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POLK COUNTY NEWS. BENTON. TENNESSEE-
r GK - .. II . T .S . -! -. v. A ! IT IS OF UTMOST IMPORTANCE TO USE CARE IN CUTTING SKINS FROM ANIMALS I 4 OriI "Johnny Appleseed find his way to thousands of our schools this fall he would see something that would well re pay him for all the weary miles he walked planting apple seeds years ago. In many states Arbor day eoines this fall, but the school children of the coun try promise to make almost every day Arbor day this year and during the spring of 1920. Hundreds of towns nnd cities have been entered on the na tional honor roll being compiled by the American Forestry association at Washington. The associa tion hopes to see every young American citizen be come a "Johnny Appleseed, Jr." You remember the story of Johnny Appleseed, as they called him. who, many years ago, went up und down the land planting apple-tree seeds? That was not his real name, but that is what he came to be called. Of course a lot of people laughed at liim, for there were so many trees then. Many thought him crazed. Hut now his idea is taken to te a good one. For many things have happened since the day of Johnny Appleseed. The world war has set our people thinking about many things. One of these things has been the way lumber is being consumed. Then, too, there Is the high cost of living that agitates everyone. In many places the planting of nut and fruit trees Is advo cated, and n campaign Is on to have every victory gardener plant d nut or fruit tree in his garden or back yard. Another fine opportunity , for planting Is memorial trees along the motor highways and good roads that are in the process of building. To these calls of the American Forestry associa tion the people of the country nre responding In hearty fashion. So to the school children of the country comes a great chance to enter actively into the study of outdoor life through the planting of ' trees. " The American Forestry , association will send any one a free planting day program and ln titruetiona how to plant a tree. Coming Arbor days are : Georgia, first Friday in December; Hawaii, first Friday In November; Colo rado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Da kota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Vermont, Virginia, Wisconsin, Washington and Wyoming all have days set aside by proclamation of the gov ernor; North Carolina. Friday after November 1; Porto Rico, last Friday infjNoverober ; South Caro lina, third Friday in November; Tennessee, No vember date set by county school superintendents. With this day before lis, Charles Lathrop Pack, president of the American Forestry association, sends this message to the school children ftfHhe United States: "No finer memorial can be erected by any school or class than by the planting of a tree. Every pupil will have n close and Intimate interest in that tree and therefore the school after he leaves. 1 need not attempt to picture what that tree or avenue of trees will mean to the class of 1920 when it eoines back to the old school for the class re union In 3040. A space on the campus or a walk near the town can be lined with trees, one for each member of the class. The American Forestry association is registering all memorial trees in a national honor roll and urges that all tree planting he reported that it may keep Its rolls complete." What Is Best to Plant. Last spring and fall hundreds of trees were planted, but much bigger plans have been made for tree planting this year and next. If you are not planting fruit or nut trees you will want to study wluit best to plant and here is a list of such tnes divided for you by states: New Kngland states, New Tork, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Ohio. West Virginia, Kentucky, Indi ana, Michigan. Illinois, Missouri and Iowa: Hard wood Sugar maple, Norway maple, scarlet maple, preen ash, white fish, American white elm, red oak, white oak, pin oak, American linden, scarlet oak. Kvergreen White spruce, Colorado blue spruce,' white pine, Scotch pine, balsam pine, hemlock, arbor vltae. Delaware, Maryland, District of Columbia, Vir ginia. North Carol Inn, South Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee, Florida. Alabama, Mississippi, Louisi ana, Arkansas, oklnhomn and Texas; Hardwood Tulip, sycamore, pin oak, white oak.'scnrlet oak, black oak, red oak, white ash, bald cypress, Nor way maple, scarlet. maple, red elm, American white elm, Kentucky coffee tree, American linden, red gum, black gum. haekherry, willow. Kvergreen White pine, longleaf pine, magnolia, live oak, cedar of Lebanon, American holly. Wisconsin, Minnesota. North Dakota, South Du kotn, Nebraska, Kansas, Colo.rndo, Wyoming, Mon tana and Idaho; Hardwood Itur onk, linden, Nor way maple, green ash, wild cherry, larch, American elm, black walnut, haeklerry, honey locust, black locust (less desirable, coltonwood, box elder). Kver green Scotch pine, Austrian pine, white pine, Nor way spruce, Colorado blue spruce, white spruce, red cedar, arbor vltae. New Mexico, Arizona, Utah and Nevada: Hard wood Haekherry, honey locust, green ash, Ameri can elm, black locust, bur oak, valley Cottonwood, mountain Cottonwood, mountain ash, box elder. Kvergreen-Art.nr vltae. deodar cedar, box, eu onymus. California. Oregon nnd Washington (coast re gion) : Hardwood Large-leaved maple, European linden, sycamore, weeping willow. Evergreen Deodar cedur, Monterey cypres. Monterey pine. California. Oregon nnd Washington (Columbia basin) : Hardwood Norway maple, European lin den, sycamore, green ash, silver poplar, Russian poplar, white willow. Evergreen Lawson cypress, bigtree. On the planting" of a tree you will want to pro ceed with the greatest care. For the best results, organize a tree-planting program in your town. If there Is no shade-tree commission or city forester, Interest yourself in the proposition. In selecting trees for street planting the following qualities should be considered in about the order named: Form, hardiness or adaptability, rapidity of growth, shade protection, neatness and beauty. If there Is any doubt on the question It Is advisable to con sult the state forest commission, the local forester or some other authority who can tell what va rieties are best for a given locality. No general rules, of course, can be given, but In a larger part of the eastern United States It will be found that for narrow streets the red maple, red gum or ginkgo can be recommended ; for wider streets, Norway maple, hasswood, horse chestnut or pin oak ; and for wide avenues, white elm, white oak, red oak and tulip poplar. Qualities Needed in Street Trees. Street trees should have hardiness and adapta bility. They should be vigorous, be able to re cover from mechanical injuries and be as re sistant as possible against Insect attack and dis ease. It Is not desirable to have trees which cast too much shade, particularly on narrow streets. Houses and sidewalks need sun, even in summer. Deciduous, broadleaved trees are most satisfac tory. Again, the question of neatness should be be considered; and the tiees which will break up the pavement, such as silver nviples, or those which cover the pavement with then bloom in fhe spring, such as cottonwoods and poplars, should lie avoided. Black locust should not be planted because' It Is likely to be destroyed by the borer worm. Beech is a slow grower and casts ton dense a shade for any street. Trees planted along street should be of the same kind, the same size and. uniformly spaced. On narrow streets trees planted every 40 feet apart, and alternated on opposite sides of the strei't, will be found sufficiently close. On wider streets they should be from -10 to 00 feet, or even farther apart, the distance being determined partly by the size which the tree Is likely to attain anil by other habits. Every tree should have nt least six square feet of earth above its roots. It Is more Important that there be plenty of space where (he pavement and roadway nre paved with concrete than If brick or other loose-Jointed materials nre used. Keep the Root Moist. In planting a tree, move as many of the roots as possible. 'A cloudy day Is better for transplanting a tree than n bright, sunny one, because a bright sun quickly exhausts the stored-up moisture. An Important point Is In regard to packing the earth nround the roots. They should have close contact with the ground. To do this, till In ; round the roots with finely pulverized earth, working It under nnd nround the roots by hand nnd compact ing It. If the earth is wetted down as It Is put In, It will make a much better contact. Many trees which nre unsulted for one reason or another for a sidewalk are most attractive and ornamental In n park or on o lawn. The beech, for Instance, which has no value for street planting. makes a beniK'uil lawn tree; either the native or the European species may be planted. The sour or black gum grows under most adverse circum stances, ?!ut apparently is not well suited fot street p' 4Ing, although as an ornmental tree It deserves; place. Purchi. 'trees from a relianle nursery; beware 'torn f'lwmeo licnltliv well-formed twoxor three inches in diameter and feet high nre large enough for any puiti ' xre smaller trees -en n be used, they generatflve better results, because the root system fJMess disturbed by transplanting. Do nil expose the roots to the sun, wind or frost. Keep wet blankets or canvas wrapped tightly about the roots until the tree is ready to be set out; then plant with the least possible delay. Trim off any broken, 'torn or injured roots. Use a sharp pruning knife and make a clean, smooth cut. Remove all broken branches and cut back one-half to four-fifths of the previous year's branch growth. The size of the top must be pro portioned to the size of the root system or the roots will be unable to supply sufficient water and food for satisfactory growth. Forest-grown frees have poor root systems and must be severely pruned b.v removing the greater part of the side branches. Never cut back the main stem or leader, Dig Wide, Deep Holes. Dig wide, deep holes. Trees become root-bound and make poor growth or die if the roots are eraiuned or twisted., The holes should be n foot or two wider and deeper than is needed to ac commodate the roots. For street trees, the hole should be about twice as large as the root system actually requires. Tartly fill the hole with rich loam and pack it down well. If poor soil must be used, mix with well-rotted manure. Green or partly decomposed manure will burn the roots and must not be used. Do not plant the tree too deep. The upper roots should lie only nn inch or two deeper in the soil than they grew originally. Spread out the roots In their natural position nnd work soil around them, a little nt a time, compacting it firm iv with the fingers or a pointed stick. Occasion ally tamp It with the foot so that no air spaces remain. Also see that the stem of the tree Is kept perfectly vertical. Now water the soli generously. The final inch or two of soil should he left fine and loose over the top of the hole to act as a mulch. After planting, the tree should he staked to prevent It from swaying In the wind and growing crooked. The stnke should be long enough to support the trunk for two-thirds the height of the tree. Trees exposed to tratnV, horses and children should be protected by suitable wooden or metnl guards. Irt case any Injury to the young tree re sults, apply tree surgery methods at once. Shallow cultivation of the soil for three feet around the tree Is beneficial during the first few years of growth. Loosen the top soli with a spade or hoe several times during the season (o keep down weeds and grass. During the hot, dry sum mer months watering should bo done not oftener than twice a week. Tree planting should form a permanent part of the Improvement program in every city nnd town In the United Stntes. It should not be undertaken In a temporary or haphazard manner; but It should receive the constant thought and attention of those who nre Interested In making the community at tractive and at the same time In adding to the future timber resources of the United Slates. It must be remembered that what Is done In' one city or two serves ns an inspiration to others. Lot us keep In mind n thought of future so well expressed In the poem by Lucy Larcom, who said; Skin Drawn Tight Helps Work With Knife. - - gf r - ' ., .ff. ' 7 l( t - m Jl ii r)l WIS 1 - --$$1 ' irf--Vj mr.Kfp 'i A lJLMi lis- r.::rhiu4 V-gV r -yS'Aty- ril p-nS v if " .-"! vr '':-vi S hi 4 " ; i - r v " ui wmHM tea-fej ' 1fn nlm&M I- -M r. . J J 1 -: t x- J&Jt s-X-jZ " ' f ' ' -- lMftSaW fmJ 'MAW - "t.al and even necessary to j SSiiSw rf Sf- rtVO?tfl. AATr? ATL YYCS3MG VA ' I mt if- f of tree 1 : I -J' ft ? , , B , ! rf4. S" '.(ill (Prepared by the United States merit of Agriculture.) Farmers who devote the little extra time necessary in skinning animals carefully possibly only three to five minutes in taking off the skin of a calf, or 15 minutes In the case of a beef hide can increase the value of the hide several times, say specialists of the United States department of agricul ture. This is of utmost importance in view of the present urgent demand for leather, and the increase In price which unscored hides bring on the market. It Is essential and even necessary to exercise the utmost care in removing skins from farm animals. Country hides and skins make up more than one-third of all the nines and skins produced in the country, but too often the value of country hides for leather making is less than that of packer hides. The tanner pays more for packer hides than for those ob tained from farmers or country slaugh terers. This Is due in part to better facilities in the large packing houses for curing and storing the hides, but principally to the fact that such hides have been taken off properly. The tan ner knows that country hides are fre quently removed by unskilled work men and are often cut and scored. When such hides come from a tanner, scores show very plainly and in many cases one-half of the thickness of the leather is lost by snch defects. Im perfections can be avoided and the farmer can make more money by care ful use of the skinning knife, by keep ing the hides clean and free from blood and by pn;wr storage and packing. How to Skin Animals. When animals nre skinned on the j frm, the operation should be per- ! formed on a clean, hard spot under a I tree, if possible, or, If done indoors, j senrlni to fo(J a room with a concrete noor. une j n limb of a tree may be used for sus pending the carcass, but when the hides are removed indoors a block nnd tackle must be provided. The animals should be clenned off, curried and brushed thoroughly, in or der to remove all dirt. The skinning knife should be sharp, though It should not be used any more than Is absolute ly necessary. The use of the knife may be avoided In taking off cnlf skins, except on the head, neck, legs and flanks, as the body skin may be drawn or fisted off. Where it Is necessary to use the knife, the skin should be drawn taut with one hnnd.'whlle the knife Is used with the other, special care be ing taken to hold the back of the blnde close to the skin. If this Is done there Is less danger of cutting or scoring the skins. In lieu of the knife, some butch ers use a sharpened wooden stick shaped like a man's thumb, nnd employ a knife only on the portions of the body mentioned. The first operation in removing a the animal's head. cheeks and face. This should be done while the animal is still suspended. Always keep the hide free from meat, as one of the common faults of country hides is the presence of more or less meat, usually cheek meat. The next, step in the operation is to lower tha nnimnl on its back nnd remove the skin from the legs. Following this, the ' hide should be ripped down the belly, from the sticking cut to the tail, mak ing a neat, straicht rip, free from, jagged edges. The sides are then skinned, working forward to the brisk et and then back to the inside of the hind leg. Lift away the hide with the free hand and stretch it tightly by; pulling outward and upward against the knife or wooden stick. Injury Done By Blood. Blood is objectionable on hides, par ticularly In the summer, as it Is like ly to cause the hair to slip from rot ting or decomposition when the hides are packed. This may result in hav ing otherwise good hides placed in the No. 2 grade on the market. fare should be taken to avoid placing nny hides in the pack until they are frea from animal heat. Allow them to lie folded from three to five hour or suf ficiently long to allow the animal heat to get out of them. If this Is not done, patches of decomposition may result,, and snch hides, though carefnlly re moved, may be reduced in market! valne at least one cent or more ' pound. Preparing Hides for Market. The preparation of hides and skinst for market is of great importance, fori If they are not properly prepared andl shipped they are subject to great de terioration. As a rule, hides are fold ed with the hair side out. It is es-i In the head and neck: on the body of the hide, flesh surface together, and to turn in the tail in ai similar manner. Then a narrow fold! should be made on each side by throw-j Ing back the body edges and legs, keepj Ing the lines of the folds parallel. Stacking Up Hides. In building up a pack of hides thai outer edges should be kept a litllaj higher than the middle, so that thai liquid or brine, formed bV the dissolve ing of the salt In the natural moisture of the hides, may be absorbed by themj If the pack Is low outside, or Is bullti slanting like a shed roof, the brlnoj will seep out, causing the hides to! shrink in weight. In preparing hldesj for market use salt that Is free from large lumps or dirt. Dirty salt will stain the flesh side of the hides. One pound of salt to each pound of the hide Is the rule. If the hides are to be stored, they should be placed In cool (00 to 65 deJ grees Fahrenheit) cellars, from which)! the outside air is excluded. DIVERSIFIED ACTIVITIES IN ONE MONTH "He who plants a tree, Ho plants love. Tenta of coolness spreading out above, Wnyfurera he may not live to see." So in honoring loved ones let us of the present look to the future and by memorial tree planting mnke this better country In which to live, which, after all, I alt the memorial those loved ones ask. Yet what memorial. If it be ercomplished 1 r-T i v I S. J .l ' alLi-Vl 1 f.i..-; r.' . . . : : : 1 V t. "V 4 M r The County Agent Will Take a Chance at Anything. (Prepared by the Tnlted States Department of Agriculture.) A county agent In one of tho eastern states believed In diversified netlvb ties. lie reports as follows for one month'a work: Burned up IK) gallons ofl gasoline, five quarts of oil, hnd six punctures and one blow-out. Trailer broknj awny and upset load; pig fell out of the car and was caught with difficulty afterward Jumped from sty and was run over by nn nnto. Burled three plgst with nil the profits nnd lost 528 beuldes. Tore best trousers getting oer pnsture fence; broke watch crystal loading corn planter; but outside of a fe minor trouble had h very satisfactory month's work."