully planned
and such crops are raised as areadapted
to Kansas soil and Kansas climate
As an example of Mr Hollingers
stock raising it may be mentioned that
he came to Kansas City recently with
9500 worth of stock which he sold
off his farm He has lived on the
same place for thirtythree years and
is not leaving Kansas because he is
entirely satisfied with his wealth but
because he wants to give his family
a broader education and to secure
recreation for himself I think I
have enough to keep me from want
he said and I am entitled to get some
thing more out of life than I have
heretofore done
Representative Bede of Minnesota
Tells the President About Big
Game Hunting in Duluth
How it happened that the war cor
respondents at Washington found out
about J Adam Bedes conference on
bears with President Roosevelt does
not appear However a full report of
the Minnesota Congressmans tales
has been made and was made public
in the New York Evening Post It
makes an alluring document Mr Bede
who is the acknowledged wit of the
House sought the President with the
friendliest intention You like to
shoot bears said Jadam diplo
matically Mr Roosevelt admitted it
But you dont have to go into the
wild West for your sport went on the
Minnesota statesman Think of this
fact thirteen bears were shot in the
streets of Duluth last yearin Du
luth the pride of the Northwest that
beautiful city on the great unsalted
sea The statement had a perceptible
effect on the President and Mr Bede
was encouraged to go on Its the
only place in the whole world Mr
President where you can go bear
hunting by trolley car under the elec
tric light and on asphalt pavements
We have all the conveniences so dear
to the heart of the true sportsman
and without leaving your hunting
ground you can walk across the street
to the mail box and drop in a postal
card to your friends telling them all
about the game you have bagged
With the Congressman was a Duluth
constituent a lady with firsthand
knowledge of bear hunting in that
city She added her corroborative
statement Oh yes Mr President a
short time ago a friend of mine heard
a noise outside his window and on
looking out saw that it was a bear try
ing to climb a telegraph pole He shot
that fellow without leaving his bed
room Then to the joy of the Prealt
dent Mr Bede took up the tale Why
bears are common things with us up
in Minnesota Mr President Last year
five bears held up one of our trolley
cars They were two old ones and
three cubs This occured right in the
streets of Duluth The big fellow got
in front of the car and put his paws
on the dashboard driving the motor
man off while mamma and the cubs
went around after the conductor After
they had had enough of this sport they
raised the siege and trotted off toward
the outskirts of the city Oh no we
dont let the bears trouble us much
When they get too bothersome we turn
them over to the police who drive
them out of town but its a great bear
country up there and Im sure you
would like to see a bit of it Now if
it is announced that President Roose
velt means to take a vacation up In
the Minnesota woods the correspond
ents may go straight to Duluth where
as Mr Bede is a true prophet the
great bear slayer may be found sitting
in the door of an uptodate hotel a
rifle across his knees waiting for the
promised sport
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SELF FILLING Blofll Fountain Pen The
best and most simple self filling Fountain Pen made
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< price 200 For sale at any Stationer Dept Store or
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25 VISITING CARDS IOc Your name neatly
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I B L OConnor Mfg Co i27 BNY1
We will gladly send you as a present one of our Beautiful Dinner Sets guaranteed
tall size for family use highgrade porcelain no cheap imitation floral design chaSte
and pretty with edges traced In gold the kind that Is all the rage In fashionable New
York If you will help us Introduce our Standard Baking Powder Teas Coffees Spices
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have been tried and tested by experts and give satisfaction We want your Influence and
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can easily prove this io you If you will drop us a line just a postal card it you like so
that we can send you a full description of our plans and many other really valuable
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you should not completely furnish your house or clothe ourself without ft cent 61
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Thats the clad of people we arc
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argalna and snaps for our customers We take advantage of the financial difficulties of others and
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Od Joa
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TMe CUA ELL CQaIlrrWutranar5toerI Et 124th Si MiwYirk City
Seeking as we always do to
give our readers the best of every
thing we are about to offer you in
serial form the unusual and ab
sorbing stcry entitled
by no less great an author than
Sir A Conan Doyle who for the
past twenty years has been one of
the most widely read of modern
writers His latest efforts The
Adventures of Sherlock Holmes
have been published and read
throughout Europe and America
In fact no writer of late years
has received more popular at
tention or merited more praise
than this gifted Englishman His
style is most pleasing and his im
aginative power far above the
We have secured from Sir
Conan Doyles American publish
ers the right to this novel and it
is with great pleasure that we are
able to announce its early appear
ance in the Magazine Section
Be sure to get the initial chapters a
as it is a stirring tale that withhold
your interest from first to last

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