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Butler citizen. [volume] (Butler, Pa.) 1877-1922, January 14, 1880, Image 1

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BCBSCKIPTIO* BATE*:
Ter ve*r, in Kirwo* ®t ®"
No fTt«*ription will be discontinued until *ll
arrearage* arc (.ai-L i\«-liaa«ter» neglectiuK to
ii.itifv tin when fulocnbei* do not take oat llieir
papers will be bekl liable for the wibecription.
.SulmcribeiH removing from one poalorace to
•iioti.t r should give ua the name of the former
a» » .11 as the preneut offlcc.
All communication* iriteudeJ tur pcblication
in thi-- paper matt be accompanied by the raal
r.arae of the wnter. not for publication, bat u
a t iarantee of good faith.
Marriage and death notice* moat be toconipa
niM by a responsible name.
ArtJrfcM THB CITIZBV.
BUTLER. PA.
TBAVEIiBBS' QUIDS.
BL-TI.EK, KARN3 CITT ASD PiMK *AIL*OAD
(batler Time.)
Trains leave Butler for 8U Joe, Millerstown,
Kams City, PetrolU, Parker, etc., at 7MZ a. m ,
and 2.06 and 7.20 p. m. [Bee below for con
nections with A. V R. R.J
Train* arrive at Batler from the above named
points at 7.'.5 a. m.. and 1.55, and 6M p m.
The 1.55 train connect* with train on the West
I'cnn rmd through to Pitwburch.
HHEXASOO a*!* ALI.*«W*»» KiH-BOAD.
Triin* iMve Hllltard'n Mill, Boiler conntjr,
for HarrfcTille, Greenville, etc., at 7.40 a. m.
and 12.20 and 230 p.m.
Stages lea-e Petrolla at 530 a. m. lor 7.40
tr.iin, and at 10.00 a. m. tor 12 20 train.
Return (tv -s leave Hilliard on arrival of
trains at 10.27 a. in. and 1.50 p. in.
leave* Mai tin*burg at #.30 for 12.30
train.
p. * w. a. it. (Karow Osage.)
The morning train leave* Z-siienople at 6 11
Harmony 6.16 and Evsuaborg at 6.3 a. arriving
at Etna Station at H.JU. and Allegheny at 9 01.
The afternoon train leaves Zelieuop'e at 1.26.
Harmon* 1.31, Evan*bnrg 1.53. arriving at
Etna Station at 4-11 ami Allegheny st 4.46.
By (celling .'II at Hat on and
crossing ihe brldfjc to the A. V. R. R., 1 a*«*n
gcrs on the rooming train can reach the Union
depot at 'J o'clock.
Train* connecting at Rtr.a Station with tin*
road leave Allegheny at 7.11 and 9.31 a. m. and
3.41 p. m.
r**xsixva*iA KAM.IIO\D.
Trains leave Butler {Butler or Pltubnrgli Time.)
Market at 5.11 a. m , goe* through to Alle
gheny, arriving at #.Ol a. m. This train eon
rcrt* at Free port with Frecport Accommoda
tion, which arrive* at Allejjheny *t 8.20 a. to.,
railroad time.
Exprttt at 7.21 a. m, connecting at Butler
Junction, without change of cars, at B.2fi wl'b
Ex pier* went, nrrlviuK In Allegheny nt 9M
a. rn., and Expre** east arriving at BUlr»vll!e
at 11 00 a. m. raiiroad time.
Mail at 2 Z/i p. m., connecting at Batler Jarc
tionwitbout chanite ol or*, with Express wi»l,
arriving in Allegheny at 528 p. la., and Ex
press cast orrivlnjr at BMr«rllle lntrrsectUn
at 6.10 p. rn. railroad time, which cctinecU w'th
Philadelphia fcxpres* east, when on time.
Sunday Ezprtu at 3.25 p. *»., goes through
to Allegheny, arriving at <5.06 p. m.
The 7.21 a. m. train connect* *t Blaliaville
at 11.05 a. m. with the Mnil east, *nd the 2.3U
p. rn. train at CM with the Philadelphia Ex
priTSS east.
Trains arrive at Butler on Weat Penn R. R at
1 a. m , 5 OS and 7.20 p. m., Bntler lime. The
U,r>\ and 5.06 trains eon net-1 with train* on
the Batler A Parker R. R. Hon ay train *rrive*
at Uutle" at 11.11 *• m., connecting with train
lor Parker.
Main Lint.
Through train* leave Pittsburgh lor the En"
at 2.56 and H.2M a. m. and 12 51, 4J41 and 8.06 p.
m., arrlvlne at Philadelphia at 8.40 and 7.20
p. in. and 3.00, 7.00 and 7.40 a. ra.; at Baltimore
al»oal the same time, at New Tork three boor*
later, and at Washington aboot one and a hall
hour* later.
LAND FOB BALE.
Valuable Farm for Sale.
The nn/loraigned offer* at private **le tb«j
tuna lately owned by Robert Oilleland, dee'd,
late of Mi'«ll«»ex township, containing
162 A crew,
more or lea*, with a two-story brick bonne and
bank burn, hay honse w*gon abed and other
outbuilding!'. Two good orcltard* thereou. 130
a'.-ies cleared, balance in good timber, eaay »f
access, l/v aliont one-half mile from Batler and
Pittsburgh plank road and iU mile" from new
railroad, is well improved and in
good condition. and i* well adapted for dairy
purposes. For terms aeply to
JAMES WIIJJON. Agent.
dc:l"tf) Bskerstown, Allegheny Co., Pa.
For teale.
Tlie well-improved faim of Re*. W R. Hntch
ison, in the northeast corner of Middlesex town
ship. Batler comity. Pa . is now offered for *ale.
low. Inquire of W. K. FKISBEK, on the prem
ises. »I'»CU
&58MM AIIRKS LANIJ
Situated In and near the
UPPER ARKANSAS VALLEY, IN SOUTH
WESTERN KANSAS,
—OH TO*- •
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe B. R.
11 y«air»' Credit. 7 percent. Interest
Tl e first payment at d >tc of purchase Is ouc
tcnlh of thf? principal ami seven \» r cent. Intrr
vMton the remainder. At the end of the first
nnd second year, only the Interest at teven per
cent. Is p .ld ; and the third year, and each year
thereafter, one tenth of the principal, with
seven per cent. Interest on the lmlat.ee, Is paid
annually until the whole Is paid.
Six jears' credit, 20 |« r cent, discount.
Two years' credit, 30 per c< nt. discount.
C:i»li piircl>n*e, 33 I 3 jkt cent, discount
The valley of ihe Up|*r Ark.was is Jiistl*
celel.rntcd for It* adajitablllty to WIIKAf
KAISIMi ; nd ihe sntierior quality ol lt» t'mln.
a HTOCK-RAISINO mid WOOL-GROWINO
country, it <*tlei* udvantaites that cannot lw ex
celled. fJor>d soil, sbundauce of pure water, a
in lid and remarkably healthy climate, with low
prices and easy terms, make up • total of In
ducements grfnter than Is ottered anywhere el«e
on the continent of America.
For full particulars, Inquire ol or addrc**
C. A. SEYMOUR,
(Icncrnl Eastern Passenger Agent,
tny2l-ly) 41# Broadway. N. Y.
I## Main St, Bullslo, N. Y.
PHYSICIANS.
JOHN E. BYKRH,
PHYSICIAN ANDHUKGEON,
wiy2l-ly] HUTLER, PA.
FINANCIAL.
Ain i diinnni Inve " tad>(>
llUtoilUUU|:--
plaining •vnrythimr. Addremi
BAXTER A CO., Bankers,
oct# 7 Wall atract. N. Y.
DENTISTS.
DEISra?ISTRY.
Oy WALDRON.Orrdwtc of the Phil-
Ik ndcllihla Ucnl il College,ls prep <r<'d
• lis to no anything in the line of hi*
profession In a Mtlafwctory manner.
Olll'-c on Main afreet, Butler, Union Block,
up stairs, spi 1
BAN KB.
TilK BUTIsKK
SAVINGS BANK
II UTL.KR. PA.
NEARLY OPPOSITE LOWBT IIOUBIC.
CAPITAL STOCK] 60,000.
W«f. CAMIUKI.i., J AS. D. AaoitaariM,
President. Vioa President.
Wv. Comctf., Jr., Cashlar.
DIRECTORS
William Campl»«ll, J. W. Irwin,
,t*«. D. Anderson, Oaorgs Weber,
Joseph L. Purrla.
Does a General Banking A Exchange tmslnesa.
Interest paid on time deposit*. Collections uuule
and prompt returns at low rata* of Exchange
Cold Kxnhanga and Orrvamment Bonds bought
and sold. Commardal paper, bond*, Jodffment
and ofheraecnritlea bought at fair rata*, faao ly
QoiVHUMPTIO^I
can be cared by the oonttunad use of Onrt-x's
CON Livkb OIL APV L*UTO Pursi HAT* or
I.imr, a cure for Consnmtrtion, Coughs. Colds.
Aslhma, Ilron' hitis, and all Scrofulous diseases.
Ask yonr druggist ter Oswira's and tale no
other. If he haa not rot it, I will sand one bot
tles anywhere on receipt of •!, express psid
Bend for Circular to OHAS. A. OHM I'M,
no*2B Cm 13 Hevontli Ave., New Yo k.
til SilTl U* 1, '''y 111 h "»a Hamples worth
jf ?f. * 5 Addraaa Snxsos A Co.,
fcrrtland Maine. dec.t-ly
VOL. XVIL
WHAT IS A YEAR?
WHAT IT WAS I'SDEE THE OLD STTLE
WHAT IT IS UNDER THE NEW
ST V I.E.
Th** Ep\ptians wore the first of tlie
nation.-, it is now who Gxod the
length of the vcor.
Tlif Roman Year was introduced
h? Rornalus, "is B. ('■, and it was
corrected by Nunia, 713 11 und
again by Juliurf C«t'sar, 4-> R. C.
The Solar or Avtronomiral Y>ar
was found to comprise 305 days, :A\.,
45tn., 515., i; decimals; 2f» B. V.
The Lunar Year, which comprc
hends 12 lunar mouths, or 354 days,
Bb., 45m., was in use among the Chal
deans, Persians and ancient Jews.
Once in every three years was added
another lunar month, so as to make
the solar and the lit nar years nearly
ajfree, but though the months were
lunar the year was aolar ; that is the
first month was of 30 days, the second
29, and so alternately, and the month
added triennial by was called the second
adder. The Jews afterwards foil owed
the Roman method of computation.
77te SiderLal Year, or return to the
same star, is 305 days, <5 hours, 9 min
utes and 11 seconds. The Jews dated
the beginning of the »S acred, year in
March. The Athenians in June ; the
Macedonians, September 24 ; the Chris
tians of Egypt and Ethiopia, on Aug.
29th or 30th ; and the Persians and
Armenians, August 11th. Nearly all
Christian nations now commence the
year January Ist.
Charles IX. of France, in 1504, pub
lished arril, the last article of which
ordered the year for the time to come
to be constantly and universally begun
and written on from January Ist.
The beginning of the year has been
reckoned from the day celebrating the
birth of Christ. His circumcision,
January Ist. His conception, March
25th. His resurrection, Kaster.
The English began their year on the
25th of December, until the time of
William the Conqueror. This prince
having been crowned on January Ist
gave occasion to the English to begin
their year at that time, to make it
agree with the then most remarkable
period of their history. I'ntil the a< f
for altering the style in 17;">2, the year
did not legally and generally com
mence in England until March 2"r. In
Scotland, at that period, the year begun
on the Ist of January. This difference
caused great practical inconvenience,
and January, February and part of j
March sometimes have two dates, as
is often found in old English records,
1745, 1740. Such a reckoning often
leads to cbronogicnl mistakes; for in
stance, it is popularly said in England,
"the revolution of li»88,"as that event
happened in February, 168H, according
to the then mode of computation ; but
if the year was held to begin as it
does now, on the Ist of January, it
would IK; the revolution of l<!89.
OIIMiI.V OP THE CAf.KNDAIt.
Tlte Soman Calendar, which has,
as already stated, been accepted by
almost all Christian nation", was in
troduced by Romulus, 738 15. C., who
divided the year into ten months, com
prising 304 days. This year was of
fifty days less duration than the lunar
year, and of sixty-one leys than the
ttolar, its commencement having no
relation to any fixed season. Nunia
added two months, and Julius Ca:sar,
45 B. C., in order to establish greater
correctness, fixed the solar yeur at 3C>
days and six hours, every 4th year
being leap year. This tierfect arrange
ment has been called the .Julian xlylr,
ond practiced generally throughout the
Christian world till the time of I'one
Gregory XIII., when the defects of ihe
Julian system were corrected, the-':
defects consisting in that the solar
year, consisting of 305 days, 5b., and
49 minutes, and not 305 days, 0 hours.
The difference then amounted to ten
entire days, the venial equinox falling
on the 11th instead of the 21ft of
March. To obviate this error Gregory
ordained in 1782, that that year should
consist of 305 days only (October 5
becoming October 15), and to prevent
further irregularity it was determined
that a year beginning a century would
not be bissextile (or leap year) with
the exception of that beginning each
fourth century, thus: 1700 and 1800
have not been bissextile, nor will 190(1
lie so, but the year 2000 will be a leap
year. In this manner 3 days arc re
trenched in 400 years, because the
lapse of 11 minutes makes three davs
in about that period. The year of the
calendar is thus made as nearly us pos
sible to correspond with the true Holur
year, and future errors of chronology
are avoided. The new style was
adopted in France, Italy, Spain, Pen
mark, Flanders and I'ortugul in
and in Great Britain in 1731.
LEAP YEA It,
Leap year originated with the as
tronomers of .Julius Cn:sar, 45 years
B. C. They fixed the solar year at
305 days, 0 hours, comprising, as they
thought, the period from one vernal
equinox to another. The six hours
were set aside and at the end of four
years, forming a day, the fourth year
was made to consist of 300 days. The
day thus added was called intercalery,
and was placed a day before the 2filt
of February, the oth of the calendar,
which was called bintieslile, or twice
six. This added day with us is Feb
ruary 29. This arrangement makes
the year nearly three minutes longer
than the astronomical year. To obvi
ate this, as we have shown above,
1700 and 1800 were not leap years,
neither will 1900, but 2000 will
DERIVATION OF THE NAMES, ASH (rill
OIN Or THE MONTHS,
Jauvary derives its nume from
' Janun, an early divinity. .liintinry
wan added to the Homun calendar by
Numa, 713 B. C. He placed it about
the winter solstice, and made it (he
first month, because Janus was sup
posed to preside over the beginning of
! all business.
I February (from Frbruv*, nit Italian
divinity), the second month in the
year, in which men celebrated Fcbrua
feasts in behalf of the names of de
! ceased |s-rsofis.
March. Romulus, who divided the
year into months, gave to this month
the name of hi ft supposed father, Mars.
though Ovid asserts that the people of
lialv had the month of March before
the time of Romulus, and that they
placed it differently on the calendar.
April. The month in which the
earth opens for her fruit
May. Some say the name is derived
from Itoinulua, who gave it in honor
of the Senators and noble- of his city,
who were denominated majarre ; oth
ers that it was so called from Main,
the mother of Mercury.
June derives its name from Juno.
July, named by Marc Antony, from
Julius, the surname of Ca'sar.
August, so called by a decree of the
Roman Senate, in honor of Augustus
Ca:sar, in the year 8, or 27 or 28 B. C.,
because in this month Augustus was
created consul; because, too, he had
added Egypt to the empire, overthrow
ing Anthony and Cleopatra in their
lascivious rule.
September; no month in the year
had its name changed as often as had
this, the >< eenth, from which, Sepfrmu •<,
it finally received its name. Tiberius
refused the Senate to name it after
him—the Emperor Domitian named it
after himself, Germanicus; the Senate,
under Antoninus Pius, gave it that of
Antoninus; Commodusgave it his sur
name, Herculiu.', and the Emperor
Tacitus his own name, Tacitus. But
none of these names remained.
October, as its name indicates, was
the eighth month in the year of Romu
lus. Many efforts were made by the
Roman Emperors to change the name,
but the month still retains its original
title. October was sacred to Mars.
November, anciently the ninth month.
When Nunia added January and Feb
ruary in 713 B. C., it became the
eleventh as now. The Roman Senate
wished to name the month in which
Tiberius was born by his name, in
imitation of Julius Casar and Augus
tus, but the Emperor refused, saying,
"What will you do, conscript fathers,
when you have thirteen Ca'sars?"
December, the tenth month in the
year of Romulus, commencing in
March. In the reign of Commodus
A. I>. 181, December was called, by
the way of (lattery, Amu/orus, in
honor of a courtesan whom Commodus
had loved, and had painted like an
Amazon. Having been the tenth
month it took its name from decern,
tenth, originally, and never had it
changed.
THE DAY.
While the Romans have given us
the names of the; mouths, it is to tin
Saxons that we are indebted for tlie
names of the days, which are conse
quently English.
The day began at sunrise among ,
most of the Northern nations, and at
sunset among the Athenians and Jews.
Among the Romans, day began at
midnight, as it now docs among the
English sjs-a king people. The Italians,
in many places, at the present time,
reckon the day from sunrise to sunset,
making their clocks strike twenty-four
round, instead of dividing the day, as
is done in all other countries, into
equal portions of twenty-four hours.
This mode is but partially used in the
larger towns of Italy, most public
clocks in Florence, Rome and Milan
being set to hours designated on French
and Fnglish chicks. The Chinese di
vide the ilny into twelve parts of two
hours each. The English civil day is
distinguished from the astronomical
day, which l»egius at noon, is divided
into twenty-four hours, instead of two
parts of twelve hours, and is the mode
of reckoning in the official almanac.
At Rome, day and night were first
divided in time by means of water
clocks, an invention made public in
158 B. C.
While the Unmans have directly
given us the names of the months, we
have immediately derived those of the
days of the wick from the Saxons.
Both among the Bomans, however,
anil the Saxon*, the several days were
dedicated to the chief national deities,
and in the characters rf thfse several
sets of national deities there is, in
nearly every instance, an obvious
analogy and coircspondencc, so that
the Bcman mum s of the days have
undergone little more than a transla
tion. in the Saxon nnd consequently
English nam' s. Thus, the first day of
Ihi! w<(k is Stiuiiandceg with the
Saxons; DicsHolis with the Bomans.
Monday is Monau-diicg with the Sax
ons ; 1 lies (mine with the Romans.
Tuesday is, among the Saxons, Tues
daeg— that is, Tuesco's I'ay-—from
Tuesco, a mythic person, supposed to
have been the (ii -t warlike leader of
the Teutonic nations; amoi g the Bo
mans it was Dies Martis, Ihe day of
Mars, their god of war. The fourth
day of the weel: was, among the Sax
ons, Woden's diicg, the day of Woden,
or Oden, another mythical being of
warlike reputation among the
northern nations, am! the nearest in
character to the Boman god of war.
Amongst the Bomans, however, this
day was Dies Miircurii, Mercury's
Day. The fifth day of the week,
Thors-dacg of the Saxons, was dedi
cated to their goil Thor, who, in his
supremacy over other gods, ami his
attribute to the Thunderer, corresponds
very exactly with Jupiter, whose day
this was (Dies Jovis) among the Bo
mans. Friday, dedicated to Venus
among the Bomans (Dies Veneris),
was named by the Saxons, in lion ir of
their corresponding deity (Friga),
Frigedaeg, '('lie Inst day of the week
took its Roman name of Dies Saturni,
and its Saxon appelution of Heater
daeg, respectively from deities who
approach each other in character.
It may lie remarked, that the mod
ern German names of the week cor
respond tolerably well with the ancient
Saxon : Hontag, Sunday ; Montag, Mon
day ; Dienstag. Tuesday; Mittwoche,
midweek day (thisdoes not correspond,
but Godcnstag, which is less used, is
Woden's day) Dounerstag, Thursday,
(this term, meaning the Thunderer's
day, obviouvly corre ponds with Tliors
{ daeg); Fri itag, Friday; Sainstag or
Sonnabend, Saturday (the latter
| term means eve of Sunday). The
French names of the days of the week,
on the other baud, as befits a language
, so largely framed on a Latin basis, are
: like those of ancient Borne; Dinianehe
1 (the Lord's Day), Lundi, Mardi, Mer
' crcdi, Jetidi, Vendredi, Hamcdi.
BUTLER, PA., WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 14, 1880.
.4 BONANZA KING'S PALACE.
THE GORGEOUS CALIFORNIA ESTABLISH
MENT OF JIM THE BARKEEPER.
[From tlie < incimuili CVmirn«'ivial.l
San Fh anci sco, Dec. 20. —lanns
C. Flood, one of the famous Bonanza
quartet, and said to be the prospective
father-in law of the son of the man
who longeth with a great longing af
ter a third term, has nearly completed
Lis palatial summer residence at Menlo
Park, which is situated in the valley
stretching along by the bay, between
San Francisco and San Jose.
Most of us rejoice if we can pay for
twenty-five feet front. This Flood
has covered land enough to give
thousands of us our four feet and a
garden patch besides.
He u-ed to keep a little grocery down
near the city front, he and Billy
O'Brien, the Bonanza jewel, which
was taken to its linal setting more
than a year airo. The little shop was
a favorite place with miners, and as
the chain lightning he furnished slip
ped down their throats their tongues
were loosened, and carefully guarded
secrets crept out from their hiding
places, and seeing tneir opportunity,
slipped off the miners' tongues, taking
refuge in the generous ears which the
Isle of Erin had furnished to Jim
Flood, for he was only Jim, the bar
keeper, then. And so he gathered the
valuable bits of information which
they dropped, along with the other
"bits" which rapidly filled his till.
By and by Jimmy Hood ami Billy
O'Brien "caught the fever," and mani
fested more interest in the mines of
Nevada than they did in the little
grog shop in town. And they bought
odd claims from men who had become
discouraged and lost their grip, ad
ding to them other claims owned by
men who were glad to shift to some
other quarter. The people talked and
said they were a choice pair of fools;
that the savings of the little barroom
would vanish long before they could
strike ore ; that the claims would not
pan out well; and soon to the end of
the chapter. But these two Irishmen
shovelled and blasted until one day
the world knew t'.-at, in spite of the
croakers, they had struck it rich and
were the owners of a large slice of
what the world knows as tin? "famous
Coinstock Lode." The stock of their
mines went up like a shooting star,
changing from a few dollars to near
hundreds in two Or three days. Cali
fornium-; were nearly driven crazy over
the sudden stroke of fortune, and gam
bling in the shares of these mines
made fortunes for a few, and made
lieggars and suicides of many.
At some point of their adventures
James Fair and John W. Maekcy
were added to the firm, which waxed
rich with marvellous rapidity.
How many millions are they worth?
I dinna know, nor do I think they can
just tell themselves Probably a good
many when there are marriage settle
ments to make, but only a few when
the the tax gatherer passes by. They
own a bank with a paid-up cpaital of
between ten and twelve millions ; they
own a controlling interest in several
mines; they own individually large
sums in Government securities
(Flood's interest from four per cents,
amounting to SIBO,OOO per an
num ;) they own in Nevada water
works, mills, timber lands—everything
under heaven they can make a mon
opoly and make money out of. They
are building a narrow-gauge railroad
down tlie coast, and a good one, too ;
they are erecting palatial residences in
and out of town. Tl"* fact is, they
own—well a good deal; among other
things, the reputation of making beg
gars of more men, w omen, nnd chil
dren, through bulling and bearing the
stock market, through carefully man
aged misrepresentation und distortion
of facts than all other causes in I'ali
fornia.
During the excitement over the
Sierra Nevada mining stocks, which
in a few days rose from $1 to near
S3OO a share, and then dropping to
SSO, beggaring many who had staked
their all and were carrying on a mar
gin, perhaps, James Flood looked back
to the rollicking barroom days and
thought them his happiest, for an in
dignant public felt its lingers itching
to grasp the throat of the man who,
because lie could not rule, had deter
mined to ruin.
Mr. Flood has broad, liberal ideas—
when "me or my folks" are concerned ;
he doesn't like his plclieian neighbors
to come too near him ; he doesn't want
curious passers-by staring him out of
countenance; he hasn't forgotten the
"owld ancestral hall iu me native
land," when there was—
I'urtor uiml kitclinn nn«l pantry
A li'l Hi y all ill nil'-.
Ami so lie huildcd with a due regard
for his elevation from Jim Flood, B.
K (which the same means barkeeper,)
to James C. Flood, Esq , Bonanza
King—alio same B. K.; you sabe 'f
He has a house and lot, the latter
containing a trifle over 15,000 acres;
quite a slick little garden patch, you
see, where he can raise sass find
things. But it isn't garden seed 1 e's
planting—it's money. So he is not
leaving nature unadorned, but is just
slinging slathers of pretty things all
over his lot artificial lakes, serpentine
walks, drives which wind about here
and there and everywhere, game, pre
serves, labyrinths, fountains, terrace
walks, bronzes, statuary, and flower
gardens fit for fairies to dwell in.
Leaving the lot just as Edison's
electric light changes the whole scene
into fairy land, we will examine the
house I hereon. It is of irregular pro
portions, the facades being I't'l and
230 feet respectively, with an observa
tory 150 feet high. There are turrets
and towers, bay windows and oriel
windows, a fine purl cochrre, a grand
and still a grander enhance, verandas
feet wide—in fact, everything
which artists could suggest to contrib
ute to the grandeur of tlie building.
Examining the interior arrange
ments, they prove as excellent as those
of the exterior, and on the same grand
scale. The basement floor is divided
into wine cellars, laruers, fuel rooms,
and has also the heating and ventilat
ing apparatus The ground floor con-
tains the grand halls and staircases,
the library, dining and billiard rooms,
conservatory of music, dancing rooms,
reception and drawing rooms, smoking
rooms, a butler's pantry twenty feet
sipiare, smaller pantries, servants' of
fices, Ace. When, on fete nights, the
entire Hoor is thrown into one room
(as, with the exception of pantries ami
servants'offices, it can be) the specta
cle will be magnificent indeed.
The picture gallery is on the second
floor. This room is lighted by hand
somely-designed ceiling lights of stain
ed glass. The remainder of the second
floor is divided into boudoirs, guest
chambers, family rooms, dressing
apartments, and bath rooms, where
oue may luxuriate in the Turkish or
Russs'.an process.
The thrrd floor is designed to fur
nish room for the small army of ser
vants necessary to keep the wheels of
this fine establishment greased and in
running order.
Slowly descending from the heights,
the mosaic work of the floors, the man
tles of various colored marbles, inlaid
with onyx, malichite and other costly
stones; the l'rcrcoing of the ceilings,
the variety of the woods used, the
handsome carving and artistic finish of
the entire building, is noted. I'assing
out through the kitchen, which is
formed in one lofty story, open to and
ventilated at the roof, the magnificent
conservatory is next visited. This is
on as grand a scale as the house, and
will always furnish choice flowers in
sufficient quantities to decorate all the
apartments of the mansion. The
rarest plants will be cultivated with
blossoms dainty enough to adorn
either a bride or a B. K
Crossing a lawn to sonio distance
in the rear, and to the right of" the
house, the stables appear. They
might be mistaken for the residences
of some of the people a trifle less
favored than has been James C. Flood,
Esq., 15. K., but they are occupied by
aristocratic horses, which would sniff
the air contemptuously at sight of the
steady-going family horse which goes
regularly to mill on week days and to
meeting on Sunday. There are six
teen boxes and stalls, with all the
modern appliances for the comfort of
the occupants.
Private gas and water works supply
the entire establishment, and every
detail lias been carefully looked after,
making this one of the most elegant
private residences iu the world.
THE WHITE I VAX OF S/E-
C III! EN.
Describing some curiosities of trade
iu China, tlie I'all Mall Gazelle gives
a number of interesting facts with re
gard to the production of the white
wax of Sze-chuen.
In the Keen-chang district of that
province there grows in abundance the
/jiipislruiu luriilum, an evergreen tree
with pointed ovate leaves, on the
twigs of which myriads of insects
spread themselves like a brownish lilin,
in the spring of each year. Presently
the surface of the twigs becomes in
crusted with a white waxy substance
secreted by the insects, audit increases
in quantity until the latter part of
August, when the twigs are cut off
and boiled in water. During litis pro
cess the wax rising to the surface is
skimmed off, and is then melted and
allowed to cool in deep pans. By one
of those curious accidents which have
clone so much to increase the knowl
edge of mankind, it was discovered
that by transporting Ihe insects bred
iu Keen-chaiig to the less congenial
climate of Kca-ting Fit, in the north
of the province, the amount of wax
produced vastly increased. No people
more readily discern a commercial ad
vantage, or more speedily take advant
age of one when unencumbered with
political considerations, than the Chi
nese; and this singular i fleet of re
moving the insects from a congenial
climate to one so uncongenial as to
prevent, their breeding was eagerly
taken advantage of by the Sze-chuen
trailers. Travelers by night on the
high road between Keen-chang and
Kea ting Fu may meet in the spring of
th<! year hundreds of wax merchants,
each carrying his load of female in
sects, big with young, on their way to
the wax farms iu Kea ting Fu. The
journey is rough and long and a fort
night's sun would precipitate the
hatching, which should take place after
the females have been attached to the
trees To the unscientific eyes of Chi
namen t lie round pea like female appears
to be nothing more than an egg, and
this belief is the more excusable since
the birth of the young is the signal for
the death of the parent, of whose pre
vious existence there remains only as
evidence an outer shell or hu.-k. Six
or seven of these prolific mothers are
wrapped in a palm leaf and tied to a
branch of the hiyustruni luriilum In
a few days swarms of infinitisimally
small insects creep forth and cluster
ou the twigs of the tree, where they
fulfill thei i* mission and pe.ish with its
accomplishment in the boiling pot each
August. Baron Itichtofen considers
the value of the annual crop to be on
an average upwards of $3,000,000;
ami during last year there was ex
ported from the one port of Hankow
upwards of SIOO,OOO worth of it.
—The only angel ir county officer in
heaven is the Recorder of Deeds.
—-A great many guns and pistols
continue to go off mysteriously, and
yet there are plenty left.
Ouray, one of the Ute chiefs, has
for years received a salary of SI,OOO a
year front the Government.
■The Chicago 'Times suggests thai
Adam's monument can easily be built
if all his relations will chip in
Husbands never meet their wives
I with "smiles" on the lips; they wipe
' them off' before they get home.
—A happy New Jersy parent gave
I his three marriageable daughters as
Christinas gifts to three expectant.
bridegrooms.
—The greatest lax payer in the Uni
ted States, if not in the world, is Mr.
I'dackwell, the North Carolina tobacco
manufacturer, who pays a tax of $520,-
j 000 a year
THE GHE A T CANAL.
THE CLANS AND POSSIBILITIES OF AN
AMERICAN COMPANY—ESTIMATED
COST OF ROCTES.
The following statement of Admiral
Aniinen is regarded as a complete ref
utation of statements made by certain
parties whom it appears are anxious
to throw every possible impediment in
the way of an American company ob
taining a concession from the Govern
ment of Nicaragua, for the purpose of
constructing a ship-caual through that
country :
Washington, Jan. 2, 1880. —For
the purpose of giving those interested
in the inter-oceanic ship canal a suc
cinct idea of what seems likely to pro
mote, and what seems likely to pre
vent its construction, at least by an
American company, I make the follow
ing statement:
For some extraordinary reason the
Isthmus of Tehauntepee is again pre
sented as a possible line of canal con
struction, and a survey of it is again
proposed. Yet we know that it has
a summit level of 7~>t feet and will re
quire 140 locks, or .leren times the
number of the Nicaragua canal; it has
a line of actual excavation of 144
miles, or more than double that re
quired on the Nicaraguan line, and it
has a proposed dredgingof a river sub
ject to floods for a distance of 35 miles.
It has also to draw its water by a
feeder 27.} miles long, requiring a dam
80 feet high to get the necessary do
nation, having four tunnels aggregating
30 miles, and then a deficient water
supply.
By report of Engineer Fuertes, page
20 of Tehauntepee Survey, under
Capt. Shufeldt, the river Corti at
point A, map No. 2, is given at 1,018
cubic feet per second; exactly the
quantity required for the alimentation
of the canal as given on page 31. All
of the available streams were found to
yield 2,113 cubic feet |»er second, or
4!)2 feet more than required. He es
timates the loss in the feeder through
filtration, evaporation, etc., at 550
cubic feet jier second, thus making the
delivery amount to 1,564 feet per
second, making a deficiency of 55 cu
bic feet per second.
On page 31 he cites two examples
of feeder losses; that of St. Prive, 20,-
000 feet long, loses three-fourths of its
water. If loss at the same rate should
occur no water would reach through
the seventh mile, in the example ol
the feeder of Boulet, which is 56,000
feet long, if loss at the same rate
should occur, the water would not
reach through the fourteenth mile. In
th" first case the water would reach
one-fourth the length of the proposed
feeder, and iu the second case it would
reach one-half of its length.
He states, however, that the nature
of the soil along the Corti, or proposed
feeder from it, is well calculated to
prevent filtration; but in giving the
different sections along the feeder lie
mentions that some portions of the cut
ting and tunnelling is in "shale and
drift" or "humus ami loose earth."
In the fifth division there is a tunnel
two miles long, which, he says, "can
be easily excavated," the ground be
ing very soft. On some portions of
the feeder he states the formation to
be clay, sandstone, marble, and com
pact limestone.
There are numerous proposed dams
for the interception of small streams
crossing the line ; an acqueduct 1,200
feet long, throughout several miles of
its course the feeder is raised above the
natural surface, a condition favoring a
large loss through filtration.
The cost of locks at the same esti
mate of the Nicaragua route would be
$50,000,000 ; of actual excavation,
$15,000,000; of feeder on Panama
route—none being required via Nica
ragua $25,000,00(1; then the excava
tion of the Catzaeraleos river for 135
miles would sum up probably $5,000,-
000, the estimated cost on the upper
San J.ian, and $5,000,000 more as in
Nicaragua, for harbors, presenting the
same difficulties, making a total of
$130,000,000.
The Commission appointed by the
President of which I was a member,
instead of adopting the estimate of
the engineer to cover contingencies on
the Nicaragua route, through it ne
cessary to double the estimate, and
that, too, where building materials of
all kind were abundant and convenient.
There is still great reason to double
the estimates of the Tchiinatcpce route,
making it $2(10,000,000, and that too,
as is shown u illmut a water supply
adequate at h ast during the dry sea
son.
Another survey cannot materially
change the summit level already de
termined ; it cannot change the length
of the canal ; it cannot add to the
water supply without an increase in
the estimate ; it cannot by any means
change the relative disadvantages
which unhappily exist in its compari
son with Nicaragua. What then is
the purpose, what the object of a sur
vey '{ Certainly there is not the faint
est hope of those who are informed
that the conditions will be found ma
terially diliereiit from the ab'ive state
ment, whatever the assertion may be.
The Niciiragua route has in canali
zation HI / miles; the remainder is
either lake or slackwator navigation
iu a river not subject to floods; the
water supply is 20 times more than
could be used in lockage ; the summit
level of the canal 107 feet, and of the
divide between the oceans 150 feet.
The cost of the canal, as estimated by
the civil engineer, without an allow
ance for contingencies, was $52,000,-
000, and the cost tint Iby the Com
mission, $100,000,000.
The Panama route was carefully
located at the request of the commis
sion, and a line located at an eleva
tion of 123 feet above the ocean which
will probably require an increase of
four or live feet as shown by the floods
of last November. The cost of the
last, named route on a common bus s
for labor and materials with Nicaragua
was more than 50 per cent, greater,
and will, in fact, cost more than double
to execute the work.
It would doubtless be interesting to
the public and advantageous to have
the two la«t named routes passed over
iby able engineers with the instru
! mental survey in hand, to approximate
the relative cost of execution. To in
' elude the Tcbauntepcc route would Is
ti« include what is siiuplv impossible
of execution by reason of the various
conditions above named. The object
could not be to hope to make a canal
there, but simply to prevent its execu
tion elsewhere.
At this time there arc in Nicaragua
two European parties who are asking
a concession. In March last one was
agreed upon to M. Hluuchet, and only
lucked one vote iu the Senate to con
firm it.
The problem then is, shall we place
no obstacle in the way of an American
Company, and thus probably enable
it to secure a grant with the idea of
only permitting tolls that would !>e
liberally remunerative, or, shall we
place these obstacles in the way, and
certainly throw the concession into the
hands of Europeans and allow them
to impose their proposed tolls upon us?
They may very well say that we
are not compelled to pass through the
canal, it is simply optional whether
we go that way or via. Cape Horn.
We cannot very well propose to dic
tate what these tolls shall he, at least,
unless we do so in advance of the
grantingofa concession by Nicaragua,
and even then it would seem some
what pretentious in view of our in
ability to support such a demand
either in reason or by material force.
I may add that the commission aft
pointed by the President in 1872,
which sent in its report in lS7fi, had
all of the information thought neces
sary respecting all the region involved.
In short, the only two routes worth
looking at are Panama and Nicaragua,
and they only to establish the relative
approximate cost of execution.
DANIEL AMMRN,
Rear Admiral IT.l T . S. Navy.
LETT BUS PA TEST.
HOW AND IN WHAT MANNER THEY CAN
BE TAKEN OUT.
In this age of improvements and in
ventions tho subject of patents is of
great interest. The laws which gov
ern patents are among the most im
portant on the statute books looking to
the protection of industries, as they
grant inventors, their heirs and as
signs, the exclusive right for a speci
fied period to new discoveries and in
ventions of a n>>vel and useful charac
ter. Every invention or discovery, to
be patentable, must possess the merit
of either novelty or utility. A patent
will not lie granted to an applicant for
an article discovered and invented by
unother, but inventors will not preju
dice their rights by allowing a public
sale of that invention for two years
before applying for a patent, and a
valid patent will not be issued in case
this use extends over a longer period.
A "prior invention" does not hold go >d
if the party has simply conceived the
idea of the thing patented ; it is neces
sary that it should be reduced to a
practical form or complete invention
before a claim can lie established.
Whoever rcston s an abandoned or lost
art or invention may obtain a patent
for it.
An invention patented in a foreign
country can receive a patent in the
United States, if it has not been in
public use two years prior to the appli
cation, but the American patent will
not continue Ijoyond the time granted
by the foreign patent. In determining
whether tin invention is new it is only
necessary to ascertain if it is different
from anything previously patented. In
deciding the question of novelty it is
necessary to decide whether an inven
tion is really novel, or whether it con
sists iu a double or analogous use of
something already known. For in
stance, a patent will not be issued to a
person who first applies to railroad cars
a kind of wheel previously used for
other conveyances. Neither can the
discovery of a principle, a natural law,
scientific truth, or property of matter
be a subject of a patent Hilt whoever
makes a new and useful application of
any of these things by embodying the
principle of the law iu mechanism, or
describing a new process by which the
discovery may be of practical utility,
may obtain a patent for his invention,
which consists not in the abstract prin
ciple, but in its practical application.
Persons wishing to obtain letters
patent usually apply to a solicitor of
patents or attorney, and furnish him
with a model of the invention desired
to be patented, except in cases of de
signs, compositions, and processes.
The petitioner takes oath that lie be
lieves hiuiHclf to be the original and
first inventor of the invention, and
that, to his knowledge, it has not been
known or used before. Accompanying
this petition ami oath must be a model
of the invention if the case will admit
of it, with drawings and ► petrifications.
The application must be signed by the
inventor unless he is dead, when it
must be signed by his executor or ad
ministrator. The specification is a full
description of the invention, in writing,
and the manner ami pi of making
and using it. The description is fol
lowed by the claim, iu which the ap
plicant must particularly specify the
part, improvement, or combination
which lie claims as his own invention
and discovery. Where there arc draw
ings tin specification must refer by let
ters and figures to the different parts.
In the case of 11 imposition of mat
ter, specimens of the composition aud
of the ingredients sufficient iu iput'i
tity for the purpose of experiment must
accompany the application.
The chief objects of the specifica
tions arc to make known the precise
nature of the invention, ami to en
able the public from the specification
itself to practice the invention after
the expiration of the patent. The ob
ject of the claim is to lix with accuracy
the extent of what is claimed as new.
It is sometimes fatal to u claim to call
an invention a machine when it is a
process, aud it is of the utmost im
portance to the inventors that the
specifications arc plain. The petition,
oath, model, specification, drawing,
etc., are forwarded to the Patent Of
fice at Washington by the solicitor or
attorney The fateut Offlce, atj those
ADVERTIfIIKU KATEN,
One oqnare. ouo insertion, ?1 : each subuo
•]ue>:t insertion, 50 cents. Yearly advertisements
exceeding one-fourth of a column, ♦& ncr inch.
, Figaro work double these ratee: _Jditional
charges where weekly or monthly changes are
made. I.ocal advertisements 10 cents per line
for lii>t insertion, ami 5 eontH per line for each
additional insertion. Mairiage* and u«.aths pub
lishod fiee of charge. Obituary notices charged
as advertn-em-'iitM. ai:d payable when handed in
Auditors' Notices. $4 : Executors' and Adminis
trators' Notices. *3 oacli; Kntray, Caution aiu'
Dissolution Noticed, not exceeding ten lines,
each.
From the fact that the CITIZKX is the oldest
established and mowt extensively circulated lie
publican neuspaprr in Itutler county, (a Kepul.
iica.ii county) it must I* a|>; >areiit to business
men that it in the medium they should use in
advertising tlietr business.
NO. 8
who have seen it are well aware, is
one of the mo.st notable buildings in
the Nation's capital, as it is one of the
most important. Here art- preserved
all records, books, models, drawing*,
specification?, etc., pertaining to pat
ents. The office is under the sii|»er
visionof llit* Secretary of the Interior,
but the Commissioner of Patents is
the chief in charge of the office. The
officers consist of a Commissioner, As
sistant Commissioner and three exaut
iners-in-chief, besides one chief clerk
and examiner in charge of interfer
ences, and a host of primary examin
ers. These primary-examiners ore men
versed in some special department of
mechanics, etc., and models, drawings,
specifications, etc., are given to them
for examination, with due reference to
their special qualifications.
If an applicant is dissatisfied with a
decision, he can be heard bv the board
of examiners-in-chtef. and then, if still
dissatisfied, before the Commissioner
on appeal. Appeals from the Commis
sioner can be taken in ail cases, except
interferences, to the Supreme Court.
Where an inventor is not ready to file
» complete specification, and desires
further time, but wishes to secure his
right, he can file a caveat, which will
be placed in the secret archives of the
Patent Office; and if there be any ap
plication within a year for anything
which appears to interfere with his
claim, he shall have notice, and may
appearand prove priority; and by a
second caveat he may renew it for
another year. Patents can bo pro
cured in foreign countries, and a great
many are taken out in England, Can
ada, France, Belgium and Germany.
The Patent Office in Washington is
more than self-supporting, and to-day
is said to have at least $1,000,000 to
its credit. Last year there were 20,2<>0
applicants for patents, and 12,:5.">4 pat
ents were granted, besides I,4;V"> trade
marks and 4112 labels. Of the patents,
s:i2 were held for the final payment of
dues. The cost of obtaining a patent
is usually about sixty dollars, twenty
five dollars of this amount being the
fee of the solicitor, aud the balance is
paid at the Patent Office. The State
receiving the largest number of patents
per capita last year was Nevada, but
usually the order is as follows : Massa
chusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island,
New York, and the District of Colum
bia. It is to be e.\|»ected that Massa
chusetts and Connecticut will stand at
the head of the list. The intuitive
ingenuity of the Yankee is constantly
designing something new and exploring
the labyrinths of science and art in its
efforts to 'lighten the labors of man, and
it will he a long time before he can be
ousted from his position at the head of
designers and inventors.—Boston (Hobe.
UTILIZATION OF SAWDUST.
|('or«»«pon<lenco Scientific American.]
In your issue of December 111, 1 no
ticed ah article under the title, "Inven
tion wanted to utilize sawdust."
It is here a well known fact that
sawdust, by itself alone, has been suc
cessfully used for producing potatoes.
For this purpose it is only necessary
to lay on the open ground, in rows of
two or three feet apart, the potatoes
that are to be planted, aud cover the
same with a bed of sawdust (say) from
six to twelve inches thick. If the sea
son is in the least favorable it will be
astonishing how this method of cul
ture will prove satislnctory. Another
method, which I think preferable, is to
prepare the soil by plowingaud pulver
izing, to open furrows two or three feet
apart, to put in said furrows a four
inch layer of sawdust, on this lay the
potatoes that are to bo planted, cover
ing them with another layer of saw
dust. and over this a layer of soil.
Sawdust can be used with advantage
about fruit trees. Mixed with the soil
it enriches the latter, and placed on its
surface it maintains moisture and pre
vents the growth of many troublesome
weeds. In vegetable gardens it does
also very well, especially around cab
bage plants.
Sawdust will rot as soon as any
other vegetable matter, according to
the species of wood from which it
nafes. Mixed with the soil it keens the
latter more mellow. An application of
suwdust, sav of three cart loads to the
acre, during four years, over the poor
est land and plowing, and cultivating
same each vear, will render it the most
fertile. * A. D. MARTIN.
WKATIIKII PREDICTIONS. Mr. C, C.
Itlnkc, of Decatur, 111., who has gained
considerable celebrity for his accurate
calculations in regard to the weather,
gives the following as his horoscope for
the mouth of October, and from that
time on to March, 1HH0:
October, IH7o—Will be quite warm
and showery.
November, IH7I hardly know
what to sav about I his month; my cal
culations make it a sort of "chopped
sea'' a conglomerate mixture of all
sorts of went her, but not very cold.
December, |M7'.» Will be like No
vember "only more so." It will bo
warm, wet and disagreeable—cold
snaps will be short and sharp.
.limitary, I**o—Will be rather
warm, wet and inuddv, part of the
time. There will be some cold weather,
but no steady cold weather.
February, IHHo—Will be much like
January a considerable amount of
ruin ami snow and a moderate amountof
cold weather.
March, I**o Will be changeable;
rather wet, especially in the middle of
the month, and only moderately cold.
The winter of iHT'.i so will l»c warm
and wet, with a few cold simps of lim
ited duration; but it will be colder
than the winter of 1*77 -7*. It will be
a changeable, peculiar and rather disa
greeable winter.
So far this weather prophet has hit
it pretty well,
The New 11 it ven Hnjmlr.r says
there i» it dcllciousncss about clinging
to the bed in the morning, and a man
who delilterately rises very early
should be lined #.'• and costs for not
knowing how to lie good to himself.
Muthorskite Kearney is in Wash
ington Unfortunately he is not the
I oply bJitheftfklt'' in <h»f Htv.

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