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MIBMiKIFTIOX BATES :
Per year, in advance ♦! 50 Otherwino. 2 00 No nuWnption will lx- Ji*con tinned ontil ill irretrajiM paid. J'oi?tnia*ter» neglecting to notirv nit when mliucril'erb <lo not Ulto oat thoir ii»jH-ns irill be bt-IU liable for the mibecriptioa. Huhtcribers removing from one iKxucffice to &i:otlior should gi*o nn the iiamo of the former mo well Vi the present office. All communications intended for publication in this paj»er must be accompanied by the real name of the writer, not for publication, but aa a guarantee of good faith. Marriage and death notices mnat be accompa nied by a responsible name. Addre«a THE Bl'Tl'KK CITIZKN, BUTLER. PA. TRAVELERS' GUIDE. BCTLBR, KARNS CITY AND PARKER RAILROAD (Butler Time.) Train* leave Butler for St. Joe, Milleretown, Ksrtia City, Pctrolis, Parker, etc., at and 9_V) a. to., and 2.06 and 7.15 p. lu. [See lie low for connections with A. V K. K.| Trilns arrive at Butler from the above named points at 9.45 a. m.. and 1.55, 5.15 ami 9.85 p. in. The 1.55 train connects with train ou the West Penn road ihrouth to Pittsbunrh. Sunday trains arrive at 1055 a. in. and 3.55 p. in., and leave at 11.10 a. m. and 4.10 p. ra. SHEVAKSO AND AU-EOHrNT RA!!.HOAI>. Trains leave HilllardV Mill, Butler county, for HnrrisvJlle, Greenville, etc., at 7.40 a. m. ] and 12.20 and 2.20 p. ra. I 1 Stages lc.v e Petrol in at 5.30 a. m. for 7.40 ; train, and at 10.00 a. m. for 12.20 train. Ketiirn stages leave Milliard on arrival of tn 1 !Mi nt 10.27 a. ni. and 1.50 p. m. buiae leaves Maniusburg at a.30 for 12.30 train. p. s. c., 4 1.. E. n. n. Tlio morning train leaves Zalienoplo at C 11 Harmony 1.16 and Evans bur* at 6.3.'. arriving at F.ina'Station at H. 20. and Allegheny at 9.01. T'ui afternoon train leaves Zelienop'o at 1.28. Harmony 1.31, Evansbnrg 1.53, arriving at Etna Station at 411 ami Allegheny at 4.46. Trains connecting at Ktua Station with this road leave Allegheny at 7.11 a. m. and 3.51 p. m. 1 By Kt itli,g oil at Sharpabure station anJ crossing the bridge to the A. V. K. It., passen ger* on the morning train can reach the Union depot at 9 o'clock. PENNSYLVANIA RAII-UOAD. Train* leave Butler (liutler or Pittsburgh Time.) Market nt 5.11 a. 111., goe« through to Alle gheny, arriving at 9.01 a. ra. This train con nects at Freeport with Freeport Accommoda tion, which arrives at Allegheny at 8.20 a. in., railroad time. Exjtrett at 7.21 a. m„ connecting at Butler Junction, without change of car*, at 8.2fl with Express west, arriving In Alleglienv at 9-.VI a. m., and Express east arriving at Blairsville at 11 <lO a. in. railroad time. ] Mail at 2.36 p. m., connecting at Butler June- . tionwithout charge ol cars, with Express west, J arriving in Allegheny at 591 p. in., and Ex- I press cast arriving at Blairsville Intersection ] at H.lO p. m. railroad time, which connects w'th Philadelphia Express east, when on time. ; Sunday Exprttl at 4.ott p. ra., goes through to Allegheny, arriving at fi.o6 p. m. The 7.21 a.m. train connects at Blairsville at 11.05 a. tn. with the Mail east, and the 2.3H ■" p.m. train at G. 59 with the Philadelphia Ex press e:ist. Trains arrive at Butler on West Penn K. H. at 9.51 a. m., 5.00 and 7.11 p. in., Butler time. The 9,51 and 5.00 trains connect with trains on the Butler & Parker R. R. Suu ay train arrive* at Butler at 11.11 a. m., connecting with train for Parker. * Main Line. Through trains leave Pittsburgh for the Ear l at 2.50 and 8.20 a. lu. und 12 51, 4.21 and H.o*i p. m., arrivinif at Philadelphia at 3.4<l and 7.20 p. in. and 3.00, 7.0> and 7.40 a. m.; at Baltimore stiout the same time, at New York three hours later, and at Washington about one and a hall hours later. FINANCIAL. AIA . ftinnn I in Wall St. stocks ] JIU 10 Mil frZIZ ' plaining everything. Acldreas J3AXTEK CO., Rankers. | oct9 17 Wall sfraet N. Y. l PHYSICIANS. j JOHN E BYEKS, 1 PHYSICIAN AND SUIIGRON, j tny2l-ly] BUTLER, L'A. , EDUCATIONAL. AllculicJiy Collegiate Institute J FOR YOUNG LADIES. ALLEGHENY CITY. 30 ittocktoa A*«. | Rev. THOS. C. STRONG, D. D.. President. ' Will open on MONDAY, SEPTEMBER Bth. School hours Irom 9a.v. to 1.30 p. v It* con- . vraient distauce Irom the depots will permit pupil* living outside the city to teturu home each day, thus saving expense (or hoard. For circulars address promptly a* above. ang27-2ui * Pennsylvania Female College. EAST END, PITTSBURGH. A flr*t clas* College for women. Educational standard high. Advantage* complete. Most delightful situation in the whole country.— Terras quite moderate Opeua September 10m. Address Mirs lIELEN E. PELLETREAU, Jly!so-2m Aetinif President. iirrißsaM ACAMwf. CononHburti Pa. Thorongli preparation for college ; good Eng linli and businciis education. Modorate expenses, not neoeseai ilv exceeding *l'- or tSO por terui. Good chemical and philosophical apparatus, laige library. Good moral and social surrouiid ing». French and German taught. Next term commences September 16, IH7U. ])yS3-2m] Rev. \VM. EWINO, Prin. WITUERSPOON INSTITUTE, SUTLER, FA. The Fall Term will begin on Monday, Hept. 1,1H70, uud continue twelve weeks. INSTRUCTORS: P. S. BANCROFT, A. M., Principal. J. C. TINSTMAN, Professor of Maihematics and Gcrin;ui. O. P. COCHRAN. Teacher of Penmanship ami Book-keepim;. Miss EMMA K. LINN, Teacher of Music and Drawing. C3"For circulars containing full particulars, address P. 8. BANCROFT, jlylQ-tit Butler, Pa. Thiel College OF THE Evangelical Lutheran Church. 10th Collkoiate Yf.ae Bkoins Sept. 11th, 1879. SEVEN INSTRUCTORS. Board, j'2.00 per week. Address. Preßt. H. W. Roth or Rev. D. McKee, A. M., Principal of tho Acad. Department. GREENVILLE, MERCER CO., PA. I]v24-ly DENTISTS. XSE3SrTISTR,Y. 0 1# WALDRON, Graduate ol the Phll- K adelphia Dental Collegers prepared • ll •to do an) tiling iu the line of bis professlop la a satisfactory manner. OQlce on Main street, Butler, Union Block, up stairs, apll Dr. Quincy A. Scott, NIJBOEOX DESTIMT, llas Removed to SIX Fine OFFICES, at IVo. 30 Fifth Avenue, Half way between Market and Wood Streets, PITTSBURGH, PA. Nt f I — #1; 4ift^i[iMt OSS S 'iSifi i '9 ;1> if >/*' $g iy* i S!n H --#• 3$ * I 2s fllfivw ■ le^lllJE<* VOL. XVI. JUDGE KELLEY Ah ROAD. SOME Til I SOS HE XoTED IN' GERMANY THE LACK OF AGRICULTURAL MA CHINERY—WOMEN AS FARM LABOR ERS—THE NATURALIZATION TREAT IES BETWEEN GERMANY AND THE UNITED STATES HOW THEY OPER ATE. [Correspondent Philadelphia Times.] ] MUNICH, August 2. After a delightful excursion through part of Austria I am again in <Jer mjnv. Munich is the capital of South as Berlin is of North, Germany, and its monuments are Bavarian, as those of Berlin are Prussian. Notable among them is the bronze statue of Bavaria, the harmonious proportions of which are so colossal that six men may stand together in its head and enjoy a view of the city and suburbs, j while to encircle its middle finger re- j quires a cord longer than did the ; waist of a lady who stood by as I | scanned a plaster cast of it in the bronze foundry. Coming abroad as I did, in pursuit of health. I have not underestimated the value of sleep to a convalescent, or the danger of violent or protracted physical effort, and, avoiding ni-rht travel, have rested long at Dresden, Prague, Vienna, Linz and Salzburg to take a leisurely, though necessarily superficial, view of each of these cities. I have thus seen all the country through which I have traveled and been able to observe the extent of the holdings and the apparent methods, age and sex of agricultural laborers. THE USE OF OLD-FASHIONED TOOLS. I forget the date at which Living ston came as our Minister to France. It was, however, before the adoption ol the Constitution, or as the represen tative of Washington's administration. But the precise date is not important, as I refer to him as an illustration of a general truth which social reformers should ever bear in mind. Before ar riving in Paris he had been painfully impressed by the fact that most of the agricultural laborers were bowed and exhibited other signs of premature old age. He observed, also, that iheir chief implements were hoes, with hnndles but three feet long, and sickles which required them to stoop even lower while reaping than they had done while cultivating their crop. He was a philanthropist, and in the hope of remedying a national evil he not only brought to the attention of many Frenchmen of influence the fact that American farmers used imple ments which enabled them to stand erect, but went further and imported a large number of long-handled hoes for gratuitous distribution. Their use would, he hoped, demonstrate their vital superiority and cause their gen eral adoption. In this he was mis taken. They were soon discarded and Livingston's papers thenceforward abounded in dissertations on the diffi culty of inducing a people to change their practical methods. Here, too, he was in error. In the choice of tools the j»cople whose condition he sought to improve were not free agents, but were—as the masses of mankind al ways are—subject to social and phys ical conditions. Had Livingston first asked why the use of longer hoe han dles had not occurred to the French paysans, his labors in their behalf would probable have taken a more practical turn. He has, however, many successors among American travelers, who vex one's ears with the questions, why do these people not use our labor-saving agricultural ma chinery? though they see unmistaka ble proofs—such as the diversity in kind and age of the crop—that the holdings of lands in the rural parts of Belgium, France aud Switzerland are not, on the average, so large as build ing lots in the twenty-second, twenty fourth and twenty-seventh wards of Philadelphia. Those who own or rent these patches of land live in villages and labor in workshop or in factory. Old men and women—generally more of the latter—attend to the crops, which, even when of grain, are care fully weeded. The ground may be prepared by the spade, though the old-fashioned, short-handled hoe is still frequently used in breaking it up, but much of the work is evidently done with trowels. It is evident that Burns had not the cultivators of these petty farms in mind when he descril>ed the farmer walking in glory behind the plow. The prevailing appearance of pre mature old age which aroused Livings ton's sympathies is attributable to this inevitable method of manual farm ing and to the habit which the women have of carrying strapped on their backs huge baskets, often heavily loaded. WOMEN AS FARM LABORERS. But it is not only the small holdings of land which impose this character of work upon women, for in Germany and Austria, where the holdings are generally larger and much of the farm ing is carried on upon a considerable scale, women seem to do most of the work, and often the heaviest part of it. They pitch the hay upon the wagon, while the man—if there bo one of the party—receives and stores it. I have seen many of them plowing, and others with scythe or sickle, holding their lino with men. To sweep the streets of great cities, to trundle over burdened wheelbarrows or handcarts through streets crowded with swift going droschkics, to split, saw or pile firewood, to serve as unskilled laborers in glass and iron works, foundries and machine shops, to carry stone, bricks, sand and mortar to masons and brick layers working on the upper stories of ' the highest buildings, will not seem to the average American woman strictly feminine occupations. Yet, so r long as the flower of masculine youth and the vigor of European manhood are to bo dedicated, as they now are, ' to barracks and camps, such must continue to bo the occupations of the mothers of many future American citi zens. In Germany the plow has generally supplemented the spade and the scythe the sickle, but not until I had reached Central Austria did 1 see a cradle; and even there its use ap ■ peared exceptional. Here all our ag ricultural machinery might be brought i into use. The luml i.-* level a» the ; jirairies of Illinois, und the extent of I the wheat Gelds reminded me of the irr.'at ones of Minnesota. Yet here I saw lint one piece of machinery. That was turning hay which had been sul> jected to a protracted rain. Berlin, Dresden, Vienna and Mu nich are beautiful cities, My stay in no one of them was lonvr enough, however, to justify me in attempting i to describe it, or, indeed, to indicate j the leading points of attraction, since j each of them is especially rich in his- j toric monuments and matters of inter- | est to lovers of architecture, painting, j sculpture and music. There are two . facts concerning each of them, how-1 ever, that I must record, since they seem to me to illustrate a law who-r inflexibility and force financiers and statesmen should comprehend. They are among the oldest of modern cities. The period of most rapid and costly growth of each has been since 1850, and the progress of each was checked between 1873 and 1875, and is still restricted. SOME FEATURES OF PRAFLUE. Prague is not accounted a great city, and many American tourists pass by it as they would by a wayside station ; yet no continental city lias- impressed me more. Its situation is most pic turesque, and, having been from the dawu of the fourteenth century the theatre of memorable events, it abounds in historic monuments. It has the tower from which Tycho Brahe and his imperial patron, Ru dolph 11., watched the course of the stars in the closing year of the six teenth century. Here, too, Huss and Jerome were born, and by their devo tion to liberty of conscience and their . pious labors earned the martyrdom which overtook both in 1415, when their ashes were thrown into the Rhine. The new city—lining the banks of the Moldau with its gardens and recent buildings—though beauti ful, is commonplace. What interested me was the old buildings, which one seelf as he ascends the well-paved slopes which lead to the Haadschin. Here is the Cathedral, begun in 1314 and finished in 1385, and now being re stored, having been damaged not only bv the lire of 1541, which reduced the height of its tower from live hundred and twenty to three hundred and twenty-three feet, but by the artillery brought to bear upon it during the Seven and the Thirty Years' wars. The Imperial palace, close at hand, is said t«> contain more than seven hun dred rooms, of which the recently refurnished Spanish and German sa loons are the most elegant. But the most curious is, in my judgment, the vaulted chamber, in which were Ifeld the tournaments, the great hall of Ladislau—approached from within by successive flights of stairs, from with out by ascending avenues paved with brick. Not having recognized the fact that tournaments were in-door sports and might have been conducted in an attic, I concluded that this was an exceptional instance, but on visit ing the Bavarian Mint, at Munich, 1 found in its oltl courtyard an example of a tourney hall, no larger than the hall at Prague. The building had once been a palace and this old Court, surrounded by low, but heavy and imposing columns, and arched stalls for guests, hail been its central point of attraction. But, to return front a digression, a few steps bring one from Ladislau's Hall to the old council chamber, from a small Imlconv of which one obtains a fine view of the city, the Moldau and the venerable bridges which span it, in themselves quaint and instructive historical mon uments as well as noble highways. Rarely have such momentous associa tions clustered about so contracted a space as this little balcony, to which, tempted by the charming view it of fers, so inanv pleasure-seeking tourists climb. It was from this balcony that Count Thurn caused the imperial coun selors, Martinitz and Slawata, to bo hurfed. Their full-length portraits hang upon the wall of the gloomy chamber but a few feet from the place of their execution, and an obelisk bearing their names marks the spot below upon which they fell. This outrage was the proximate cause, rf not really the first act, of the Thirty Years' War, which, after the then average life of a generation, was ter minated in 11520 on the White Hill. Though it had ravaged Kurope, it was terminated by a desperate struggle on a tield less than a mile from and in sight of the little balcony from which Martinitz and Slawata were thrown. The religious monuments of Prague are also interesting. The Cathedral to which 1 have alluded is in itself a collection of such monuments, sonic of which arc very instructive as to the spirit of several periods during the last five centuries ami a half. .Almost under its shadow, but nearer the river, is the old church of the Hussites, which was erected by German merchants before the expiration of tho century in which lluss and Jerome had been burned. And at but a short distance from this church, upon the river bank, is the Jew's Quarter, or Joseph stadt, with its synagogues. The oldest of these, erected in the thirteenth century, is an architectural curiosity. Though quite small, it bears traces of both Byzantine and Gothic schools, and is, perhaps, the only synagogue in the construction of which the Gothic cross was ever adopted. The worshipers in this ven erable temple seem to have lived har moniously with their Christian com patriots. The flag presented to them ■ by Ferdinand 111., in 1 *>4B, in rccogni , tion of the bravery displayed by the , Jews during the siege of the city, still , hangs in the midst of the synagogue. , For an admirable description of the I overcrowded Jewish cemetery I refdt your readers to Bayard Taylor's "Views [ Afoot," contenting myself with the , remark that, although it is a century since an interment was permitted within its limits, it has not yet been r divided into and sold as building lots, 3 as so many American cemeteries have [ l>een. t OUR NATURALIZATION TREATIES. But to turn to a more practical mat ■- ter, the naturalization treaties between t Germany and the United States of BUTLER, PA., WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 1579. America are, I find, attracting mu h attention in diplomatic and consular circles. The subject was several times brought to my notice while nt Berlin, as it has again been in this city, and always with expressions of surprise that Americans should demand their revision, or consent to it if it can Ih> avoided. These treaties are regarded as the crowning work of Mr. Bancroft's diplomatic career, and are referred to as such by the resident Ministers who were here when they were negotiated. Alluding to this subject, one who had been here during Bayard Taylor's brief service declared his belief that Mr. Taylor's illness was aggravated by anxiety concerning several cases that were pending under the treaties and bv the seven- animadversions of Ameri can papers on the very judicious advice lit; hail given to some of our natural ized citizens who were about to firing themselves under the debatenble pro visions of the treaties. Another gentleman, referring to the subject saitl: "There is probably no diplomatic position in Europe so la borious or so harrassing as that at Berlin, and ou this very account. There is a perpetual struggle to secure the rights or to investigate the supposed rights of naturalized American citixens who have returned to their native country. Much criticism was passed in certain quarters against Mr. Bayard Taylor for advice given by him to returning naturalized American citi zens. Never was criticisnunore unjust. The fact is, that among the causes of Mr. Taylor's premature death were his anxiety and labor on these very cases. Early aud late he toiled over them, and the result was that the great ma jority of the persons concerned were released from German service." I am free to confess that I had not understood the importance of these treaties ami of the service .Mr. Ban croft had rendered his countrymen of Germau birth in negotiating them, and I feel that 1 cannot better appropriate a portion of my space in the Tunes than by stating some of their cardinal stipulations and the questions that have arisen under them. THE HISTORY OF THEIR NEGOTIATION. The treaties were negotiated ia 1808 with the German States as they then existed. Bavaria appended to hers a protocol which she volun tarily agreed, should questions arise shown hy experience to be doubtful, to adopt that construction most favora ble to the rights of American citizens. The case is different with the Prus sian treaty, the provisions of which are subject to the strict laws of diplo matic construction. The general term# of the treaties are these: That any native citizen of Germany who leaves the country before being able to serve in the army, who becomes, after a five year's residence there, a naturalized citizen of the United States, and who then returns to Germany, shall l>e regarded as an American citizen. As such he shall be free for the space of two years from all claims of the Gov ernment to military service. If such person remain longer than that time, the Government may presume that he has resumed his German citizenship and may call upon him to do his mili tary duty. It will be readily seen—if many naturalized citizens return and stay over the stipulated time—that that word may will give rise to deli cate questions. Events have shown that it is impossible for the German Government to overlook violations of this stipulation or to grant the appeal of our Minister in every case of which he is obliged to take cognizance. It is conceded, however, that in a vast majority of cases returned natur alized citizens have no trouble, and th<> faet is pointed <>ut that while more than 10,000 such citizens are now residing in Germany, yet the number seized each year for unfulfilled military ser vice averages less than thirty, and that very few of these arrested are perma nently held. lIOW THEY ARE ENFORCED. It is also said, and with unqualified truth—according to the statements of representatives of Governments residing here—that where there is good faith in the action of the returned American every possible concession is made, and no disposition is shown to apply the law strictly. On behalf of the German Government it is urged that there are many cases of this sort. Young men leave Germany just in time to escape the call to serve in the army. They learn the English lan guage, acquire American ideas of trade, become naturalized and embark for Germany often within the month in which tliey acquire American citizen ship. Such cases the Government is compelled to scrutinize closely. The neighbors of such young men—often their former associates—justly com plain that while they themselves are discharging their duties to the Empire, these young men who grew up with them and until a few years ago lived beside them, arc now free, under the pretense of a:i American citizenship which they do not exercise or intend to exert-ise. It is this class of cases which has given rise to most of the difficulties under the treaty. The Ger ! man Government contends that these men have not become naturalized American citizens in spirit and intent, but have assumed a pretended Ameri can citizenship, by which they hope to evade their duties both to Germany and the United States. It is freely admitted that mistakes have been made by its subordinate officials who I have claimed military service from naturalized American citizens before the expiration of the two years allowed by the treaties, but it is asserted that in every such case instant concessions have been made on proof of the facts. To those who insist that the United States ought to maintain at all costs the right of expatriation the Germans reply that we have this right in all bona fide cases; that the only excep tions are where frauds upon both Gov ernments are attempted as above de scribed. I have alluded to this subject because the ten years have expired in which, by these terms, the treaty sliouhl not fie subject to revision, and either party eau now terminate them by giving one year's notice. The attitude of the German Government on the question , is this ; that while it does not propose j to demand the termination of these J treaties it has no objections to oiler should the United States make the demand. It is, however, not believed in diplomatic circles that as favorable terms would be granted by any future treaty as those we now enjoy. The general belief appears to be that, should our Government net in the pre mises, we should simply resume the position we occupied prior to 1868, when young naturalized Americans returning to Germany were promptly arrested aud harrassed in many ways, if n>>t absolutely held i'w" military service. They then had no treaty rights, and their chance of esc.i|>e de pended only upon the good will of the Minister of Foreign Affairs. It appears to me to state this case is to argue it. Those who demand for jnTsonal or party ends a termination of these treaties, and propose that our Govern ment should propound and attempt to enforce the doctrine of the unlimited right of expatriation, and that other doctrine, incompatible therewith, that he who is once a citizen is always a citizen, would do well to ask themselves whether we are masters of the situa tion. To enforce these doctrines would require an army of not less than 1,000.- 000 of men, whose battlefields would lie on German soil, and an expenditure of money and life such as practical people would not incur for the sake of enabling a few men to escape duties due to the Government whose protec tion they demand. W. I). K. WHO WROTE THE DECLARA TION OF INDEPENDENCE? The following appeared a few days ago in an eastern paper: Mr. Editor: Slit—Like nearly all the rest of mankind, you assume with out question that Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence. Isut how weak is the evidence of his claim. If his life had been shortened only three years there would have been no proof whatever that he was the author of that unequalled pro duction ; for not till he had passed his eightieth year did he venture to say, "I drew it." In the early days of the republic there were many who believed that he did not write it; but for rea sons which will presently appear, the real author was unknown. Six months before independence was declared an anonymous pamphlet was published, entitled "Common Sense." Its success was unprecedented. The copyright was assigned to the colonies by the author, and not until several editions were issued was it accredited to Thomas Paine. In a literary point of view it was one of the finest pro ductions in the English language. But the author was not an aspirant for lit erary fame; his sole aim was the achievement of American independence. Paine was the bosom friend of Franklin. They were both very se cretive men, and Franklin, who had induced Paine to come to America, knew that he could trust him. Frank lin was a member of the committee to draft a declaration. The task was assigned to Jefferson, and in a very few days it was completed. Now this is the way I conceive it was done : Franklin handed to Jeffer son a draft already prepared by Paine, and assured him that he could trust the writer never to lay claim to its authorship. What could Jefferson do but use it? It was far superior in style to anything he could produce. So with a few verbal changes he re ported it, and it was adopted by the Congress, after striking out several passages more eloquent than any that remain, as for instance, one about the slave trade. The adoption of this declaration placed Jefferson in an embarrassing position. Not daring to say outright that he was the author, he studiously evaded that point whenever it became necessary to allude to the subject. Hut at last, when Franklin had been dead thirty-three years, Jefferson ventured to claim what no man then disputed. It would never have done for him to name the real author, and who could be harmed, he doubtless thought, by taking the credit to himself? But the science of criticism, like the spectrum analysis which reveals the composition of the stars, points unerringly to Thomas Paine as the only man who could indite that greatest of all literary masterpieces, the Declaration of Ameri can independence. W. H. B. Washington, July 0. WESLEY'S DREAM John Wesley, the eminent theolo gian, once was troubled in regard to the disposition of the various sects and the chances of each in reference to future happiness or punishment. A dream one night transported him in its uncertain wanderings to the gates of h<ll. "Are there any Roman Catholics here ?" asked thoughtful Wesley. "Yes," was the reply. "Any Presbyterians?" "Yes," was again the answer. "Any Congregationalists ?" "Yes." "Any Methodists?" by way of a clincher, asked the pious Wesley. "Yes," was the answer, to his great indignation. In the mystic way of dreams a sud den transition, ami ho stood at the gates of heaven. Improving tho op portunity he again inquired: "Are there any Roman Catholics here?" "No," was the reply. "Any Presbyterians?" "No." "Any Congregationalists ?" "No." "Any Methodists?" "No." "Well, then," he asked, lost in won der, "who are they inside?" "Christians!" 1 was the jubilant an swer. THE editor who credits a Bible quo ■ tation to "Unknown Exchange" tells ! the truth as far as he is concerned. • —[Another Unknown Exchange. "EMMISSARIES AMONG THE COLORED PEOPLE." The cry of "land agents" and "emis saries"' among the colored people, seek ing to entic.- them to Kansas and other northern States, has been kept up with persistency by the southern press. The following vouched for statements from Yazoo, Miss., illustrate who these agents and emissaries are : Yazoo county, Miss., is an over whelmingly Republican county. But the shotgun policy of the Democracy made it go largely Democratic in late elections. As the time approaches for the fall election fof members of the Legislature and county offices, b >th parties are ral'ying their forces. This time it is the Democratic party against what is called the Independent party. The latter is composed of the old Re publican party and conservative Dem ocrats who are willing to co-oi>erato with the Republicans, colored and white, to secure victory. Ou the 25th of July Captain H. M. Dixon, independent candidate for cherilf iu Yazoo county, was waited on by a committee representing a mob ol some four hundred bulldozers, who had gathered in the town of Yazoo, and informed that he must either leave the couuty or "take the consequences." After some parleying the representa tives of the bulldozers agreed to mod ify the demand, so as to allow him to remain iu the county if he withdrew from the canvass. Importuned by his wife and children not to put his life in jeopardy, Captain Dixon finally consented to give up his candidacy and signed a card to that effect. Sub sequently he was prevailed upon by his white supporters to repudiate an agreement signed under duress and to announce that he was still a candidate for sheriff. Ou the 19th of August Capt. Dixon was shot down iu the streets of Yazoo by a brutal bulldozer named Barksdale, ami died on the same day. The shot gun did its work quickly anil effect ively. When the bulldozing commit tee told Capt. Dixon that he must withdraw from the canvass or "take the consequences," he knew exactly what was meant by "the conse quences." He had been an active and enterprising bulldozer himself, and was perfectly familiar with the import of the phrase. The bulldozers now say that in the bloody campaign of he instigated the killing of several Republicans, while they credit him with one murder committed with his own hands. There is nothing to re gret in the death of such a man, ex cept that if iiis life had been spared he might have done something toward breaking down the cruel political des potism which he helped to build up. When the chief bulldozer of 1575 turned against his fellow-murderers and conspirators there was hope that his courage and his familiarity with the shotgun tactics might be put to good account in securing a fair election in Yazoo county; but this expectation has been cut short by his assassina tion. We can recall a dozen of murders committed by .Mississippi bulldozers during the campaign of l<S7f> which were far more atrocious than the kill ing of Capt. Dixon, but the Southern agents of the Associated Press, by constant, willful and persistent lying, kept lip an impression that these homi cides resulted from "personal difficul ties" and "family feuds." It was dif ficult for the Northern people to be lieve that in every county in .Missis sippi there was a body of armed con spirators, whose business it was to kill every Republican who refused to leave the State after being warned to go "or take the consequences," but such was the fact. The murder of Senator Cald well bv a mob was a far more cruel and cowardly crime than the assassi nation of Capt. Dixon, and yet if any one will take the trouble to turn back to the account of this affair, which was telegraphed over the couutry and published in all the daily newspapers, lie will see Caldwell represented as a most bloodthirsty and vicious man, whom the good people of his county were obliged to kill in self-defense. It was during this period (lf<7. r >) that the coarse and brutal phrase, "bloodv shirt," was invented; and while the Mississippi ruffians were busily engaged in hunting down all the Republican politicians with shot guns, sympathizing Northern editors kept up a lively fusilade of ridiculous epithets, aimed at those who com plained of this method of conducting a political campaign. Capt. Dixon rendered such conspicuous service to the Democratic party with his shot gun that, after the campaign was over and the so-called "victory" had been won, his admiring fellow-citizens pre sented him with a silver pitcher, on which was engraved the inscription : The Bravest of the Brave, Captain Henry M. Dixon. Presented I" him by !;it< Democratic fellow citizeni of Yazoo county, an an humble testi monial of their high appreciation of his bril liant service* in the redemption of the county from Radical rule in 1870. It is one of the peculiar characteris tics of the average Southerner that he is totally destitute of the sense of humor. The agents of the Associated Press in Mississippi, Louisiana, Ala bama and South Carolina have certain haekueyed phrases which they always use when reporting an atrocious mur der or massacre in which the victims are Republicans. If the circumstances will not permit a direct misrepresenta tion, so as to give the crime the color of a meritorious act, then the dispatch invariably winds up with the comfort ing assurance that "the best citizens deplore the occurrence." Where only a few people are engaged in the assas sination of a political opponent, then the homicide proceeds from a "personal difficulty and had no connection with polities." These stereotyped phrases provoke a smile of derision throughout the whole North whenever they ap pear in the newspapers, but the men who write these dispatches are utterly unconscious <>f their absurdity. Ibe dispatch from Jackson announcing the killing of Captain Dixon concluded thus: "The difficulty is represented as or a personal nature by liarksdalc s friends." No mention whatever was nuule of the fact that Dixon was the independent candidate for sheriff, who had refused to retire from the canvass at the demand of a mob of bulldozers and took "the consequences." Concerning this outrageous pro ceeding the South irr.<lern Gh rulian Advocate of New Orleans remarks that it has only two things to say: 1. Politically, it shows the temper and spirit of the Bourbon White Ijeague politicians of the South, and what little hope of protection the col ored people and their fricndp>>4»jvc from that source, whenever it fair eke - tion would elect a colored nrUPpr otic of his friends. 2. Here is a positive case of "Kan sas land agents and emissaries among the colored people of Mississippi." Our own paper, Bro. Haygood's paper of Georgia, and all the Southern re ligious press, following the wake of the Bourbon political secular press, have IK'CII saying that the exodus was being helped on by "land agents," "emissaries," etc. We have thought they w. rf- mistaken—and are yet sure that the kiud of emissaries they have IHHMI talklnc about are a myth—but now we surrender. Here are "agents" and "emissaries" sure enough. Just such as these are the real authors of the cry "to Kansas," that now threat ens financial ruination to large sections of the South by sending its labor northward. TOMATOES AS FOOD. Tomatoes contain neither cancers nor cancer-producillg matter. Cancers are composed of animal matter, not vegetable, and therefore cannot lie di rectly derived from tho vegetable king dom. Tomatoes are not without some defects as nn article of food. They arc not, like milk, a perfect diet of themselves, and, besides like most other articles of food, they contain some obnoxious qualities. But they need not be thrown aside on that ac count. Nature has provided us with sufficient excretory organs, that ob noxious matter in our food, it in inod < rate amount, is readily cast out and the body is protected against any ma terial injury; were it not so we should be obliged to throw out of our dietary many kinds of food now eaten not only with impunity but advantage. Thus red cabbage, cherries and peaches contain I'russic acid, which is a deadly poison when taken in sufficient quan tity. The very small amount of the poisoning acid these vegetables contain is cast out of the system without any material injury to the person using them. A positive good may actually lie derived from the use of food con taining some such foreign matter by way of increased activity and strength to the excretory organs from their ex ercise in casting such foreign matter from our bodies, provided the quantity is not so great as to overburden them. Since we are all the time liable to take in our food substances, the tendency of which is harmful, a development of efficiency in our excretory organs is necessary to protect us against the pernicious effect which might other wise occur. Almost every kind of grain and fruit in use contains more or less of things, which, if in larger i amounts, would prove hurtful. Unless ! we closely study our food, we are taking tlieni in when we little suspect it. A Frenchman, not many years ago, discovered a substance in wheat bran which, under the high heat used in baking, dissolved out and spread over the crumbs of bread, of which bran forms a part, and discolored it, and hence the brown stain peculiar to Graham bread. But from this discov ery such bread lias not been rejected, but continues to be accounted among the most wholesome kinds of food. Bye is seldom used without containing more or less ergot, but rye bread is also reckoned among the most healthful. Tea contains tannic acid, apples con tain malic acid, lemons and oranges citric acid, neither of which is used either in nutrition or respiration, but they only become objectionable when used excessively. Tomatoes, in common with most other fruits, contain sonic poisonous matter. They ami the -egg-pant, Jerusalem cherry, bitter-sweet, deadly night shade, and the common potato plant, all belong to the same genus— Kolanum—the fruit of every species of which is more or less poisonous, but none of them very much so. The fruit of the deadly night shade and of the potato (potato balls) are probably the most poisonous. But even these are not very hurtful. The smaller amount contained in tomatoes allows of their being classed with the esculent fruits, but there is nevertheless enough to give them a peculiar flavor not apt to lie relished by unaccustomed palates, but which use soon renders agreeable. Used very largely, tomatoes would doubtless develop specific results pecu liar to the fruit of the genus to which they belong, especially with feeble persons and those who, from their peculiar constitution are susceptible to such influences. But when moderately used by persons in fair health, there is no more reason for rejecting them than there would be in rejecting lettuce for the opium it contains. Pie plant stands in similar relations. Its prominent characteristic and flavor are the result of oxalic acid, which is a powerful poison. For persons not having sufficient vigor to dispose of such a strong acid, and for those in whose systems there is already an excess of acid, such highly acid food would bo objectionable. But its mod erate use by people in common health is no more objectionable than any other acids in daily use, and regarded as healthful. _ Tins idea of the biggest head know ing the most is all nonsense. The mastodon had the biggest head of his time, and yet he didn't know enough to go into the ark out of the rain and lie saved. The mosquito, with scarcely any head at all, was wiser.— Xorri.f town Hrrald. AMONG the novel applications of glass is the invention of Hamilton L. Bucknill, of England, who has re cently patented in this country a rail way sleekier made of cast glass. AUItk'HMINii KAIIA. Ono r«]ntrf, otto i«ert!«>u. f 1 . earh -«ul*-e --qn-nf ii*'« :tt« ti.so cent* Yctrly %.I\rrtue :m-|£gt- ciio-foouh of a column. $5 p« r hielk. ' i't.. uio "%x*r«k Joal !• tMct; where weekly or monthly rlitucw are aad'» I/ieil a lvcrti»~« ment# 10 ori»r« per I.na for fir>t insertion, am! 5 cent.* |x r bin* for each \>i hLonal mrertion. and deaths i»«L --!;-!.»ti free f c:. *.*>;«». Obilunrj uctico* charge*! xn advert «4>taei:tn, vidt4} a ftb!o when 1 a: Mod In Vad:iot>'>. »•. e*. ft; i.xecutoni' and Atlmziiis rratorV Nt* $3 each; E*tray. C-uttiou ai.<4 Duwjolation Notices, not g IS From the fart that the " }vf)jr Be •' '<f ■diiil) (a llf 'iiV iican county > it mu-t f- * tflrife|pmi*«t«i lAi-u that it i« tl:e tne«limu th« HwMm u«e m a*i\ertu*tii£ their huoini ~ ■ ■* ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ mw—o—Bnata—M NO. 40. THE "DARK HORSE." MARK TWAIN AS ♦«U MI NO CANDI DATE EoU TILL VFCSSIDENCY. I have pretty much made up iny mind to run fur President. , What the (M-opli w:iiit is a man who cannot Imi injured by investigation ot his post history, so that enemies of the party will not lie able to rakd #j> jyj.iinst lii.ii things that nobody ovo"r M«rd of before. If you know the worst about a candidate, to begin with, every at tempt to spring things on him will bo checkmated. Now 1 am point? to enter upon the field with an open rec ord. 1 am going to own up in ad vance to nil the wickedness I have done, and if any Congressional Com mittee is disposed to prowl around mv biography, in the hope of finding any dariug and deadly deed which I have secreted, why let it prowl. In the first place 1 admit that I did freeze a rheumatic grandfather of mine in the winter of 1855). He was old and inexpert at climbing trees. Hut with a hear'less brutality that is characteristic of me, I ran him out of the front door in his night shirt at the point of a shot pun, and caused him to bowl up a maple tree, where he re mained a!l night, while I emptied shot in his legs. I did this because he snored. 1 will do it again if I have another grandfather. I am as inhu man as I was in '59. No rheumatic jtcrson shall snore in my house. I candidly acknowledge that I ran away at the battle of Gettysburg. My. friends have tri«d to smooth this fact by the assertion that I merely got behind a tree, that I did so for the purpose of imitating Wash ington, who went into the woods at at Valley Forge to say his prayers. It was a miserable subterfuge. I struck out in a straight lino for the Tropic of Cancer simply because I was scared! I wanted my country saved, but 1 wanted some one else to savo her. I entertain that idea yet. If the bubble of reputation can be obtained only at the cannon's mouth, I am willing to go there for it, provided the cannon is empty. If it is loaded, my immortal and inflexible purpose is to get over the fence and go home. My invariable purpose in the war has been to bring two-thirds more men out than I took in. This seems to me to lie Napoleonic in its grandeur. My financial views are of the most decided character, but they are not likely, perhaps, to increase my popu larity with advocates of inflation or contraction. 1 do not insist upon special supremacy of or rag money. The great fundamental principle of my life is to take any kind I can get. The rumor that I buried a dead aunt ! under a grapevine is founded upon fact. The vine needed fertilizing, my aunt had to be liuried and I dedicated her to that purpose. Hoes that unfit mc for the Presidency ? The Con stitution of our country does not say so. No other citizen was considered unworthy of office because he enriched his grapevine with his relations. Why should 1 be selected as the first victim of an absurd prejudice? 1 admit, also, that I am not the friend of the poor man. I regard the poor man, in his present condition, as so much wasted raw material. Cut up and properly canned, he might lie made useful to fatten the natives of the Cannibal Islands, and improve our exports in that region. I shall rec ommend legislation upon the subject in my first message. My campaign cry will be to dessicate the poor work woman. Stuff him into sausages! Those are about the worst parts of my record. On them I come liefore the country. If my country don't want me, / will go back again. Hut / commend myself as a safe man—a man who starts from the basis of social depravity, and proposes to be fiendish to the last. ALL small boys have been duly in formed by their fond parents that George Washington was a good child. Benedict Arnold, on the other hand, the Mr noir of the American Revolu tion, began his badness at an early age. Robbing birds' nests, maiming and mangling young birds to draw forth cries from the old ones, vexing children and calling them hard names and even beating them were, as his tory gravely tells us, the frequent, if not daily, pastimes of his youth, 110 beat the British out of $20,5(14.G0, for which sum he undertook to sell his country, I>ut could not deliver tho goods. In these centennial times it is well to revive these reminiscences for the benefit of the rising generation. SOME one has said, evidently with out weighing the words, that "it takes a man with a strong imagination to fall in love with a homely woman." There are men (and their good senso is commendable) who look for beauty of soul rather than beauty of feature when searching for a life partner. Many men—alas! too many—havo bartered the happiness of a lifetime for a pretty face or a fine figure, only to find the prize they coveted turn to a thorn in their bosom. That must bo a diseased mind which can entertain a sentiment like that contained in tho sentence quoted above. To such wo commend Shakspeare's story of Portia and the three caskets. THEY had an amateur band at a fu neral a while ago, and when they had squelched out the "Sweet By-aud-By" at the grave side, tho minister in his address said that "the deceased was in one respect most fortunate in being called thus early." That was all ho said, but the mourners grinned, and the amateurs think that "blamed sar casm was infernally cut of place at a funeral you know." "WHAT killed Cleopatra ?" asked the professor. "Tho bite of a hasp," said the boy from Liverpool. "Land!" exclaimed another boy, "what if sho had sot down on the staple?" I'RKFINO and blowing are often con sidered synonymous terms. You will discover a difference, however, if in stead of pulling a man up you should blow hint up.