Newspaper Page Text
THE CHANGE IN TIME.
The New Time Adopted by Most of the
ISailroads of the Country at Noon on
November 18 Only Five Instead of (as
3Tormerly) Fifty-three Kinds of Time
The Arrangement in Divisions The
Difference Calculated for Many Cities.
We are indebted to the courtesy of
the Chicago Tribune for the map given
fields explaining the standard time
which has been adopted by the railroads
of the North American Continent. In
connection with the map the Tribune
also published the table given below,
ehowing the difference between the new
time and the local or solar time of the
leading cities of the country.
A change in time, says the Tribune,
somewhat similar to that which is now
effected in America, was brought about
in England as long ago as January 13,
1848, and a reform could no longer be
delayed in this country owing to the
complications arising under the old
dispensation. It may not be generally
known that the railroads of this country
have been conducted of late years under
fifty-three different kinds of time,
the difference between the times being
very slight in some instances, but
enough to make people miss trains
w )i21 BV-d$&v ill
- tar y r.S$ A.VXO rvlX I
P-W a J
repeatedly, besides causing other inconvenience.
FIVE GRAND DIVISIONS.
The fifty-three kinds of time were
represented on the old railroad map?
by an elaborate system of colors which
would confuse an ordinary observer.
Under the new system there are five
divisions of time on the North American
Continent: Intercolonial, embracing
Nova Scotia and New Brunswick;
Eastern, taking in the New England
States, New York, Pennsylvania and
the States south of Pennsylvania; Central,
including Illinois, Ohio, Indiana,
Missouri and the States north and south
of them; Mountain, comprising the
roads west of the Missouri River in the
mountains; and Pacific, taking in the
line on the Pacific coast.
THE FIVE COLORS.
' The five colors can not be given in
the map presented above, but the divisions
are marked by shades, and the
change will be comprehended at a glance
when these facts are recalled. The
time in which the earth revolves upon
its axis is divided into twenty-four equal
parts, termed hours, and for convenience
in measuring distances the
distance around the earth from East
to West is divided into 360 parts,
called degrees of longitude. The
surface of the earth, therefore, travels
as many degrees in one hour as twenty-four
is contained times in 360, or fifteen.
From this it is seen that there is
a difference of one hour actual time
between each succeeding fifteen degrees
of longitude around the earth,
faster East and slower going
FIFTEEN DEGREES AN HOUR.
The railroad officials of the Continent
decided to adopt as their standard of
regulation the time of the Greenwich
Observatory, London, England, and as
the longitude in which their roads were
situated was so many times fifteen degrees
westward from Greenwich, they
made their standard of time that many
hours slower than Greenwich time.
Hence the COth degree of longitude is
four hours slower than Greenwich time;
the 75th, five hours slower; the 90th,
ix hours; the 105th, seven hours; and
the 120th, eight hours thus making
five different standards between the
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. These five
standards are shown on the map in the
order just mentioned, viz.:
Eastern, Central, Mountain and Pacific
The 90th meridian, on which Central
time is based, is nine minutes slower
than Chicago solar time. The 75th
meridian, which gives Eastern time, is
one hour faster than Central time, or
four minutes slower than New York
City solar time. Inter-colonial time,
being based upon the 60th meridian is
two hours faster than the Central time.
Mountain time, which is based upon the
105th meridian, is one hour slower than
Central time. Pacific time, based upon
the 120th meridian, is two hours slower
than Central time.
The several meridians are indicated
upon the map, as well as the territory
included in the different divisions. The
irregularity in the boundaries is caused
by the various roads wishing to adopt
as their standard the time of the meridian
nearest to which the greater number
of their lines are situated.
VALUE OP THE TABLE.
It may be stated that many of the
towns in Illinois and Iowa are run on
Chicago time, which the railroads running
from this city introduced. The
tabfes herewith printed show the difference
between the solar time of those
towns and the standard time. This explanation
may prevent the towns in
question from confounding the Chicago
time, which they now use, with their
THE ORIGINAL SUGGESTIONS.
The country is indebted to two citizens
of New York for the original suggestions
leading up to this important
innovation. The idea occurred to Prof.
Cleveland Abbe, of the Signal Bureau
at Washington, and his plans were elaborated
by Dr. F. A. P. Barnard, of Columbia
College. Prof. Abbe proposed
his plan as early as 1878, at a meeting
of the American Meteorological Society.
It is unnecessary to review the many
discarded suggestions made from time
to time in regard to time-standards.
Suffice it to say that thev were all found
to be too sweeping and revolutionary.
The scheme which is now adopted has
received the emphatic approval of a
number of scientific associatidns, among
them the American Meteorological Society,
the American Geographical Society,
the Canadian Institute, the International
Geographical Congress at Venice,
and the Imperial Academy of Sciences
at St. Petersburg.
2lf. S. time.
14 20 faster than Halifax, N. S.
31 4S fuster than St. Johns, N. F. " ,
24 14 i'aster.than St Johns, N. B.
18 51H slower than Portland, Me.
15 46 slower than Boston, Mass.
14 4 slower than Concord. N. H. .
9 40 slower than Montpelier, Vt. . '
14 24 slower than Providence, R, I.
14 43 1-5 slower than Newport. R, 1.
917 slower than Hartford. Conn.
8 14 slowor than New Haven, Conn. ,
15 5 slower than Quebec, Can.
5 44 slower than Montreal, Can.
2 40 taster than Ottawa, Can.
17 2m faster than Toronto, Can. ,,
3 59 slower than New York City, N. T.
5 52 slower than Albany, N. Y,
15 40 faster than Buffalo, N. l.
u i aiunvi iu" -
0 40 faster than Philadelphia, Pa.
'7-20 faster than Harrisburg-, Pa.
20 10 8-15 faster than Pittsburgh, Pa.
2 8 faster than Dover, Del. "-
6 28 faster than Baltimore, Md.
8 1 1-5 faster than Washington. D. C,
9 50 faster than Richmond, Ya.
22 43 faster than Wheeling, W. Va. .
li 40 faster than Balelgh, N. C.
19 48 faster than Charleston, S. C.
9 30 slower than Chicago, HI.
1 28 slower than Springfield, HL
0 44 slower than Aurora, I1L
7 44 slower than Joliet, 111. .
8 44 slower than Waukegan, HI.
C 56 slower than Elgin. 111.
3 40 slower than Kockford, HI.
1 38 slower than Freeport, 111. " .
1 40 faster than Galena, 111. l
O 4 slower than Dixon, HI. ': ; rC.f
3 32 slower than Mend ota, HI.
2 12 slower than Princeton, 111.
2 16 faster than Hock Island, I1L ' 5
2 32 faster than Galesburg, 111.
5 32 faster than Quincy, HI.
o 44 faster than Macomb, 111.
4 40 slower than Streator, 111.
1 i& slower than Peoria, 111.
0 EC U T 1 -n. n ,r"
w xuatci luuu JUUKSUUVllie, XIU i e
3 az slower than Blooraington, 111.
5 24 s'ower than Pontiac, 111.
7 8 slower than Urbana. HI.
2 28 slower than Lincoln, 111.
4 8 slower than Decatur, 111.
9 28 stower than Danville, 111.
3 32 slower than Vandalia, 111.
3 20 slower than Cairo, 111.
27 48 slower than Detroit, Mich.
24 16 slower than Saginaw, Mich.
30 16 slower than Port Huron, Mich.
24 48 slower than Flint, Mich.
17 20 slower than Grand Rapids, Mich
15 8 slower than Grand Haven, Mich,
21 48 slower than Lansing, Mich.
26 48 slower than Pontiac, Mich.
4 slower than Ann Arbor. Mich.
20 slower than Jackson, Mich.
21 24 slower than Hillsdale, Mich.
20 6 slower than Marshal, Mich.
19 8 slower than Battle Creek, Mich.
17 40 slower than Kalamazoo, Mich.
14 6 slower than Niles, Mich.
23 56 slower than Adrian, Mich.
19 52 slowor than Coldwater, Mich.
25 28 slower than Ypsilanti, Mich.
15 4 slower than Muskegon, Mich.
14 16 slower than Pentwater. Mich.
14 40 slower than Manistee, Mich.
21 32 slower than Mackinac, Mich.
11 40 slower than Escanaba, Mich.
15 0 slower than Manistique, Mich.
10 20 slower than Marquette, Mich.
2 44 slower than Ontonagon, Mich.
G 48 slower than Eagle River, Mich.
8 24 slower than Milwaukee, Wis.
8 51 slower than Racine, Wis.
5 58 slower than Oskosh, Wis.
"6 20 slower than Fond du Lac. Wis.
9 24 slower than Manitowoc, Wis.
6 16 slower than Menasha, Wis.
7 52 slower than Green Bay, Wis.
1 52 slower than Stevens Point, Wis. "?
1 24 slower than Wausau. Wis.
3 32 faster than Ashland, Wis.
9 12 slower than Sheboygan, Wis.
6 8 slfllfcer than Oconoinpwoc, Wis.
6 16 slower than Geneva 'Lake, Wis.
3 58 slower than Janesville, Wis.
4 56 faster than La Crosse, Wis.
5 52 faster than Eau Claire. Wis.
3 54 slower than Beloit, Wis.
6 44 slower than WaukeMia. Wis. '
8 44 slowerthan Kenosha, Wis.
9 20 slower than Menomonee, Wis.
8 8 slower than Oconto, Wis.
3 16 faster than Black River Falls, Wis.
8 12 faster than Superior City, Wis.
6 28 slower than Appleton, Wis.
4 32 faster than Prairie dn Chien, Wis.
1 8 slower than Baraboo, Wis.
5 21 faster than Chippewa Falls, .Wis.
10 52 faster than Hudson, Wis. v
3 4S slowor than Waupaca, Wis.
4 20 slower than Dartt'ord, Wis,
4 24 slower than Borlin, Wis.
6 12 slower than Neenah, Wis.
4 48 slower than Ripon, Wis.
5 4 slower than Watertown, Wis.
5 8 slower than Waupun, Wis.
5 4S slower than Depere, Wis.
2 32 slowerthan Madison, Wis.
12 28 slowor than Crawfordsville, Ind.
16 4 slower than Elkhartjfnd.
9 44 s.ower than Evausvwe. ina.
19 24 slower than Fort Wayne, Ind.
16 40 slower than Goshen, Ind.
12 32 slower than Grcencastle, Ind.
15 28 slower than Indianapolis, Ind.
17 4 slower than Jeffersonville, Ind.
12 24 slower than Lafayette, Ind.
15 2S slower than Kokomo, Ind.
14 28 slower than Logansport, Ind.
18 24 slower than Madison, Ind.
12 2S slower than Michigan City, Ind.
18 24 slower than Muncie, Ind.
16 36 slower than New Albany, Ind.
14 44 Blower than Plymouth, Ind.
15 40 slower than T'eru, Ind.
9 40 slower than Princeton, Ind.
0 24 slowor than Richmond, Ind.
16 20 slower than Seymour, Ind.
10 24 siower than Terro Haute, Ind.
11 48 slower than Valparaiso, Ind.
11 20 slowerthan Washington, Ind.
13 24 faster than Albert Lea, Minn.
13 24 faster than Anoka, Minn: ' --'
11 40 faster than Austin, Minn. ; ' r
8 10 faster than Du.uth, Minn. n- Ll I
58 faster than Faribault, Minn.
12 faster than Hastings, Minn.
4 1 aster than Lake City, Minn.
48 taster than Mankato, Minn.
u lastor than Minneapolis. Minn. .
0 faster than Red Wing, Minn.
44 faster than Rochester, Minn.
4 faster than Stillwater. Minn. '
8 faster than St. Paul, Minn.
28 faster than Winona, Minn.
28 faster than Yankton, D. T.
32 faster than Fort Gary, Man.
38 faster than Dubuque, la.
16 faster than Des Moines, la. 'V
24 faster than Burlington, la.
32 faster than Keokuk, la.
20 faster than Council Bluffs, la,
40 faster than Mason City. la.
32 faster than Ottumwa, la.
38 faster than Cedar Rapids, la.
12 faster than Waterloo, la.
32 faster than Marshalltown, la,
4 faster than Iowa City, la.
18 faster than Davenport, la,
32 faster Sioux City, fa.
2 slower than Cleveland, O.
54 slower than Columbus, O.
48 slower than Cincinnati, O.
48 slower than Toledo, O.
36 slower than Frankfort, Ky.
56 slower than Louisville, Ky.
48 slower than Lexington. Ky.
48 slower than Nashville, Tenn.
20 slower than Knoxville, Tenn. .
0 slower than Chattanooga, Tenn.
The same as Memphis, Tenn.
40 slower than Savannah, Ga.
0 slower than Atlanta, Ga.
48 slower than Tallahassee, Fla.
40 slower than St. Augustine. Fla.
52 slower than Montgomery, Ala.
44 slower than Mobile, Ala.
40 faster than Omaha, Neb.
44 faster than Lincoln, Neb.
0 faster than Jackson, Miss.
8 faster th an Vicksburjr. Miss.
16 faster than Natchez, Miss.
8 faster than New Orleans, La.
28 faster than Baton Rouge, La.
8 faster than Austin, Tox.
52 'Taster than San Antonio. Tex.
12 faster than Galveston, Tex.
36 faster than Talequah, Ind. Ter.
44 faster than Little Rock, Ark.
0 faster than St. Louis, Mo.
40 faster than Jefferson City, Mo.
28 faster than Kansas City, Mo.
19 24 faster than St. Joseph, Mo.
19 44 faster than Leavenworth, Kan.
21 44 faster than Topeka, Kan.
20 40 faster than (Atchison?) Kan.
MOUNTAIN TIME. '?
5 4 slower than Beadwood, D. T.
16 56 slower than Bismarck, D. T.
22 59M faster than Fort Benton, M.T.
27 46 faster than Virginia Citv. M. T.
1 12 slower than Cheyenne. W. T.
27 36 faster than Salt Lake City, Utah.
0 2 7-15 slower than Denver, Col.
5 4 faster than Leadville, Col. .
4 40 faster than Santa Fe, N. M.
23 40 faster than Tucson, A. T.
23 44 faster than Prescott, A. T.
1 2 13-15 slower than Chihuahua, Mex.
20 52 faster than Guaymas, Mex.
12 0 faster than Olympia, W. T.
9 50 faster than Portland, Ore.
14 40 slower than Boise City, Idaho.
1 40 slowerthan Virginia City, Nev.
9 37 faster than San Francisco. Cal.
55 44 faster than Sacramento, Cal.
AN AJICHITECTUKAL TRIUMPH.
The Great Bridg.e Over the Niagara Rivet
LocKroivr, N. Y., Kov. 19. By Monday J
or luesday next one or the greatest engineering
feats of modern times, the first
bridge ever built in America,
will have spanned the great chasm, five
hundred feet wide, of the Niagara Kiver
at Suspension bridge. The last section
of this massive work which will be
placed in position there will be the keystone
of the arch, and will of necessity be
fitted to a hair to the exact dimensions of
the space to be filled. The last pieces are
now awaiting the finishing strokes at the
Central Bridge Works at Buifalo. These
pieces are expected at the bridge Monday,
and if they arrive in time will be put in
place Tuesday, November 20. There is some
work to be done after the crossing is complete,
but there is no doubt that the bridge
will be ready for the passage of trains of
cars by December 10. The bridge lias been
built in a shorter time than any work of its
kind ever was before. The first work was
commenced April 20, so that in just seven
months from the commencement it will be
substantially completed. The Niagara
has heretofore boasted that it had the
first railway suspension-bridge; it can
now boast also of having the first
bridge, which is just the opposite of
a suspension bridge in its design and structure.
There are other bridges
being built, but this will be the first one
completed. The bridge approaches will not
be done as soon as the bridae itself, but all
will be ready for the tracks by December
10, and the Canada Southern and New York
Central Boads will then have their own
bridge over the Niagara.
An Ant's Brain.
Well may Darwin speak of the brain
of an ant as one of the most wondrous
particles of matter in the world. We
are apt to think that it is impossible for
so m'.nute a piece of matter to possess
the necessary complexity required for
the discharge of such elaborate functions.
The microscope will no doubt
show some details in the ant's brain,
but these fall hopelessly short of revealing
the refinement which the ant's brain
must really have. The microscope is
not adequate to show us the texture of
matter. If has been one of the great
discoveries of modern times to enable as
to form some numerical estimate of the
exquisite delicacy of the fabric which
we know as inert matter. Water or air
or iron may be divided and subdivided,
but the process can not be carried on
indefinitely. There is a well-defined
limit. We are even able to make some
approximation to the number of molecules
in a given mass of matter. Sir
W. Thompson has estimated that the
number of atoms in a cubic inch of air
is to be expressed by the figure three,
followed by no fewer than twenty
ciphers. The brain of the ant doubtless
contains more atoms than an equal
volume of air; but even if we suppose
them to be the same, and if we take the
size of an ant's bra'n to be a little globe
one-thousandth of an inch in diameter,
we are able to form some estimate of
the number of atoms it must contain.
The number is to be expressed by writing
down six, and following it by eleven
ciphers. We can imagine these atoms
grouped in so manv various ways that
even the complicity of the ant's brain
may be intelligible when we have so
many imits to deal with. An illustration
will perhaps make the argument
clearer: Take a million and a half of
little black marks, put them in a certain
order, and we have a wondrous result
Darwin's "Descent of Man." This
book merely consists of about 1,500,000
letters, placed one after the other in a
certain order. Whatever be the complexity
of the ant's brain, it is still hard
to believe that it could not be fully described
in 400,000 volumes, each as
large as Darwin's work. Yet the number
of molecules in the ant's brain is at
lerst 400,000 times as great as the number
of letters in the memorable volume
in question. Longman'' s Magazine.
Newbern, Tenn., has a law that imposes
a fine of not less than twenty-five
dollars nor moro than fifty dollars on
'any person who goes' into a saloon on
The Luck, of the Caul.
BEITH CAUL street. FOR BALE Apply
Advertisements similar .to the above
appear from time to time in newspapers
in this and other cities. There is
evidently a ready response, for such
announcements are seldom repeated
A caul is a little membrane found on
some children encompassing the head
when born. This is considered a jrood
omen to the infant, and the vulgar
opinion is that whoever dbtains the
caul by purchase will be .fortunate and
escape dangers. The origin of the
superstition is lost in antiquity, and it
is current amonff all nations. St.
Chrysostom inveighs against it in the
early homilies of the Church, and in
Arabian and Athenian classics mention
is made in several instances of persons
born with a "coif," or skin hood.
'.'Have you sold that caul?" the author
of the above advertisement was asked
"You bet I have. A seafaring gent
bought it at a quarter past, eight this
morning, half an hour after I purchased
the paper with the ad. in."
The speaker was the keeper of a
general shop for sailors' stores near
the South-street Wharf.
"How much did you get for it?"
asked the reporter.
"Ten dollars, and cheap it went.
Why, I've hatl twenty-five dollars for
them. I let this one go cheap because
I got it at no expense to myself. I
bought a trunk at an auction up town
on the chance of what it contained. I
gave a 'V for it. When I opened it I
found a lot of women's underwear,
three heavy silver spoons, a stuff gown,
nearly new, and a tin box. I opened
the tin box and in it I found that caul I
sold this morning wrapped round a
large chestnut. Here's the chestnut.
I tried to sell it to a Captain
this -the same bloke
what bought the caul but he didn't see
it. If you want it you can have it for one
dollar. It ought to bring plenty of luck,
having kept company with the caul for
so long. Don't want it, eh?" All
right; I'll find a customer."
"Do you sell many cauls?"
"Not as many as I should like. The
supply ain't over and above large."
. "How do you get them?"
"Well, I was born in one myself.
My mother kept it for thirty years, and
when the old lady died I thought I'd
sell it. It had never brought me any
particular luck, as I could see. I got
eight dollars for it. It was a bit torn.
There must have been something the
matter with that caul, anyhow, 'cause
the man what bought it, mate of a
vessel in the tea trado sailing from New
York to Hong Kong, fell off the -mainmast
and broke his skull by hitting it
hard on the deck the very next voyage
"Well, he was not drowned."
"No, he weren't drowned. I guess
that was his darned luck. Though if
I'm to break my neck just to show the
value of a caul, I don't want it. But
you was asking me where I got the
goods. Doctors, as a rule, sell them
to me, and the mothers. 'Occasionally
the original owners brings them to me
themselves, when they are growed up.
But doctors is the chief source; physicians
attached to lying in hospitals and
them as has a practice among the very
poor classes, what don't know the value
of a caul. The doctor slips them in his
pockets and I gets them."
"Do you pay much for them?"
"Well, that's telling. However. I
will tell you this about it. There is a
comfortable profit in selling them; but,
as you seem a decent sort of a chap,
you shall hsxe the next one T comes
across forgTdollars. and I'll throw in
the chestnut' we was just a-looking at
See here, now. Cauls brings luck any
how, no matter what your business or
profession happens to be. Say you're a
lawyer. In comes the fees. But, by
the cut of your jib, I should say you're
a mininster. Nothing like a caul in the
church, so they tells me. Why, there's
a Methodist preacher, not five squares
away, who bought a caul of me for a
V and the free christening of my wife's
latest, and that chap has had all the
marriages and the funerals in the
neighborhood ever since. Why, he's
piling up the dollars thick and is growing
quite high-toned. Would you like
a bit of a caul ?"
"A piece of a caul? Why, what use
would that be?"
"Use!" Well, I should blossom. A
piece of a caul is almost as valuable
as the whole article House will
never burn down when a bit of a
caul is in it. The person carrying it
will never get drowned, suffer from
tooth-ache or rheumatism.
True, it isn't quite as certain prevention
as a whole one, but some people like to
be economical, even in their luxuries.
There is only one thing against being
born in a caul unless you get rid of it,
and that's one of the reasons I sold
"You see too much. I never could go
out on a moonlight night without getting
the awfnl horrors. Talk about spirits;
I've seen them so thick in the streets on
a full-moon evening that I've wondered
how I was to get past them-, and I never
did pass them. I seemed to walk
straight through the middle of their
bodies. Since I've sold my own caul,
however, I've never seen no more
Readers of Dickens will remember
that David Copperfield, the alleged
prototype of the author himself, was
born with a caul, which was advertised
for sale at the low (?) pr.ice of fifteen
guineas. An attorney connected with
the business was the only
reply to the advertisement. He offered
two pounds in cash and the balance in
sherry, which was declined. Ten years
afterward the caul was put up in a
rafnein a country inn to fifty members at
two shillings and sixpence, a head, with
the stipulation that the winner should
spend five shillings. An old lady won
it, reluctantly produced the five shillings,
all in halfpence, and twopence halfpenny
short, and eventually died aged
ninety-two. It was regarded as entirely
owing to the caul that she never was
drowned, although it was well known
that the old lady had never been on the
water in her life. Philadelphia Press.
Charley Ross is a reporter in the
British Parliament, and has been thre
OF GEHfEIiAL INTEREST.
Mrs. Ross does not read the papers
for fear she will find something' about
Carleyin them. Philadelphia Press.
Under the scepter of the Czar of
Russia live thirty-eight different nationalities,
each speaking its own language,
which is foreign to all others:
Watchmen in the Cincinnati wholesale
district declare that the ghost of a
New York traveling salesman appears
to them each night. Ctncinnati Times,
Mineola has the longest wagon road
bridge in Texas, if not in the wsrld. It
is across the Sabine River and swamp
a mile and three-quarters. Chicago
Workmen digging in the bed of
phosphate recently discovered at Cambridge,
Md., found the petrified skulls
of three children, and the foot, ankler,
and slipper of a woman.
A remarkably beautiful rabbit was
killed near Eufanla, La., the other day.
it was of a solid light buff or dove color
on the back, with snow white hair underneath
and on the legs, and pink-colored
The big diamond recently found in.
South Africa, though weighing neatly
six ounces, is not estimated as worth-more
than $10,000, the color being bad.
However, a bath of acid has improved
it. N. Y. Sun.
Mrs. Lyle Cheeny, of Baltic, Conn.,
has a gold-fish, and by some way it got
out of the water onto the floor and was
there from six to eight hours. When, -they
put it back it revived, and is now
all right. Hartford Post.
A Chinaman was arrested in Reno,
Nev., a day or two since, for stealing a
bucket of paste from a bill-poster.
When found the Celestial epicure was
smacking his lips over a batch of pancakes
made of the paste.
Buffalos, after an absence of '
ral years, are now returning to the plain3
of North Texas, and will likely remain
there if they can engage the sympathy
of the Government in establishing laws-forbidding
their wholesale and wanton,
destruction by the mighty
The Georgian's mouth waters while
he talks of 'possum, hedged in with,
brown gravy, and sweet potatoes with,
sugar on them. A Georgia editor, who
attended a hunt and the subsequent
feast, remarks: "It was the first 'possum,
we ever ate, but if our legs hold out it
will n ot be the last one. " Chicago News.
The walls of Canton, China, are of
sandstone, capped with brick. They
are twenty feet thick and from twenty-five
to forty feet high. There are twelve
outer gates, four in the partition wall,
and two water gates, through which,
boats pass into the moat east and west.
The gates are all shut at night, and a
guard is stationed near them to preserve
A Pennsylvania desperado got his
eyes on a deaf and dumb girl, whom he
discovered to be very wealthy. Having a
desire to increase his worldly store he
set about making love to her and won.
her heart. Making arrangements for
an uninterrupted ceremony, he went
after a clergyman, whom he induced
by the moral suasion of a leveled revolver
to unite him in ' marriage io tile
young lady. The romance of Turpin is
not quite dead in useful remembrance.
The construction of a railroad track
leading to the new Michigan Central
Bridge at the Niagara Falls has already
made sad havoc with the beauties of the
romantic looking cliff above Horseshoe
Falls. Huge unsightly piles of red clayr
taken from the excavations, are deposited
on the hitherto grassy flats and
slopes, while a coal yard and freight
station disfigures what would otherwise
be one of the most desirable portions of
the proposed Park on the American side
of the river. Buffalo Express.
Nellie B. Baily, twenty-one years
old, well educated and good looking,
agreed some time since to go to Texas
with a rich Englishman named Clement
Bothemly, and start a sheep ranch. Recently,
in the Indian Territory, she shot
and killed him, burned his body, and
took possession of his money, jewelry
and outfit, in all worth $107,000. Then,
she started South, but was arrested,
and at Wichita, Kan., was held to the
next term of the United States Circuit
Court on the charge of murder. The
woman formerly moved in good society
in New York and New Jersey. N. Y.
The Virginia City (Nev.) Enterprise
gives a description of a Piute feast: "A
favorite dish with them is a stew of
duck, fish, tule potatoes, and pinenuts.
Sometimes, when two or three families
join in a feast, a camp-kettle holding a
dozen gallons is placed on the fire. Into
this are thrown promiscuously all
that the men, women, and children
have succeeded in. gathering. Ducks,
minnows by the score, ground squirrels
entire except that the hair has been,
singed off wild rose berries, grassnuts,
pinenuts,and the like all boil and bubble
together in a rich mess meat, soup,
and bread all in one.
A woman who should know something
of her subject says that among the
varieties of coquettes the mostdangerous
class, perhaps, "includes those women
who fancy themselves in love with each
fresh lover. There are emotional and
sympathetic women, who, being incapable
of strong feeling themselves,
are borne along by the force of a passion,
which fascinates them, and' which they
would gladly reciprocate. In their
often renewed disappointment at finding
that the new lover cannot make
them forget themselves, they feel a sense
of injustice, and never dream that they
are not the injured ones. ' ' Indianapolis
London has long been the great
wool market of the world, but indications
now are that its precedence will
ultimately be lost, and that may- be
the case within a few . years.
Australia alone has been furnishing
that market over two hundred
million pounds of wool per . annum,
equal to two-thirds of the home clip of
the United States. But Australia wool
growers and dealers are now considering
the feasibility of leaving a large annual
commission in the hands of .the
capitalists of the great metropolis.- So
it is likely that the day will come when
the wool sales of London will
trol the wool markets of the worlds W
the extent they have heretofore. T' v