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THE MODERN STORE'S Shopping List of Christmas Gifts Something for Father, Mother, Sister, Brorher, Sweetheart, Friend, Etc. The Largest and Best Assortment Ever Shown. We Can Make Shopping Easy and Save You Money. Come in Look Through Our Extensive Stock. "Bonny Blossom," The Shetland Pony, j is now the talk of the town. Every child wants this pretty pet. Positively given away day after New Year's. See circulars for particulars. Mark on this list what you would like to see; then come in we will be pleased to show you through every department. We have the largest stock ever shown in this store. For Ladies and Girls Handkerchiefs Fancy Stock Collars Fine Far Scarfs Kid Gloves Woolen Gloves Silk Umbrellas Fancy Hcee, 36c to $8 00 per pair for fine silk. Fancy muslin Underwear put np in matched sets of 4 pieces in box Fine Underwear SiJk Dress Patterns Wool Dress Patterns R Silk Shirt Waist Pat'na Wool Shirt Waist Pat'ns Ladies' Sweaters I Shirtwaists Walking Skirts Silk Underskirts Legging Fascinators Fancy Garters Table Cloths Napkins Fine Linen Towels Gold Hat Pina Sterling Silver Novelties Gold Brooches Belt Pins Rings Belt Buckles Waist Sets Beits Fancy Combs Fancy Boxes Handkerchief Boxes Glove Boxes Work Boxes Brush and Comb Seta (Silver, Stag and Ebony) Manicnre Sets (Silver, Btag and Ebony) Pictures Vases Fancy Plates Silver Bonnet Brushes Leather Hand Bags Fancy Neck Ribbons Fancy Lace Collars Sterling Silver Scissors Mirrors Fine New Hats at about half price For Children and Infants Kid Gloves and Mitts Woolen Gloves & Mitta Leggins Dolls Handkerchiefs Sweaters Far Sets Infant's Sacques Infant's Bootees Infant's Caps Infant's Cloake Infant's Kid Shoes Infant's Cashmere Hope Infant's Crib Blankets [white, pink, blue] Infant's Dresses Infant's Brush and Comb Sets For Men and Boys Shirte (white & colored) Kid Gloves Woolen Gloves Far Gloves Neckties (all kinds) Mufflers Way's Mnffletts Fancy Socks Silk Umbrellas Ha'chiefs (silk Sf linen) Fine Underwear Fancy Night Shirts Pajamas Leather Snit Cases Silk Suspender; Wool Sweater*. See the new Brown Sweaters for Full Dress Shirt Protectors Collars Gaff's Collar and Cuff Boxes Brush and Comb Sets Shaving Sets Tie Boxes Handkerchief Boxes Smoking Sets Hair Brushes (Silver, Stag or Ebony) Cloth Brushes (Silver, Stag or " bony) Bilver Bandied Whisk Brooms Silver Handled Hat Brushes Cuff Battons Scarf Pins Watch Fobs Match fyxes Lunch Boxes Oar Men's department is stocked with all the newest ani} best in above lines. All marked at very lowest prices for reliable goods. Oar Doll Display in basement is attracting much attention by «sH»on of the beautiful life-like facas and features. Unlike most dolls. Prices range from 10c to $5.00 Both dressed and undressed. EISLER-MARDORF CONP AN Y, south mahi strut | QfVf f Send in Your Mail Orders, OPPOSITE HOTEL ARLINGTON, BUTLER. PA. ag><pmo»g»olliqiogiliiliaTOgHWKl§iggio^gf [[ Fall and Winter Millinery. I ji - Arrival §f a large line of §tr*et Hats, TaUaMnade 3; fand ready-to-weaV Hats. All the new ideas and 3; designs in Millinery Novelties. Trimmed and Un- 2? trimmed Hats for Ladies, Misses and Children. All 3; the new things in Wings, Pom-pons; Feathers, 3; i I Ostrich Goods, etc, etc. ]| Rockensteln's I X w «*0 » »; Milli*\ery Emporium,! Pa. E X EDytH Bros., g NEAR COURT HOUSE X rmous Line ot. Fancy Holiday Goods—Toilet Cases, X mg Sets, Albums, Framed Pictures, etc. X rOU ARB WELCOME TO LOOK AHOUNH, X We sell late copyright Qction at #l.l*B, X I NEAR COURT HOUSE. X >OOOOOOPOOOOOOOOOOOOO<K A Big 1 Purchase of Jewelry Samples From large manufacturers at less thau cost of making. Sale begins 9 o'clock Saturday morn ing, December 10th, and will continue until Christmas. This pqrehase includes a large assort ment of Gents' and Ladies Watches, Rings, Brooches, Scarf Pins, Fobs, Chains, Cuft Buttons, Beads, Pins, hundreds of other piece*. Send for catalogue. Ralston & Smith, W. E. Ralston, 110 W. Jefferson Street, Butler, Pa. TIIE BUTLER CITIZEN. 0 Say, Xmas is Near! S li YOU WILL BUY SOMETHING 1 Useful for the Home ►; « ►! fA This store has the kind of Useful Presents that lasts for years. Why not buy Furniture? f a WA Our stock is large and assortment fine. Better M take a look at us before buying. Fi HOW About A Rocking Chair One of the most useful and pleasing articles of the N Fm home. Never can have too many comfortable Rock- p ing Chairs. We are showing at least 100 different patterns —all kinds—inexpensive —at $2.00, 2.50, » 3.00,3.50 —comfortable —durable. Parior Chairs — [4 14 polished—odd patterns at $5.00, 6.00 up to 10 00. • Fine Leather Rockers for sl2 to 20.00. M \\ PARLOR TABLES [j We are sho.ving a large assortment. Neat polish- |M ed patterns in small sizes at $1.50, 2.00 and up to P& ; 5.00. The better ones —in mahogany and oak from 1 SB.OO to 20.00. - ODD PARLOR PIECES W In gilt, oak, mahogany—artistic pieces to tone up y —make home look beautiful —inexpensive, if you wish, or more elaborate, as you please. W Music Cabinets here from $8 00 to $25.00. k WRITING DESKS for the Ladies—in oak or ma- M hogany —bird's eye maple —from $5.00 to 15.00. P How about a fine Bug or Carpet for your best & room? We have them. Va CQMETN r ANDCOMPAR li BROWN Sc CO. fi No. 136 North Main St., Butler. fKelsey, Crown, Boomer 1 furnaces, I IP ; fip IIBr § Coal and Slacl< Heaters, Gas and Coalß Hanges and Gas Stoves. 1904 Washers,! Sowing Needles for all maizes ofß B Sewing Machines. Sewing repaired.® B Roofing and Spouting, and House Furnishing Goods, ft I Henry Biehl, 1 8 132 N. Main St. Peo 'l'lione 4(»4. [ The Great Sacrifice Sale of Clothing, Men's and Boys' Furnishing Goods, Hats and Caps is still going on. Owing to the dissolution of the firm of Schaul & Nast, prices on all goods in the store have been slashed regardless of cost. The following are a few of the many bargains we have to offer you: Men's fine all wool, black and blue, Kersey VR QQ Overcoats, regular price sls, sale price yv l/O Men's Oxford, black, very dressy, Overcoats, VA A.Q. regular price $lO and sl2, sale price Men's very fine English Rain Coats, <lllll OP* regular price S2O, sale price IU.IO Men's fine Hodgmans Alexombrlce Rain and QQ Storm Overcoats, regular price $lB, sale price «Pv/\>U Men's heavy Rain and Storm Overcoats, d*r nr regular price $9 and $lO, sale price «PO.£D 118 pair of Men's and Boys' heavy Cassimere QQn Pants, reguiar price $2, sale price v/uC 389 pair Boys' Knee Pants (all wool) sizes 3 QGr* to 16, regular price 75c, sale price Ov/C All we ask is for the reader of this advertisement to stop in the store and be convinced that we make good all we ad vertise. No trouble to show goods. schaul, SUCCESSOR TO SCHAUL & NAST, 137 South Main Street. Butler, Pa. K E C K [ | [h] Merchant Tailor. Jg Fall and Winter Suitings () JUST ARRIVED. ( } w 142 North Main St. vy K E C K Ll i i BUTLER, PA., THURSDAY, DECEMBER 22, 1904. Nasai ygefi&S. CATARRH /mSh In all its itages. J Ely's Cream BalmV"™ E »j|w cleanses, soothes and heals tT a the diseased membrane. M It cures catarrh and drives M. away a cold in the head M quickly. Cream Bnlm is placed into the nostrils, spreads over the membrane and is absorbed. Relief is im mediate and a cure foliows. It is not drying—doe* not produce sneezing. Large Size, 50 cents at Drug gists or by mail; Trial Size, 10 cents. ELY BROTHERS. sfi Warren Street. New York PROFESSIONAL CARUS. PHYSICIANS, [ C. BOYLE, M. D. . EYE, EAR, NOSK and THROAT, SPECIALIST. 121 East Cunningham Street. Office Honrs 11 to 12 a. m.. :S to 5 and 7 to 9 p. m. BOTH TELEPHONES. DR. JULIA E. FOSTER. OSTEOPATH. Consultation and examination fiee. Office hours—!) to Id A M . 2 to M., daily except Sunday Evenirg appointment. Office—Stein Block, Rooms 9-10, Bnt ler, Pa. People's Phone 47H. DR. H. J. NEEL\, Rooms (5 and 7, Hughes Build'ug, South Main Sr. Chronic diseases of genito uriunrv organsand rectum by the mo» approved methods. P LARA E. MORROW. D 0., T' GRADUATE BOSTON COLLEGE OF OSTEOPATHY. Women's diseases a scecialty. Con sultatian and examination free. Office Hours, 9to 13 nt., 2 to 3 p m People's Phone 573. i'6S. Main street, Bi.tic;, Pa p M.ZIMMERMAN U • PHYSICIAN AND SURGEON At 327 N. Main St. I R lIAZLETT, M. i)., IJ> 106 West lJiamoiid, Dr. Graham's former ofßce. Special attention g to Eye, No e and Throat Peoole's Phone 274. JA &ÜBLM. BIPPUS, 0 PHYSICIAN anuSp«aßOM aoo West Cunningham St. DENTISTS. DR. FORD H HAYES, DENTIST. Graduate of Deptal Department., University of Pennsylvania. Office— 31"! S. Main Street, iJutler, Pa. DR. S A. JOHNSTON, SURGEON DENTIST. Formerly of Butler, Has located opposite Lowry House, Main St, Butler, Pa. The finest v?c.rk a specialty. Expeit pijmls&s ejiVac-tor of teeth by ue«r' uieVnoa, My medi cine ov jabbiag * • Knin3, aino .into the eiUer used. Com ....ous by mail receive prompt at ter.tion. DR J. WILBERT McK.EE. SDRGEON DENTIST. Office over Leighner's Jewelry store, Butler, Pa Peoples Telephone 505. A specialty made of gold fillings, gold crown anu bridge work n/ J. HINDMAN, m . DENTIST. 12' i South Main street, (ov Metzer's shoe store.) OR. H. A. McCANDLBSS, DENTIST. Office in Butler County National Bank Building, 2nd floor. DR. M I). KOTTRAiIA, Successor to Dr. Johnston. DENTIST Office at No 114 E. Jefierson St., over G. W. Miller's irrocerv ATTORNEYS. RP. SCOTT, • ATTORNEY-AT LAW, Office in Butler County National Bauk building. s 1 T. SCOTT, A. ATTORNEY At LAW. Office at No. 8. West Diamond St. But ler, Pa. HOULTER & BAKER, v ATTORNEYS At Uw. Office in Butler Connty National Bank building. JOHN U. COULTER, 'J attorney-AT-LAW. Office on Diamond, Butler, Pa. Special attention j;iveu to collection;- and business matters. T D MCJUNKIN, (' . ATTORNEY-AT-LAW. Office in Reiber building, cornei Main and E. Cunningham Sts, Entrance on Main street. 1 H. BREDIN. •>'. ATTORNEY AT LAW. Office on Maiu St, near Court House HII. GOUCHER, . ATTORNEY AT LAW. Office in Wise hnildinii. EH. NEGLEY, • ATTORNEY AT LAW. Office 'n the Negley Bailding, West Diamond. TT C. FINDLEI, IT • ATTORNEY-AT-LAW, AND PENSION ATTORNEY. Office on South side of Diamond, Butler, Pa. MISCELLANEOUS. p F. L. McQUISTION, V. CIVIL ENGINEER AND SURVEYOR Office near Court Honse LP. WALKER. « NOTARY PUBLIC, BUTLER, Office with Berkmer, next door to P. O I) F. HILLIARIX I). GENERAL SURVEYING. Mines and Land. Connty Surveyoi. R. F. D. 49, West Sunbnrj-, Pa. jC. F. T. Papej i I JEWELERS I / 121 E. Jefferson Street. / — The Simple Life ; S J By CHARLES WAGNER Translated From the FrencK by Mary Louise Hendee t, Copyright. 1901. by McClure. Phillips Is Co. , CHAPTER IV. SIMPLICITY OF SrEECU. SPEECH is tlie chief revelation of the mind, tbe first visible form i that it takes. As the thought, so the speech. To better one's life iu the way of simplicity one must Bet a watch on his lips and his pen. Lot the word be as genuine as the thought, as artless, as valid. Think j istiy, speak frankly. All social relations have their roots in mutual trust, and this trust Is main tained by each man's sincerity. Ouce sincerity diminishes, confidence Is weakened, society suffers, apprehen sion is born. This Is true In the prov ince of both natural and spiritual inter ests. With people whom we distrust it Is as ditlicult to do business as to search for scientific truth, arrive ot religious harmony or nttaln to Justice. When one must first question words and intentions and start from the pre mise that everything said and written Is meant to offer us illusion in place of truth, life becomes strangely complicat ed. This is the case today. There Is so much craft, so much diplomacy, so much subtle legerdemain, that we all have no end of trouble to inform our selves on the simplest subject and the one that most concerns us. Probably wliat I have just said would suffice to show my thought, and each one's expe |-ifne# might bring to irs support an ample commentary with illustrations. But I am none the less moved to in sist on tliis i><>int and to strengthen my position with examples. Formerly the means of communica tion between men were considerably restricted. It was natural to suppose that lu perfecting and multiplying ave nues of information a better under standing would be brought about. Na tions would learn to love each other as they became acquainted; citizens of one country would feel themselves bound hi closer brotherhood as uiot'e Jiglit was thrown on what concerned their common life. When printing was Invented the cry arose, "Fiat lux!" and with better cause when the habit of reading and the taste for newspapers increased. Why should not yie-i* havs reasoned thus; "f\voi jUumiuo bettor ttiua and k-"" el . than jWtV. ¥!»<» locals and books Uutt? at* l)etter we s ij a ii know ~ uat happens, and those who wish to write history after us will be right fortunate. Their hands will be full of documents." Nothing could have seemed more evident. Alas, this reasoning was based upon the nature and capacity of the instru ments without taking into account the human element, always the most im portant factor! And what has really come jibout is this —that cavilers, ca lumniators and crooks, ail gentlemen glib of tongue, who know better than any one else how to turn voice and pen to account, have taken the utmost ad vantage of these extended means for circulating thought, with the result that the men of our times have the greatest difficulty in the world to know the truth about their own age and their own affairs. For every newspaper that fosters good feeling and good under standing between nations by trying to rightly inform its neighbors and to study tlieui without reservations, how many spread defamation and distrust! What unnatural and dangerous cur rents of opinion set in motion! What false alarms and malicious interpreta tions of words and facts! And in do mestic affairs we are not much better informed than iu foreign. As to com mercial, Industrial and agricultural in terests, political parties and social tendencies or the personality of public men, it is alike difficult to obtain a dis interested opinion. The more newspa pers one reads the less clearly he sees in these matters. There are days when after having read them all, and admit ting that he takes them at their word, the reader finds himself obliged to draw this conclusion: Unquestionably noth ing but corruption can be found any longer; no men of iutegritj* except a few journalists. But the last part of the conclusion falls In its turn. It ap peal's that the chroniclers devour each other. The reader has under his eyes a spectacle somewhat like the cartoon entitled "The Combat of the Serpents." After having gorged themselves with everything around them the reptiles fall upon each other, and there remain upon the field of battle two tails. And not the common people alone feel this embarrassment, but the culti vated also; almost everybody shares it. In politics, finance, business, even In science, art, literature and religion, there is everywhere disguise, trickery, wire pulling—one truth for the public, another for the initiated. The result is that everybody is deceived. It Is vain to be behind the scenes on one stage. A man cannot be there on them all, and the very people who deceive others with the most ability are in turn de ceived when they need to count upon the sincerity of their neighbors. The result of such practices is the degradation of human speech. It Is de graded first in the eyes of those who manipulate it as a base instrument. No word is respected by sophist 3, casuists and quibblers, men who are moved only by a rage for gaining their point or who assume that their inter ests are alone worth considering. Their penalty is to be forced to judge others by the rule they follow them selves—say what profits and not what is true. They can no longer take any one seriously—a sad state of mind for those who write or teach! How light ly must one hold his readers and hear ers to approach them in such an atti tude! To him who has preserved enough honesty nothing Is more repug nant than the careless Irony of an ac robat of the tongue or pen who tries to dupe honest and ingenuous men. On one side openness, sincerity, the desire to be enlightened; on the other, chicanery making game of the public! But he knows not, the liar, how far he Is misleading himself. The capital on which he lives is confidence, and nothing equals the confidence of the people unless it be their distrust when ouce they find themselves betrayed. They may follow for a time the ex ploiters of their artlessness, but then their friendly humor turns to hate. Doors which stood wide open offer an impassable front of wood, and ears once attentive are deaf. And the pity Is that they have closed not to the evil alone, but to the good. This is the crime of those who distort and degrade speech: they shake confidence general- iy. M e consider as a calamity the de basement of the currency, the lowering of Interest, the abolition of credit. There is a misfortune greater than these—the loss of confidence, of that moral credit vrhich honest people give one another, and which makes speech circulate like an authentic currency. Away with counterfeiters, speculators, rotten financiers, for they bring under suspicion even the coin of the realm. Away with the makers of counterfeit speech, for because of them there Is no longer confidence In any one or any thing. and what they say and write Is not worth a continental. You see how urgent It Is that each should guard his Hps. chasten his pen •nd aspire to simplicity of speech. No more perversion of sense, circumlocu tion. reticence, tergiversation! These things serve only to complicate and be wilder. Be men. Speak the speech of Uouor. An hour of plain dealing does more for the salvation of the world than years of duplicity. A word no«v about a national bias to those who have a veneration for dic tion and style. Assuredly there can be no quarrel with the taste for grace and elegance of speech. I am of opin ion that one canuot say too well what ho has to say. But It does not follow that the things best said and best writ ten are-most studied. Words should serve the fact and not substitute them selves for it and 111 ak? It forgotten in its embellishment. The greatest things tiro those which gain the most by be ing said most simply, since thus they show themselves for what they are. Yon do not throw over them the however transparent, of beautiful dis course, nor that shadow so fatal to truth called th? writer's vanity. Noth ing so strong, nothing so persuasive, as simplicity! There are sacred emotions, Cruel grit'Li, splendid heroisms, pas •lonate enthusiasms, that a look, a movement, a cry, Interprets better tha.ri beautifully rounded periods. The Wiost precious possessions of tW heart of humanity themselves most simply, V«s convincing a thing must W true, mivl certain truths are more evident they come in the speech Z* ingenuousness, even weakness, than when they fall from lips too well train ed or are proclaimed with trumpets. And these rules are good for each of us in his everyday life. No one can Imagine what profit would accrue to his moral life from the constant obser vation of this principle: Be sincere, moderate, simple in the expression of your feelings and opinions in private and public alike; never pass beyond bounds, give out faithfully what is within you, and above all watch —that is the main thing. For the danger In flue words Is that they live from a life of their own. They are servants of distinction that have kept their titles, but no longer perform their functions, of which roy al courts offer us example. You speak well, write well, and all Is said. How many people content themselves with speaking and believe that It exempts them from acting! And those who lis ten are content with having heard them. So It sometimes happens that a life may In the end be made up of a few well turned speeches, a few fine books and a few great plays. As for practic ing what Is so magisterially set forth— that Is the last thing thought of. And if we pass from the world of talent to spheres which the mediocre exploit, there in a pellmell of confusion we see those who think that we are in the world to talk and hear others talk— the great and hopeless rout of bab blers, of everything that prates, bawls and perorates and, after all, finds that there isn't talking enough. They all forget that those who make the least noise do the most work. An engine that expends all its steam in whistling has nothing left with which to turn wheels. Then let us cultivate silence. All that we can save In noise we gain in power. These reflections lead us to consider a similar subject, also very worthy of attention. I mean what has beeu call ed "the vice of the superlative." If we study the Inhabitants of a country we notice differences of temperament, of which the language shows signs. Here the people are calm and phleg matic. Their speech is jejune, lacks color. Elsewhere temperaments are more evenly balanced. One finds pre cision, the word exactly fitted to the thing. But farther on—effect of the sun, the air, the wine perhaps—hot blood courses In the veins, tempers are excitable, language is extravagant, and the simplest things are said in the strongest terms. If the type of speech varies with cli mate, It differs also with epochs. Com pare the language, written or spoken, of our owu times with that of certain other periods of our history. Under the old regime people spoke differently thau at the time of the Revolution, and we have not the same language as the men of IS3O, 1549 or the second empire. In general, language is now charac terized by greater simplicity. We no longer wear perukes, we no longer write in lace frills, but there Is one significant difference between us and almost all of our ancestors, and it Is the source of our exaggerations—our nervousness. Upqn overexcited nerv ous systems—and heaven knows that to have nerves Is no longer an aristo cratic privilege—words do not produce the same impression as under normal conditions; and quite as truly simple language does not suffice the man of overwrought sensibilities when he tries to express what he feels. In private life, in public, in books, on the stage, calm and temperate speech has given place to excess. The means that novel ists and playwrights employ to galva nize the public mind and compel Its at tention are to be found again in their rudiments, iu our most commonplace eonversatious, in our letter writing and, above all, in public speaking. Our performances in language compared to those of a man well balanced and se rene are what our handwriting Is com pared to that of our fathers. The fault is laid to steel pens. If only the truth were acknowledged! Geese, then, could save us. But the evil goes deeper; it Is iu ourselves. We write like men possessed. The pen of our ancestors was more restful, more sure. Here we face one of the results of our modern life, so complicated and so terribly ex haustive of energy. It leaves us impa tient. breathless, in perpetual trepida tion. Our handwriting, like our speech, suffers thereby and betrays us. Let us go back from tbe effect to tbe cauts ' nnil understand well the wnrning It brings *3. What good can come froui this habit of exaggerated speech? False Inter preters of our own Impression*, we cannot but warp the minds of our fel low men as well as onr own. Between people who exaggerate, good under standing ceases. Ilutlled tempers, vio lent and useless disputes, hasty Judg ments devoid of all moderation, the utmost extravagance In education and social life—these things are the result of intemperance of speech. May I be permitted In this appeal for simplicity of speech to frame a wish whose fulfillment would have the hap piest results? I ask for simplicity in literature, not only as one of the best remedies for the dejection of our souls —biases, jaded, weary of eccentricities —but also as a pledge and source of social union. I ask also for simplicity in art. Our art and our literature are reserved for the privileged few of ed ucation and fortune. But do not mis understand me. I do not ask poets, novelists and painters to descend from the heights and walk along the moun tain sides, finding their satisfaction in mediocrity, but, on the contrary, to mount higher. The truly popular is not that which appeals to a certain class of society ordinarily called the common people; the truly popular Is what Is common to all classes and unites them. The sources of inspiration from which perfect art springs are In the depths of the human heart. In the eternal reali ties of life, before which all men are equal. And the sources of a popular language must be found in the small number of simple and vigorous forms which express elementary sensations and draw the master lines of human destiny. In them are truth', power, grandeur, Immortality. Is there not enough in such an Ideal to kindle the enthusiasm of youth, which, sensible that the sacred flame of the beautiful is burning within, feels pity, and to the disdainful adage, "Odl profanum vul gus," prefers this more humane saying, "Misereor super turbam." As for me, I have no artistic authority, but from out the multitude where I live I have the right to raise my cry to those who have been given talents, and say to them: Labor for men whom the world forgets, make yourselves intelligible to the humble, so shall you accomplish a work of emancipation and peace; so •hall you open again the springs whence those masters drew, whose works have defied the ages because they knew how to clothe genius in sim plicity. y"• [TO BX CONTIMJKD.I BANNS OF MARRIAGE. A Custom That Date* Back to the Primitive Christian Church, The custom of publishing the banns of marriage dates back to the primi tive church, for Tertulllan, who died A. D. 240, states that warning of In tended marriages was given among the eaily Christians. It appears that the publication of banns was habitual In many places long before there was any general law on the subject, since Gregory IV. (1198- 1210) speaks of the banns (from Latin bannum, a proclamation; Anglo-Saxon, ban) being given out in church, ac cording to custom. The practice was introduced into France about the ninth century and In 1170 was enforced In the diocese of Paris. The earliest enactment on the sub ject in England was an order made In the synod of Westminster In 1200 to the effect that no marriage shonld be celebrated till the banns had been pub lished in the church on three several Sundays or feast days. This rule was made obligatory throughout the church by the fourth Lateran council held in Rome In 1215. By act of parliament banns must now be given out in Eng land on three Sundays.—London An swers. THE MAGNOLIA. In the Himalaya. Are Foaad the Most Magnificent Specimens. The magnolia, so called from Pierre Magiiol, professor of botany at Mont pellier in the seventeenth century, Is a genus embracing fourteen species of remarkably handsome shrubs dellclous ly scented and far more hardy than Is commonly supposed. They are very widely distributed in China, Japan and the Himalayas and In Mexico and the United States. The old world species seem to have been the earliest cultivated, the Chi nese preserving the buds as well as using them medicinally and to season their rice. -The purple flowered Japa nese plant was discovered by Kcemp fer in 1090 and introduced into Eng land in 1709. The Himalayas possess three varieties, among ;hom the most magnificent of all, Magnolia Campbell!, a conspicuous object iu the scenery of Darjeellng, eighty foet high, twelve feet in girth, with flowers ten Inches across. North America has given many dis tinct varieties, among them the cu cumber or umbrella tree, tbe beaver tree and the favorite Magnolia grandl florn. BLOWING HOT AND COLD. llow Iron and Steel In Losing Heat lU<e In Temperature. The phen«iienon of a substance ris ing in temperature while losing heat, known as "recalescence," which was first observed by Professor Barrett and Investigated by Dr. Hopklnson, has been noticed In the case of Iron at a high temperature. A piece of Iron was heated to about 800 degrees C. and then allowed to cool slowly. At this temperature It Is bright red, but on cooling to about 785 degrees C. a sud den disengagement of heat takes place, the Iron rises In temperature and glows with a brighter red. This phenomenon was Investigated more accurately by Hopkinson In the case of steel. Bound a bar of this metal he wound a coll of copper wire Insulated with asbestus and Jacketed with layers of asbestus paper. The temperature of the wire was followed during the experiment by connecting the coll to a Wheatstone's bridge to find the variation In Its resistance and from this the variation In temperature The steel bar was theft heated bright red In a furnace and allowed to cool. The temperature fell regularly to 680 degrees C., then rose to 712 degrees C., when It again diminished. COAL TAR PRODUCTS. Some of the Things We Get From This One Time Nuisance. When coal gas was first Introduced as an lllumlnant for large towns the tar which Is condensed from the gas was looked upon as a nuisance. How ever, chemists discovered that coal tar was an excewllngly complicated com pound and lent itself admirably to the production of a great number of use ful chemicals. So we find today that all the various brilliant and beautiful dyes employed for coloring various kinds of fabrics are produced from this substance. Coal tar also furnishes the basis for several kinds of medicines, such as trl- No. 49 onal, Rulphonal and so on. Saccharine, which Is a substitute for sugar. Is also made from coal tar. Carbolic add (phenol), the most important and best known antiseptic and disinfectant, is a product of coal tar. Benzol, a clear and colorless liquid resembling alcohol to some extent, is another distillate which Is employed for removing grease spots. Then we have naphthalene, a sub stance which to some extent resembles camphor and Is employed, like cam phor, to protect woolen fabrics from moths.—Harper's Weekly. THE FIRST BANKS. They Were Established la Italy la the Ninth Century. The first banks of which we have rec ord were established in Italy so far back" as 808 by the Lombard Jews, who had benches, or counters, erected In the market places for the exchange of money and bills. It is from their banco, or bench, that banks hare taken their name. The earliest bankers were also gold smiths and dealers in precious stones, but with the advance of civilization banking became a distinct business. Merchants had deposited their cash in the mint in the Tower of London until Charles I. laid hands upon the money In 1640. In 1645 traders agreed to lodge their money with the goldsmiths of Lombard street, who had strong chests for their own valuables, and this was the origin of banking in Brit ain. The chief banks in Europe were es tablished as follows: Venice, 1171; Ge noa, 1345; Hamburg, 1619; Holland, 1635; Bank of England, 16M; Scotland, 1605; Ireland, 1788; France, 1803; Unit ed States, 1810. Handwriting oa Iron. It was an accident that led to the discovery of the method of transfer ring handwriting to Iron, An iron founder while experimenting with mol ten iron under different conditions ac -1 ddentally dropped a ticket into a mold. He presently found that the type of the ticket was transferred to the iron in distinct characters. Following up tbe Idea which this fact suggested, he procured a heatproof ink, with which he wrote invertedly on ordinary white paper. This paper was Introduced into the mold before the molten iron was poured in. When the mold cooled the paper had been consumed by the heat, but the Ink, which had remained in tact, had left a clear impression on tbe iron. Never pose as an angel until yon are sure that your wings have sprouted a good crop of pin feathers.—Philadel phia Bulletin. EXCISEMAN BURNS. The Way an Old Woman Outwitted the Scotch Poet. A story is told about Burns in his capacity of exciseman. Old Jean Da vidson kept a small whisky shop and was suspected of putting more fresh water Into her liquor than was need ful or lawful. Burns accordingly came with his apparatus and at once detect ed the Irregularity. "Now, Jean, ma woman," he said, "I canna tak this to Dumfries this night; 'tis ower latS. But I'll seal it wl' the king's seal and return to lift It in the mornln\ M When he had gone to his lodging Jean fetched the village cooper, who removed a hoop from the barrel and bored a hole, through which the adulterated liquor was drawn off and stuff of regulation strength put in. Then the hoop was refixed, and Jean, with a brave heart, awaited the ganger. In the morning up came Burns to claim the keg. "One minute, Mr. Burns," said Jean sweetly. "Ye might Jest test that whisky to convince me, since I canna see how I could have been makln' sic a mistake." "It means breaking the king's seal," said Burns, "but I'll Just fix on an other." So the sample was taken and tested and of course found to be all right Burns was bewildered. "Was there aught wrang wi' me, Jean, last nlcht?" he asked. "Weel, Mr. Burns, 'tis na for me to say. Weel, I just thocht ye were fully smert wf your wee tester." TORTOISE SHELL. la Working It Gentle ,Best aad If— sure Are Mainly Used. A tortoise shell Is harder and more brittle than ordinary horn. Heat and pressure are practically the only means which can be employed In working it, and it is Impossible to work tortoise shell at a great heat, since the coloring pigment easily liquefies and obscures the shell, thereby greatly lessening its value. Heavy pressure is also lmpop slble owing to its brittle character. The plates of the carapace, or back shell, are first separated from the skel eton by the application of gentle heat and then flattened by a similar proc ess. The superficial irregularities are next rasped off, and the material is polished, ready for molding into any desired shape. Larger or thicker plates are produced by a process which requires great care and attention. Two surfaces are first rasped and cleaned and are then gen tly heated and pressed together. The heat liquefies them, and the pressure effects a perfect union, making an In visible Joint Tortoise shell combs are cut by the highly ingenious twinning machine, called because two combs are cut froth the same plate, so that the teeth of one dovetail into the spaces of the othet, avoiding all waste. Bells aad Thanderstorms. An Instance of the absurdity of some of the notions held by our ancestors was the notion that the ringing of the church bells had a counteracting effect In a thunderstorm. It was supposed that the vibration of the air caused by the movement of the bellß resulted In the dissipation of the electric fluid in the air. The belief was so common at one time that the bells were rung as soon as signs of an approaching thun derstorm were seen. Science now holds a contrary opinion. Not only does the sound have no possible effect on the air, but the vibration caused by the sound of a bell upon a cloud charged with electricity may cause it to dis charge Its contents upon the ringer of the bell In the church tower. The Hippopotamus. When first the Sudan was opened up it was thought desirable to Impose a tax on any one killing a "hippo," but experience has shown that the "hippo" is unworthy of the care taken of him. He is most destructive. A bull hippo potamus will upset a small boat Th* natives have a curious manner of kill ing a hippopotamus. They attack htm with spears when he is in a sleepy con dition In the river, and attached to the spear is a rope with a huge float at the end of it This float hampers the movements of the unwieldy animal, and after several spears have been driven into him he is easily drawn to the bank and dispatched. London Globe.