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THE BRATTLEBORO DAILY REFORMER, FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 1. 1922. WATCHES IN MEDICINE. Two Centuries Have Passed Since the Pulse Watch Was Invented. No detail in medical practice is re peated more frequently than in the count ing of the pulse. The physician is com monly pictured, watch in hand, deter mining the rate of the heart beat through count of the arterial pulse. An accurate estimate of this factor requires an in strument of precision to mark some de finite interval of time. The timepieces now in use are comparatively modern inventions.' In his Fitzpatrh-k lectures n Greek medicine in Home Sir Clifford Allbutt has designated Herophilus as the first physician to count the pulse it is said by a water tube clock and thus to bring it definitely into wemeiology. It is occasionally stated $t the Ger man Cardinal Nikolaus lrens of Cues on the Moselle, who lived in tire fifteeneh century, suggested devices for counting the pulse, though there is no evidence that his schemes were ever carried out. Galileo counted the pulse by means of a pendulum, and the late S. Wier Mitchell has left an interesting account of the pulsilogium of those earlier days when real timekeepers suitable for pulse count ing did not yet exist. In a recent essay on the history of pulse timing Rosenbloom of Pittsburgh has called attention anew to the de serts of Sir John Floyer as the first of the moderns to make regular observa tions on the rate of the pulse, counting the number of beats in the minute by the watchi. liefore this time, though other points connected with the pulse had been extensively studied and pulse doctrines abounded in great numbers The ordinary watch used in Floyer's The ordinary watch used in Ffoyer's time had only a single band. It re corded neither minutes nor seconds. Floyer's "physician's pulse watch" ran only sixty seconds, the date 1707 mark ing the year of the announcement of its medical application. . In these times, when even seconds count much, it seems odd to hark back to a period only two centuries ago when evidently the minute had not yet en tered 'the daily life of man. While the doctrine of the specific pulses a pulse for every malady was dying hard in the days of "observation gone minutely mad, a whole Lillinut of symptoms, an exasperating waste of human intelli gence," as Mitchell has written, the pulse rate so much stressed in these later years was rarely heard of. It seems incredible, says Mitchell, but not until the later French school developed its force can one find in reports of cases the beginnings of those system atic numerations of the breath and the pulse which are encountered in modern case records. It remained for the influ ence of the great Dublin school, to which Uiesman has lately paid literary tribute, to bring about, conditions under which tl. familiar figure of the physi cian, watch in hand, has become com monplace. This timepiece has become a medical instrument of precision, and has given accuracy to the estimate of the heart rate. "We could better lose this knowl edge." Mitchell has written, "than the rest of what the pulse teaches, and yet it is the only pulse sign we can put on paper with perfect precision, as Ileber den remared a hundred years ago." Journal American Medical Society. rOTLATCII A PARADOX ESKIMOS AND SOAP. Must Bathe to Keep From Freezing. Not as Unclean as Depicted. The long-standing libel that the Eski mo objects to soap deserves to be cor rected in the interests of truth', accord ing to Kev. William A. Thomas, Episco pal missionary among the Tigaras at Point Ilopei Alaska. Point Hope is about 3(H) miles north of the Arctic Circle, and is the farthest point north of the Episcopal church's activities. Mr. Thomas and Lis wife are the only white residents of the settlement. Mrs. Thomas, who is a former army nurse and saw service in France during the war, is the only white woman who has ever made the 1.000-mile sledge trip from Point Hope to Xenana. As regards the libel on thle Eskimo, Mr. Thomas has this to say: "The fiction that the Eskimo does not like soap is ab purd, for the wholly practical reason that he must keep clean in order to stand the rigors of the climate. On our way East from the coast a friend asked Mrs. Thomas how she kept herself sup plied with cold cream up in the North to prevent her face from freezing. The reply is that the application of anything that might close up the pores of the skin and prevent the free circulation of the blood is the quickest way to have the face frozen. What applies to a white person applies with equal force to the Eskimo. He has to keep his face and h'ands and feet clean to prevent freezing. If he used veal oil or whale oil or any of the other lotions which he is charged with preferring to soap, he could nt stand the bitter cold of the Arctic climate. As a mater of fact the Eskimo uses a whole lot of soap. In filling an order for dog meat or clothing or anything else that the Kskimos buy from us at the Point Hope store, we find almost in variably that it includes an item of a few cakes of soap, especially of the stronger brand. For the same reason you will find few Eskimos with beards. Like the red Indian they pull out the hair from their faces by the roots, in order that their faces may be kept clean. "I am speaking now. of course, of the Eskimo at home, in his native igloo or hut. And this igloo, by the way, is not necessarily the unclean dugout of snow which it is sometimes depicted. The snow igloo is a temporary affair built for overnight shelter. The igloo in the native communities is a one-story hut made of sod, which is . fitted over a frame of whalebone or of lumber picked tip from the wreckage of ships along the seacoast. It is- a neat, compact af fair, with a large living room, and small, shelfli'ke sleeping rooms which are built into the walls around the four sides of the living room. Generally the roof is constructed of seal gut stretched over the frame upright which serves as a skylight as well. The walls of these igloos are sometimes six feet thick and at the height of the most severe bliz zard you are not aware of the storm outside, save for the undulations of the skin roof under the force of the wind. "On the trail the conditions are some what different, and they apply to the white man as well as to the Eskimo. Obviously, with a temperature of i0 to t'0 degrees below zero, with a little fuel at hand, it is difficult to get water for washing purposes. What water you get is secured through the process of melt ing the snow, and therefore, under the conditions which I have mentioned, you get along with very little water. I have made in my six vears in Alaska, about 10,000 miles with sledges, and over stretches of weeks at a time, I have had to manage with a teacup of water a day for all purposes. So it is with the Eskimo. Kut as I have said, at home the Eskimo takes scrupulous care of himself and instead of soap being .taboo it is- regarded as one of his house hold necessities. Indians of Pacific Coast Fight to Retain Right to Hold Tliein One of the most unusual legal battles in Canadian history has just been staged on the Pacific coast of P.ritish Colum bia, wV.-re some 4U of the Kwakiuti tribe have been convicted of holding a "potlatch," and some of them sentenced to two months imprisonment. Among those convicted was a squaw, the first in the history of British Columbia. The Potlatch is one of the outstand ing events of life among the Indians of the Pacific coast, but very little has been written of it, and this mostly without understanding of the deep social signi ficance of the feast, dancing, ceremonies, and gift-giving which are a part of the event called potlatch. The government's placing restraining laws against the holding of potlatch.es was on the ground that Indians on these occasions impoverished themselves by giving away all their earthly possessions, often the ' savings of years; for when an Indian gave a potlatch, he did give away everything he owned to members of his tribe whom he had invited. In some cases, where a very great chief gave a potlatch, people of other tribes, often hundreds of miles away, were invited. In the years before the white man came, such feasts lasted from 10 days to a month. lint though the government was partly right in its claim, the potlatch presents a paradoxical situation, for in giving away all he possessed an Indian was at the same time acquiring a vested inter-est--the. potlatch was nothing less than a life-insurance premium, old-aee pen sion, and endowment fund all rolled into one. In fact, the Indians had in opera tion a mutual benefit system long before the white man. After the coming of the white man, the potlatch changed considerably. In stead of furs the Indians began giving blankets, flour, guns, and ammunition bought from the Hudson's Pay company. As time went on they took full advan tage of all the wonders of the white man. so in recent years potlatches have presented one of the most incongruous sights perhaps the world has ever seen. There came into existence sewing-machines, ami furniture, and gramophone potlatches: potlatches of cooking uten sils and clothes : boots and clothes ; fre ouently furs and some of these articles. P.ut the chief potlatches in recent times have been gramophone, furniture, and utensils. The writer has been fortunate in obtaining the most recent photos of what may be perhaps the last potlatches ever held. . These photos also show the march of the wild men to the great cere monial hall. Should the potlatches be stopped for ever it will be hard to foretell what will b the effect on the Indians. It is a fact that quite aside from the vested in terest acquired by giving a potlatch the giving of such gave the giver immense prestige. It was the highest peak of so cial ambition for a coast Indian, striven for as eagerly as a nouveau riche try ing to break nto New York's "400." Looked at from this point of view, the taking away of it may rob the Indians of initiative and ambition to earn money to hold one another paradox in view of the government passing a prohibitive 1m w because the potlatch impoverished the giver. Popular Mechanics Magazine. HOW TO PRESERVE CIDER. Agricultural Department Gives Rules for Keeping Apple Juice. In an effort to make apple cider, the great American beverage, a wholesome, all-year drink that conforms to the re quirement of the law, the United States department of agriculture has just is sued a pamphlet. Farm Manufacture of Unfermcntcd Apple Juice, in which are discussed all of the problems from the selection of the fruit to the bottling and marketing of the finished product. Par ticular attention is given to the methods of clarification and preservation that do not require excessive time and labor. According to the booklet the quality of the cider depends to a large extent on the varieties of apples used and whether they are early or late varieties. Early apples usually are lower in sugar content than those that rioen latei' and frequently contain more acid and tannin. Cider nade at anv time is better if the juice of a number of selected varieties is Mended so that certain of them cor rect deficiencies of others. As a guide to blending, the more widelv ?rown va rieties of apples are classified as sub acid, tart, astringent, sweet, aromatic and the reader is told how to make combinations ns well as give a juice having a well-balanced sugar, acid and tannin content. , Apple juice and other juices can be preserved by proner pasteurization in well-scalded containers, hence the use of chenical preservatives is rot neces sary. Tt'der the prohibition law there are certain ' 'lations that apply t.' the roe rvuf act ure and. sale of apple nnd other fruit juices. The booklet contains extracts from the regulations covering the making and sale of cider for beverage purpose or vinegar. Only fully matured, tree-ripe, perfectly sound fruit should be used if a first-class leverage is desired. An apple is cider ripe when about midway between market ripe and dessert ripe, having attained full size and color and developed the flavor and odor characteristic of the variety. Such fruit has begun to soften slightly, but is still too firm for eating. As the making of cider is usually incident to the primary business of growing apples for niarket, and the material used is. ob tained by the grading out of the small, superficially blemished or otherwise un marketable fruit, the product can be greatly improved bv holding the apples under proper conditions for two or three weeks, until they become cider ripe. Working up poor fruit poorly handled into cider can result in nothing but a product of indifferent quality. Partly grown, odorless, flavorless, early wind falls in which the starch has not yet been converted into sugar are worthless for cider making. None of the summer varieties of ap ples used alone will yield juice which comes up in palatability and flavor to the standards set by discriminating us ers. By mixing a few properly selected varieties, however, the cider-mfikr may improve his product. The Winesap is about the. only apple having constituents in such proiiortions as to make a cider that cannot be improved by blending with other varieties. The booklet dis cusses the qualities of a number of va rieties and classifies a large number of the basis of their content of sugar, acid and tannin. FLORIDA RAZOR-BACK BECOMING EXTINCT. Native Ho of the South Is Giving Way to the Pure Bred Porker. Somebody ought to have a genuine Florida razor-back mounted before they become extinct. They are hard to find now. Thus does no less an authority than the bureau of markets and crop esti mates of the United States department of agriculture here officially confirm the suspicion that the porker around which so many yarns have been spun soon will be a candidate for the museum. The Florida farmer is responsible for the passing of a pack of bones nnd brist les chock full of mischief. The razor back, or native hog. usually could work -his body into any place his nose could enter. He was reared on a farm but .was permitted to roam the wood until he became half wild and only a photo graph could portray the damage he could do once he wormed his way into a plot of cultivated ground. As an article of food he was worth little. Florida farmers for several years have been stocking their places with pure bred swine, and now have reached the stage where discussion of a pig's pedigree is considered as of extreme importance. .Co-operative sales af fine pigs, boy's and girl's agricultural agents, and numerous sectional organizations of hog breeders sounded the death knell of the razor back. There is every indication that the razor-buck will soon be extinct. Flori dians have said his backbone formed an edge sharp enough to cut a fence rail and many tourists believed the old yarn that the hundreds of thousands of pine trees on turpentine farms in the state, with the bark chipped off on two sides to a height of several feet, were damaged by the .razor-backs "sharpening themselves preparatory to cutting another fence. Snakes and alligators are rarely seen out side of zoos and now the razor-back is passing. EAST JAMAICA. Miss Muriel Grout returned from a visit in New York last week. Mr. and Mrs. O. II. Gleasou were in Brattleboro Monday, accompanying their son and wife. Mrs. Frank Palmer of Townshend visited her daughter, Mrs. F. M. Butler, and husband recently. Mr. and Mrs. A, J. Adams of Am herst, Mass.. were guests of Mr. and Mjs. G. II. Gleason Sunday. Albert and Fred Rano, formerly of this place, and son of Fred llano, were callers at Ned Peirce's and J. II. Peck's Aug. 20. Those who desire to see the River Sunday school continued, are asked to make an effort to be at its session next Sunday at 3 p. m. Guy Howe was taken to Memorial hospital Friday and operated on imme diately for appendicitis. Reports indi cate that he is doing nicely. His mother went to Brattleboro to stay a few days. Practically a Monologue. Heck I hear that you and your wife had some words last ni-ht. Peck Well. I'll admit that she had some, but the few I had are hardlv worth mentioning. Boston Transcript. The world's largest cotton warehouse is in New Orleans. It has a capacity of S.OOO.OOO bales annually. The Amalgamated Shoe Workers of America, organized in Boston last Jnne as a consolidated organization including all branches of the shoe trade and many independent unions under one head, is approaching the 100,000 mark in its membership. One of the most valuable products of that common marine plant, the seaweed, is algin. a substance capable of a variety of applications in the arts and sciences. It jKissesses 14 times the viscosity of starch and 37 times that of gum arabic. As a sizing for fabrics it supplies the long-felt want of a soluble gum of great elasticity and flexibility. Do you know that the want ad columns contain the most interesting information of any department in the entire paper? f Here, huddled away in small type, you will learn that Mrs. Jones has decided to sell her dining room set and at a fraction of the original price. Then a little further on you will learn that you can have your old carpets made like new through a very simple process. Many people read the want ad columns first because they realize that this is a department of opportunity where thrift and economy beckon to every reader. Get the want ad habit. It pays. " ' " At Full Speed. "That woman's tongue goes like an press train." "Yes, and it's always on the rail." ston Transcript. Q B B B B B BBBBBBBBQBBBB B B B B BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B a B B E3 B B B B E3 B B B B B B B B B Buy With Your Eyes Open When you buy a piano you don't make a selection on guesswork. You want to see it. You want to hear it played. Above all, you want a pi ano that you know by name. You want to buy it from a store you know. Buying a piano is, for most folks, an event. Buying food, wearing ap parel and household needs is an everyday occurance. But, there is no reason why you should not get the same full value for your money. You can. Good clothes, good tools, good shoes, good soap are ad vertised by the manufacturer because he makes them good. Your merchant here has these goods. He believes in them. He backs up his faith by advertising them. Read the advertisements. They keep you abreast of the times. They show you how to better your surroundings and yourself. They teach you how to save money an to get the most out of what you spend. fc v'' f - B B B B B B B B B B B m B a B B B B U a B B B B B E B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B Q BBflDBflDBBBBBBDOBBOBBIl BDtSDaElDHQBBDBBHBEinBBBB.BBBBBBB THE BEST EQUIPPED LITTLE THEATRE , : IN NEW; ENGLAND -, . , ,. The House of Bigger, Better Pictures-Excellent Music. :,. . Good Seats, Fine Ventilation, Ice Cooled, Excellent Projection , , D Coupons Today Presents CORINNE GRIFFITH IN HER LATEST SPECIAL PRODUCTION worce It was a terrible sight she saw on the. other side of the wall. Had her husband been there before her? Could she save him? The trouble occured over a foolish school girl letter that she had written before marriage. It had caused the man she loved to lose faith in her. She found her. happiness wrecked and life barren. A tale of the South blended with life in New York. The best dressed woman of the screen in new creations that will appeal to the women. EXTRA LARRY SEMON -in Well im Be Also News Special Music on the Organ by Mr. Ernest Houde Matinee 2.30. Evening 7.50 No Advance Prices TOMORROW PRESENTS The Sweetest Star of the Screen ALICE CALHOUN IN "The Girl in His Room" A society storyt with a queer twist in which Miss Cal houn has a clever role. Extra Western, Topics of the Day and Aesop Fables THE GREATEST COMEDY DRAMA EVER FILMED He Got There Just the Same! He rushed, he hurried, he was delayed. It was Too Much Business someone said, and all agreed that it is the funniest comedy of the year. Seven reels of real fun in the visualization of Earl Derr Bigger's famous story. Remember the Dates, Next Week Thursday and Friday, and Be Sure to See 6 6 One Clear Call 99 AUTOMOBILE SERVICE Run on Eastern Standard Time South Londonderry and Brattleboro For South Londonderry and vicinity, please leave jour' orders with A. T. Cutting. Phone 33-2. Week Days Sunday Sunday LEAVE a.m. a.m. p.m. South Londonderry. The Ronare 5.45 8.15 - 5.00 Rawsonville Comers 6.00 8.25 5.15 Jamaica. Daggett's Store 6.20 8.45 5.35 West Wardsboro 5.45 Wardsboro, Wardsboro Stage 6.03 Wardsboro Station 6.35 8.55 5.r0 West Townshend, Grout & Dean's Store.. 6.40 8.00 5.55 Townshend 6.55 9.10 fl.10 Newfane 7.05 9.20 6.25 Williamsville Station 7.15 9.30 6.35 West Dummerston Store ..; 7.25 9.40 6.45 Arrive Brattleboro .. 7.45 JO.OO 7.05 LEAVE p.m. a.m. p.m. Brattleboro, Root's Pharmacy .......... 2.45 10.15 7.15 West Dummerston Store , ... ..i. 3.05 10.35 7.35 IVilliamsville Station 3.20 10.45 7.45 Williamsville 35 South Newfane 3.40 East Dove 4.15 Newfane .. 3.30 ,11.00 8.00 Townshend 3.45 11.15 8.1o West Townshend 4.00 , 11.30 8.30 .Wardsboro Station 4.10 11.35 --8.35 Wardsboro 4.8 f West Wardsboro, Wardsboro Stage ...... 5.00 Jamaica, Daggett's Store 4.25 11.45 8.45 Rawsonville Corners 4.40 12.00 9.00 Arrive South ' Londonderry ............. 5.05 12.15 9.15 Order book at Root's Pharmacy, rhone 125, Brattleboro, Vt. ' I. S. SAYRE, Townshend, Vermont Telephone, Newfane 34-31 . We handle trunks and express. Trucking and cars for hire. .. Subject to change without notice.