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VERMONT WATCHMAN & STATE JOURNAL, WEDNESDAY, JULY 6, 1892. jfarm anb (tafcm Addrnii all Inqulrles or conimunlcations In relntlon to Rnrlculture to l)R. T. II. Hobkinb, Newport, Vt. Kditorlnl Motings. In the Household department of this issuc we print a pleasing and forceful poem from the pen of Mrs. II. B. Pblppi, which appearod in the Oranije Advocate. If our pcople owed nothing elsc to the grange, the dtbt to it is a large one for the firm and dtoldod stuud for sex equality which it took in its very incepiiou. We learu from the Advocate tliat for this the order is " in debted to Miss Carrie A. Hall (niece of Oi II- Kelly, the principal founder of the grange), for she it was who flrst proposed the admission of woraen, and that they be entitled to the same rights and privileges as the men. The grange alone, among all the societies, accords to woman her true position of useful ness and atfords her an opportunity to better her condition in life. She takes her position beside her husbaud and brother, not as a silent listener, but as an active participant ia all that tran Bpires. As this is the ouly organiza tion that grants to woman her rights and recognized her sphere of duty, it cannot perish, unless the years roll backwartl and shroud the world in ig norance and superstition." Fkom our rctnarks in our last issue, it will bc well understood that after long study of the matter we can not see our way to the advocacy of a " farmers' party " in politics. But we see no difliculty in the way of all far mers organized or acting as individ uals workiug with all their might for clean and honest politics. To do this, we niust not ouly refuse to vote for un flt candidatcs, but we must work earn estly and unceasingly in our party to prevont unQt meu from receiving the party nomination. This is a sort of po litical work in which auy citizen can take part, and ou his doing so gen erally, the greatest results depend. Yet it is theouethinggenerally neglected by what is perhaps rightly callcd the "aver age " citizen. We all know that tbere are good men good as citizens, good as church members and neighbors whowould notbe worth a straw in pub lic life, where they must be able and flt to contend successfully for popular rights and wise legislation against the self seeking and all-grasping corporate in terests and other liberticidal forces. We want clear-headed, well-traiued rep resentatives, as well as honest and well meaning ones. We want men as sharp. as well as true as steel. We can get them when we all unite in seeking and supporting them. Vermont has a noble record in this matter of getting the best and holding on to it, so far as its part and portion of the national organization is concerued. But in state ruatters there is a lauguor, indifference and lack of sound seuse among our people which is not credit able to us. True, this evil is not con fined to Vermont. It is often worse elsewhere. But here it is more of an anomaly than elsewhere because it is so markedly inconsistent with the course of our people in national matters. It is true that mere good-natured indiffer ence should cease, and that the most honest. clear-headed and capable men should be invariably selected. Let this be done once only, throughout the state. and our state lcgislature would be noted, the nation over, for its phenonienal dif fereuce from the legislatures of other states. - Before a body so selected. lobbyists. or " men with a pull," could und noth ing upon which they could work to auy harmful eud, either through self-inter-est, or simplicity. And if the people of each town, when the legislature rises, should give the member a ' recep tion," at which he should be invitcd to give an accouut of what he saw, heard. did and didn't do, and his reasons there- for, the people would have in every town a chance to study and learu their dutieB as citizeus that would soon be felt for good. Now the members of the granges, without regard to mere partisau poli tics, might. we think, tuke hold slrongly and effectively in thus giving foree, character aud reality to popular govern ment. and in that way set up schools of good citizenship that would more fully entitle Vermont to be called, as Bis marck ia said to have called her, " the most perfect democracy in the world." They could do this individually. and uot merely as members of a secret or ganizntiou. The right spirit and pur posc, stimulated by discussion in the grange, would go forth to do its work on the basis of pure citizenship, not for the benefll of their society merely, but for the public good, for an honest " goverumcnt of the people, by the peo ple, for the people." Such a govern mont we have never had in its purity. A great part of the time it has been more like a goverumeut of the people by profesbional politiciuus for the hebt paying aud best-orgauized corporations, II is to wet'.d out this class of polilicians at the very springhcad aud starliug place that such an organizntion of the people is much to be desired. Aside from the public affairs in the line of politics, state and national, the subject of most immedlate interest to farmers scems now to be the improvc ment of country highways, soas greatly to reduce the cost of local transporta tion from the farms to the railway sta tions. As the wcakcst link is the meas ure of a chain's strength, so the hardest apots in any road are practically the raeasure of usefulncss for the whole road to those who must do business upon it. That bad roads are a heavy tax on the farmer is self-cvident; but It is not so evident how to remedy the ac knowledged evil. In our judgment the rural diBtricts are uot now and are not likely ever to be able wholly to remedy the evil; and more than that, they Bhould not be ex pected to do so. As a rule, those hard spots, here and thcrc, which limit the usefulnessof the entire line of a high way, are hard spots Bimply because of the expense necessary to make them easy an expense that the towns can not meet. Added to this it must be said Ihat it takes trained men to make good roads over hard places. Here we have, then, as the problem before us, how to raise the money, and how to have it wisely expended, in order to have good roads the year around. Plainly this can only be effected by the state taking a lcading and controlling hand in the matter. Under state super vision and at the state's cxpeuse, let the hard spots be made easy; and at the same time let the state enginecr and his assistants teachthe townofncers how to make and maintain the easier portions in the cheapest and most ef fective manner. If some such plan as this should be begun, and properly car ried out, we believe that the entire ex pense of keeping our roads in good con dition throughout their whole extent would be less tban under the absurd, unsystematic, unscientific aud irrespon sible ways of the past. We feel that we are quite unselfish in advocating this view of the matter, for all we have to do is to use the brakes on our farm wagous in drawing loads of eighty bushels of potatoes to the railroad sta tion. It is all down grade. Our Correspondence. We fear that it will be sometime yet before we can get our readers wakened up to the need of a state horticultural society. We don't despair there will be such a society in this state yet; and when its usefulness is seen men will wonder that they were so slow to see it. But in the matter of forestry, there seems to be a real and present interest, as our correspondence this week shows. Our veteran friend, Mr. Wheeler. who is a recognized authority on the circulation of sap and on many other points of tree physiology, writes very interestingly on devious matters about trees. He is entirely right as to the in terchangeable functions of roots and branches. It is more easily demon strated with some species than with others with willows than with oaks, for instance but it is true with all, un der right conditions. Mr. Sruith describes a very interest ing tree of the willow tribe, well worth picturing, and we hope our obliging correspondent will have it photo- graphed. We should be glad to pay for half-adozen copies. A photograph which we had taken of the Great I) erby Elm, a monarch of the original forest, has recently appeared in that excellent weekly, Oarden and Forest, edited by Professor Sargent of Cambridge, Mass., and printed in the Tribune Building, New York. Mr. Kneeland's letteris fullof uaeful information, and is worthy of careful reading. In reply to his first question, as to burning stumps, we have no ex perience; but some of our readers must be better informed, and we hope they can give Mr. Knecland the benefit of their kuowledge in this department of the paper. To the second question we can say that cions will adhere and grow when set at any time during or not long be fore the growing season. As to bud ding, buds will " take" and grow, un der proper conditions, whenever the bark will peal; yet we judge from its universal practice that summer budding gives the best results. But don't put them on the sunny side of the tree or branch, unless well shaded. We don't know ofa perfect cattle tie, but like a swinging stanchion as well as auything we know, taking all points into consideration. On the lice nues- tions, any oily matter is death to lice, but we are not sure which is best. For the warble grub, sulphur may be better; but why not conjoin the two by using a sulphur ointment? We believe the " Equal Hights" etc., maxim flrst appeared in the early days of our republic, in a political tract, or platform. We think Thomas Paiue was its author. The cemeut question we leave to our readera. On the land depreciation question there are various opinions. In Ver mont we think it chielly duo to emi gratiou to the cities aud the West. When the farming population begins to increase agaiu in New Kngland the pricea of farms will go up. Wo do not think farming iB any poorer busineBs than it ever was here; but relatively to other kinds of business it maybe poorer. Even this is open to queBtion. Farm ers certainly live more expensively than they did when we were young, flfty years ago; and there were quite as many farmers that were poor and in debt then as now. As to blaraing the government, that is the snmo as blam ing ourselvoB, for we are the govern ment. If we negligently let our public servants sell out our rights nobody is to blame but ourselves. As to the volumo of currency, we must have enough for the easy trans action of business. But a per capita ratio iB no guidc, as some sectionB rc quire much more coin, or its paper rep resentative, than others, according to the kiud or amount of business carried on. In a poor farming community, consuming nearly all their own products, there is very little use for money. In an active, stirring locality, with mauy kinds of productive industry and a large trade, much more currency is needed. It is a big question. No duubt the peo ple are often robbed or "gouged," but the idle and ignorant are always victims. A New Farm Help. Almost every good farmer in Ver mont knows, and many of them own, the "Cutaway Harrow," and they all know what a good implement it has proved. We uave it our good word when it was flrst introduced, and we still think as much of it as ever. Now the Cutaway Harrow Company of Hig ganum, Conn., has introduced an emery grinder that can be screwed on to the wheel of your mower, and in a few minutes it will sharpen the knives per fectly, just whilethe horses are resting. We have tried it, and conBidcr it the greatest little thing we bave got hold of, and it is not only effective, but also strong and durable. You don't have to spend your nooning grinding sec tions on the old-fashioned grindstone when you have the Cutaway grinders. They are all right, and you can stretch yourself in the shade, after dinner, and talk politics till the team is ready. Various Matters. Aoricultural Editor: Some time ago I sent you a string of questions, which were answered so promptly and courteou8ly that I feel like asking more, for though my ignorance may not have increased since then, the problems that I would like to have solved seetn to rise thickerand faster. (1) Have you or any of your readers had experience in buruing stumps? I tried a solution of saltpeter, according to directions given in the Scientific American, and made a spleudid failure. If success is possible, I would like to know the details. (2) Would cions, cut in winter, grow if set now? How early and how late can grafting be done? I have set them successfully when the trees were in full bloom, aud early in April last I Bet a few (takiui; the cions from the tree at the time), and though there was much cold weather afterwards, and the trees seemed almost dormant for a long time, and I rather expected the cions would all dry up, they are growing well now. Budding is performed in August, but the buds don't grow till spring. Why uot bud in early spring? Who has tried it? The bark would not slip then. Is that all the trouble? It slipB now aud buds cut from well-kept cions may be set, and they will grow at once. A cion sharpeued all on one side may be UBed in place of the bud,if wax is used; uui uuuK u Biiuugei juiui is ouiaiueu by splitting the stock. (3) Has the perfect cattle tie been in vented? and if so, what is it? I have been troubled with lice on cattle, and after tryiug various remedies I call dry sulphur the best, and, believing that " prevention is better than cure," I de termined to apply sulphur, this year, while the stock were in pasture, hoping to bring them to the barn in the fall free from lice. Now I heard some where that sulphur on the cows' backs in summer, to keep the tlies off, would result in great scarcity of gruba the next spring. The queBtion is this: At what time in the seaBon must I com mence the application, in order to kill two biids with one s sulphur? Another question is this: Is there any cheap cement that will stand flre if used in arch-buildiug, etc? Uosendale will become very hard in time, if dried Blowly without much heat. If heated quickly when flrst applied, it will be nearly worthless. Will it stand flre after a month of slow hardeuing, or will it crackle? What is the origin or who the author of the phrase, " Equal rights to all, aud Bpecial privileges to none?" You used it in the Watchman a few weeks ago. I flnd it quoted in the recently formulateu platform of the Indiaua Prohibitiouists. It is one of the mot toes of the party, and often used. It is also often used by the people's party, and seems to be a favorite with our Western farmers. It seems that the cxpress companies, railroads, national banks, distilleries, and some classes of manutacturers have demanded Bpecial privileges and obtained them; but the farmers are like the cougregation who complaiued of the weather. Their pas tortold them the Eord would send such as they would agreo to pray for, but they never agrued. If special priv ileges are right, let the farmers have a few; if wroug, make the other fellows drop their pluuder. Why have farms deprecialeil oue-half iu twenty years? Is not the government largely to blame for it? Should not the volume of cur rency have kept pace with the increase of population? Would not shulting up distilleries aud breweries help the farniors to get better prices? D. A. Kneeland. Waitsfield, Vt. pbcrttsemmts. 2U)bcrtisements. Ladies' Oxford Ties for $1.00, hand turned ones. We have 'eni for 75 cents, migiity good ones, too. We also have six or seven different styles of the $1.25 kind, all sizes and widths, so that we can fit any foot. We want yon to see them. Mr. fTorrm u. wcntz of Oonevn, N. Y., Tells of His Fearful Sufferings After Gastric Fever and His Cure by Hood's Sarsaparilla All who know Mr. W. I). Wentz ive him the best of recommendations or honesty and intccritv. For manv years he has worked for Mr. D. P. Wil son, the liarness maker and member of the Geneva 1 Joard of I lealth. He says : " I was takpn slrk last Octolier With g.utrla fevor and my ObSBN fr rpcovcry was con ldtrtd nlmost liopeless. After 7 wocks tho fever slowly left me, but I could not eat the slmplcst fond without terrltilo dlstress. It seemed that I had recovered from the fever to Dle of Starvation I took ptptin coDipounds, blsmuth, cliarroat, coU ltver oll and mall untll my phyilotAXl confcssed that his sklll was al)out cx bautted and ho did not know what else to try. Kverytliinn I took seemed likr pour- iik mrltril Irnd Into my stomaeli. I liap pened to think I had pai tofaliottleof Hood s Barsaparllla tbat had oeen in the honsefortwo or tlnee years, that I found liail hcneflted mo iuevionsly for dyspi i.sla. I hegan taking it and soon hcpin to feel tictter. I have now taken a little over two hottles und cuu truth fully suy I feel well agaln and can eat uny thliig without dlttreislng mr, even to Pie and Cheese whleh f have been unable to toueh for years. The Knnhsh laiigiiagu does not eontaln words enough to permit mo to express the raise l would like to give to Hood s Barsaparllla." W. V. Wkntz, J8J Custle St., (i va, .N". V. A Cood Voucher "I have known Mr. Warren I). Wentz for many years and ean vouch for hlm as a inan of veraelty and one well known ahout here. I have sold him seveial hottles of Hood's Sarsaparilla during the past few months." M. II. I'aht BtDOB, Druggist, Ceneva, N. Y. Hood's Pills Cure Liver llls MATtVIN & WILSON 21 State Street, Montpelier, - - Vermont, REMOVAL! FUNDERS & PIERCE, Manufacturers and jobbers oi Harness and Saddlery, Horse Clothing and Furnishings, and dealers in Trunks and Bags. Repairing neatly done. Sign of gray horse in window. No. 65 Main Street, Opera-House Block, Montpelier, Vt. FOR SALE. The premlses on State street now occuplert by Clmrlea A. Harnard, situated between tlie dwelllnp nouses of ('tiarteH Dewey aiul (ieoru W. Iteed.and conststlnK of house, shen and tiarn, witli about oue foutrh acre of land. 1'osaesalon jflven on April l Kor tenna of paytnent and nrire, ajnily to ttKK(iK NV. WINtl, Kooin 4, Union liluck, Montpelier, Vt. Tlie KLeeley Institute For Opium and Drunkenness, MONTPELIER, VERMONT. The Montpelier Iustitute is the only authortzed branch in Vermont of the famous Leslie E. Keeley Co., of Dwight, IU., for the rure of lhiuor, opium aud tobacco habits by tl.o nf tliH DouldH f!hloridH of Gold rteinedie.s. The U. 8. covernuient has adopted tliese remedies in twenty-eight soldiers' andsailors'homes, and they aro strongly endorsed l,y proKiessive phvsH'ians, pniluntnropisis anti umnw, lncMuuuig ur. x . w in, xai mage of Brooklyn, N. Y., who recently addressed the .r00 patieuts at Dwight, IU. Care fully kept records show that ninety-Hve per eeut of cures by these remedies are perma uent, aud that about '.10,000 homes have already been made liappy by them. MONTPELIER, THE STATE CAPITAE, Is a pk'turesque town, with shaded aveuues, excellent hotels, deliuhtful drives amid tine mountain scenery, Mirror Lake aud Benjamiu's Falls, very attractivo localities near at hand, and direct eommunicatiou to Cauiel's Ilump, Mount MauHtield and other noted localities. For further iuformation address The Keeley Iustitute, or Box 71, Montpelier, Vt. All correspondence contideutial. Well Bred Soon "Wed G-IRLS WHO USE ARE QUICKLY MARRIED. TRY IT IN YOUR NEXT HOUSE-CLEANINC. vv The only PalDl that will lUCOeMfull? reallt tlie actiou o Nalt air, the suu's direct rays, aud coal gas. Facts ilemoustrateil liy actuul tests. : LIQUID RUBBER PAINTS 'tV.Ml most ilurable aiul 00101 lasting, einliracing an we latest stylish shaden iu body and trimmtUK colors A KornHrkable Wlllorr. Aokicultukal Editou: I feel much interest in your woodcraft col umn, hoping to get a great deal of in formation out of it. In my work sur veying during thirty-flvc years, I have had my attention called to many novel ties and ftpeculations in this line. A few days since I noticed a willow tree standing near the road in the east part of this town, at the base of Mount Ilunger, near an old cellar, indicating that it was planted there for a shade-tree many years ago. It has the appear ance of having been cut off near the ground, and the branches nre couse quently low, though it has a well-de-veloped trunk, which measurestwo feet above the ground twenty-four and one half feet in circurafercnce, and the ton covcrs one-eighth of an acre of grounu, being symmetrical, and having an aver age diameter of eighty-three feet. A photograph of this monster shade-tree would be fine for any purpose. H. F. Smith. Waterbury C'cnter, Vt. Houses Painted Ten Years Still Looking Well. MNboU'a Ltciuid Rubtier House 1'aluU, Indestructible Barn PttnU. (.'arrlage aud Wagou l'aints. Ohleat Mixed 1'aiut House in Amario. Kstablislied 1840. Correspondence loUolttd. W. NOBB80LL, I'roprietor, aud '.'W l'lymouth street, Brooklyn, New ork. An Inyerted Apple-Tree. Aouicultural Editou: Itrustand hope that your iuquiries in relation to forestry matters, such as aee. size, height.abnormal growths, diseases, etc, may receive attention as requested. All such matters are very interesting to me, together with the flow of sap, its origin, direction of rlow. the philosophy of its flow, the zero, pressure and suction, conditions of the maple. etc. I know of an apple-tree, now in full bearing, the owner of which told me that when the tree was young he took it up and inverted it, setting the top in the ground with the roots in the air. It is now a beautiful tree, of fine proportions. bear ing apples on limbs that were once roots. This circumstance would seem to contlrm an idca that I have long en tertained. that any given cell on the Btem or body of a tree may become a stem or a root as the conditions may be. I have an alder as large as my arm, some ten feet high when erect, but now it lays ou the ground. and the dormant cells on the under side have developed roots, and the cells on the upj er or opposite side have developed stems. If this tree had been laid over on the ground on the opposite side then the cells that have now become roots would have been stems, and vice versa. Draw fresu dirt up around a stalk of corn, aud those cells otherwise dor mant will develop into roots, throwing out another circle of them to strengthen the stalk. If all farmers, especially those who make maple syrup aud sugar, would become interested iu that part of botany that relates to plant and tree growth, they would be more interested and delighted in their avocation, eB pecially the sugar-maker, who would be practically benefited. TmoTfiY Wheeler. Waterbury Center. Vt. Fifty Prizes. Ata meeting of the Board of Direc tors of the American Jereey Cattle C'lub, held May 4, 1892, it was directed that fifty prizes of $25 each should be offered for acceptable essays on Jersey cattle. This competition is to be gov erned by the following rules: (1) Subject, Jersey Cattle. Anything pertaiuing to their history, value, us3 tulness, care. treatmeut. peculiarities of product, etc. It is desired that these c sgays shall cover as far as possible all points on which present owners, in tentling buyers, persons who do not but who could prolitably keep Jerseys, cou sumers of mllk, butter, etc, would nat urally desire information. (2) Size. Xo essay shall contain less that 000 nor more than 900 words. (3) Time. All essays must be sub mitted on or before September 1, 1892. They may be sent earlier, and the com mittee request as prompt attention as is practicable. (4) Conditions. All essays submitted are to be. the property of the Ameri can Jersey Cattle Club, regardless of prizes. No essay will be awarded a prize unless it is considered by the com niittee to ruerit publication. (5) Competitors. Forty of the prizes are open to competition by men. Ten of the prizes are open to competition by women, and, in view of the great in'erest taken iu Jersey cattle by women, it is confidently expected that many will subruit valuable essays. (0) Aicards. Prizes will be awarded aud paid witbin sixty days after the contestcloses. (7) ConuntMee. Well-known gentle men will act as judges in this compe tition. (8) Swjgestions to Neiv Writers. Write plainly and only on one side of the paper. Write sirnply, just as you would talk. D m't criticise or attack other breeds. There is more of value to be said about the Jersey than can be put in auy one essay. Don't try to cover too many points, take one part of the subject and make it complete. If you wish to write more, put it in another essay. Competitors may submit as many essays as they choose. Should you desire circulars for your friends, they will be sent on application. AddreBs a!l commuuications on this subject to the American Jersey Cattle Club, No. 1 Broadway, New York. N.Y. A CHICAOO butcher says ten sheep are uuw killed in that city to one ten years ago. The number of sheep con sumcd by our cities is annually in creasing. There are more well-fed muttou sheep in the market than for merly, and people are beginuing to ap preciate the wholesome qualities of mutlon. Georgia spent 8,000.000 the past year for fertilizers aud $3,000,000 for mules and horses, to say uothing of cat tle und hogs. Bucklen's Aunica Salve. The best salve in the world for cuts, bruises, sores, ulcers, Balt rheum, fever soree, tetter, chapped hands, chilblains, corns and all bkiu eruptious, and positively cures piles, or D0 pay required. It is guarMlteed to give perfect satisfaction, or money refuuded. Price twentv-tive oeota per box. For sale by C. Blakely, Montpelier, Vt. Chii.hkkn Cry for lUtcher's Castoria. Childhen Cry for Pltohet'l Castoria.