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THE NEW ERA,
" hat |s >t but a Map of |>u ; v I -1f<■ - Cowper. Portsmouth' la. * AT 11 R DAlf Jl I.Y 2 b, 1 8 4 « . OUR FLAG! FREE TRADE—LOW DUTIES—NO DEBT -SE PARATION FROM HANKS—ECONOMY_RE *“"*“«* EX PRESIDENT TYLER. Lx-Presii.ent lyler passed through Baltimore, on W ednesday evening, on his way South. GENERAL COURT MARTIAL. The General Court Martial for the trial of Gen. Edmund I*. Gaines, the Hero of Fort Erie, for too much patriotism, convened at Fortress Monroe, Old Point Comfort, on Thursday last. We learn, among the officers ordered to Fortress Mon roo, as mouthers of the Court, and witnesses are a number of the IIoroe9 of Palo Alto, and Resaca de la Pama. NAVAL. I he U. S. sloop Germantown, will be ready to launch from the Philadelphia Navy Yard, in about !20 days. The U. S. brig Truxton, Comn’dr Carpenter, was at Havana July 8th. She will doubtless make a cruise in the vicinity of the island ; but we are glad to learn that there is no ground to apprehend any danger to our commerce from pri vateers or pirates in that quarter. CONGRESSIONAL. in the Senate of \Yednesday, Mr. Cameron of Pennsylvania, spoke in opposition to the Tariff bill. The House passed the joint resolution, provid ing ih.it the public printing should be executed by contract. Other matters, of no great moment, occupied the residue of the sitting. In the Senate on Thursday, Messrs. Upham and Simmoms spoke against the tariff bill ; the latter not having concluded at the hour of ad journment. The House.was engaged in discussion on va rious propositions, but came to no affirmative de cision on any of them. There is a House bill now lying in Committee of the Whole on the state of the Union, and which was reported unanimously, as we have understood, many weeks since from the Judiciary Committee, which we regard ns probably one of the most important measures riot yet acted upon by the I louse. It is entitled a “ bill creating the office of Assistant Secretary ofState, and for oth. er purposes. It proposes to re-organize the Department of State. TREASURY NOTE BILL. 1 lit; act, to authorize an issue of Treasury notes, ami a loan, having been passed by the Senate and House of Representatives, was signed the 22d inst. by the President—we shall publish it in our next. OCEAN STEAM NAVIGATION. A 220 feet kee! intended fur a steamship of 1750 tuns, for the Ocean Steam Navigation Com pany, was laid in the yard of Westervelt &. Mackey, New York on Tuesday. It is expected that this vessel will be completed in time to tako her place in the line on the 1st of March next. FIRE AT FAYETTEVILLE, N.C. A fire broke out on the 22nd inst, at Fayette ville, destroying 25 to 30 framed stores and ware houses, and-three brick stores. Some of the prop erty was saved, but much was lost by the rapidi ty of the fire. AMERICA, ENGLAND AND FRANCE. The months of .May, June, and July, 1846, will long bo remembered by the citizens and sub jects of the eliove named countries. Simultane ously have the Legislatures of these great bodies of the World,’ been engaged in most exciting de bates. The American Congress has been engag ed in the subject of tho Oregon Territory, the Mexican War, and the Tariff—all «f which have, or will be carried through, in accordance with the views and desires of the President, and the great Democratic party that elevaied him, to the highest and most honorable office in the world. In the English Parliament the most important subject, has been debated and carried, that ever < nmc before that august body—a subject, which, hut for the concession of the aristocracy of that country, would have involved it in a civil war. In attempting to carry this (the Corn Bill) through the House of Commons, the Premier Sir Robert Peel risked more than any other Brit ish Minister has risked, since the time of the First Charles. And lie was successful in a good cause, the cause of the people of Great Britain. But lie was defeated and compelled to resign, in a had cause, the Irish Coercian Bill. YVe re gretted his bringing forward this Bill. YVe were convinced months ago, as our files show, that it could not he carried, and felt Jess regret in his ultimate defeat, from the tenacity with which he clung to its passage. All are liable to err, and in this lie has erred. All have Rome hobby, which 6onner or later leads them into difficulties, from which few escape harmless; and Sir Robert Peel, we reorct, has fallen, through his obstinate determination of making the wildest districts of Ireland as orderly and secure, as the precinct of Bedford Square In France, the Minister Guizot has had his hobby,—the grand “ American balance of power” hobby, which he could, through the venality of the placeholders in the Chamber of Deputies, have carried through, and no thanks to him, he would have had passed bofore this day. but for the energetic course, of the present Executive of ttie Union, in our Mexican relations. Mad the President, his Cabinet, and the Con gress of the United State*, remained a few months longer inactive,—had Gen vPnylor and his army remained quartered at Corpus Chnsti, until our last Anniversary of Independence, the Oregon 'Treaty Would not have been signed ; France would have interfered in our Mexican difficulties and a general war would have commenced by both F.nglnnd and France against this country that would have caused the loss of thousands of lives, and the expenditure of hundreds of millions of dollars. All, all have been averted by the en ergy. and decision, of the President and his Cabinet. Painh i. Tr tnr.oy.—James Ryan, while drunk, at Cleveland. Ohio, tn attempting to shoot s companion. :,liot hi:; -on. aged about three years. P ROFITABLE IN VESTM ENT_PORTS MOUTH rail Road. The Portsmouth and Roanoke Kail Road will bo sold in this Town, on tho 4lh of September next. For the purpose of more clearly pointing out tho advantages of tho Portsmouth and Roanoke Rail Rond, over the Route through Petersburg, to Portsmouth, via thp James River, we have had a diagram cut, illustrating tho two Routes. It will be perceived that the distance from Weldon, to Portsmouih by the Portsmouth and Roanoke Rail Road, is only 78 miles. From Weldon to Portsmouth, on the Petersburg Rail Road via Petersburg. City Point and the James River is 169 miles, leaving a hallance in favor of the Portsmouth and Roanoke Rail Road Route of 91 miles! viz;— From Weldon (A) to Petersburg (B) CO miles “ Petersburg (B) to City Point (C ) 9 “ “ City Point(C)to Portsmouth (D) 100 “ 169 miles From Weldon to Portsmouth 78 “ Difference in favor of the P.& R. R R. 91 miles The large number of travellers arriving daily at Weldon, N. C., from the South, seeking their way to the Northern cities, urges in the greatest degree, the undeniable fact of the importance of resuscitating and rebuilding upon a proper basis the Portsmouth and Roanoke Rail Road. To Capitalists, an opportunity is now offered to invest in this enterprise profitably, beyond the shadow of a doubt; and we call upon such to deliberate upon the facts. With the revival of tho Portsmouth Rail Road through to Weldon, N. C., trout the immense number of travellers arriving at that point from the South, it it? fairly conreeded that of the whole, at least nine tenths o! the travellers would pass over the Portsmouth Rail Road, this fact is more deducible when we see with our own eyes, the preference now given to the James River, over the Great Mail or the Richmond and Fredericksburg Route, whilst the latter place their passengers into Baltimore twelve hours in advance of the former Line. Notwith standing the preference now given to the James River Route, provided those passengers come down on the Portsmouth Road, witliadirect con nexion to Baltimore, the traveller would arrive in that city several hours in advance of the Mail or Richmond Route, and some 15 hour ahead of the James River Route now carrying at least 3-4 of the whole Southern travel. 1 he distance from W eldon to Portsmouth, is 78 miles, time of running on a good Road say 4 hours, thence to Baltimore 14 hours—in all 18 hours. By the James River-Routc from Weldon to ; Petersburg GO miles, thence to City Point, and to Portsmouth by steamboat 169 miles, 19 hours; thence to Baltimore 14 hours in all, via Peters burg and James River Route 33 hours, thus showing conclusively the superior advantages pos sessed by this Route, over all* others, to the travelling community. W e will now refer to the commercial advanta ges, this Road possesses, over the Petersburg Rail Road. By extending the Portsmouth Rail Road to Gaston, N. C., the terminus of the Ra eigh and Gaston Rail Road, as well as that of the great Roanoke River, for boat navigation we ar rive at a point where our facilities for receiving the freighting of that rich country, will be upon the same footing as the Petersburg Rail Road, and from the known fact that the preference was heretofore given to tho Portsmouth Rail Road, even when laboring under tho great disadvantage i of navigating down to Weldon, through a rugged navigation or 12 miles, part of which was through a Canal liable to inundation,— the operations of which were trequenily stopped for weeks at a time. Our citizens have never yet been awake to the vast quantity of Produce brought to Gas ton ny these sources of communication from the interior. 1st, by the Great Roanoke River ex tending several hundred miles through the rich est portion of Virginia and North Carolina. 2d, by the Rail Road from Raleigh, N. C., running into the wealthiest portion of ihat State. It is also a known fact that more than two thirds of the produce arriving at Gaston is intended for shipment coastwise, viz: Baltimore, Philadel phia, New York, Boston, New Orleans, Charles ton, and to every seaport on the Atlantic ; is it not then to bo conceded that the whole or nearly all intended for transhipment would find its way down the Portsmouth Road? It can, and be brought at much cheaper rates, and with greater despatch. Now take a view of the return freights, and we asseverate that goods shipped from Now York, to Raleigh or Danville, can bn put in those places via Portsmouth Rail Road, at least 4 davs in advance of any other Route, this must be con ceded by nil, when we state, that by so doing wo avoid the circuitous windings of the James River and the difficulty of navigating the Apparnatox, to Petersburg, to which placnall goods shipped to Raleigh or Danville are consigned. With these advantages is it not to be inferred that a largo portion of the goods shipped for the Roanoke or its vicinity, or on the Dine of tfie Raleigh Rail Road, will pass over the Portsmouth Rail Road? There is not the slightest doubt that the freight ing business alone from Gaston, to Portsmouth, and return, would, in one year, after completing the proposed connexion, exceed $100,000, and go on to increase annontly. This alone from freights woold keep a Rail Road (built upon the T iron principle,) in thorough order, meeting every ex pense, and pay a dividend of ten per cent, upon the amount invested, whilst the amounts received from passengers would increase the dividend to at least 15 or 20 per centum. A. F. Cunsinomam. Esq.— Friendg r>f Tem perunee.—A lecture will be delivered this eve ning at early candle light, in the new Baptist Church, by A F. Cunningham, Esq., Editor of the "Old Dominion.” from Portsmouth, Va. Ratffgh Standard of H'tdnttday. FREE TRADE. I he following letter says the Union, is from a gentleman, whose views and opinions are entitled to respect, J.,et the farmers of the coy nicy and their representatives read it, and determine whether free trade is not an object to them : New Yokk. July 20, 1846 «1/t/ Dear .Sir:—The revenue bill, now >>efore the Senate, excites more interest here than any other subject. The protectionists rave ami swear; the friends of the " greatest good to the greatest number” fervently hope it may pass. How can a democrat—the enemy of monopolies—opposed to the plan of favoring classes at the expense of the masses — how can such an one hesitate to sup. port this hill ? I wish a few thousand western farmers were here to see what virtue there is in free trade. If they could go with me to the docks, and see our gigantic packet ships literally groan ing under the weight of flour for England, they would see that a foreign outlet for this most plentiful article is something of an object to them. Produce, under thect/rc all tariff of 1842, is now unprecedentedly cheap—flour less than 04 per barrel. Were it not lor the large shipments to England for the last three months, it! anticipation of the repeal of the English corn laws, flour at this moment would not he worth three dollars per barrel in this market, England has relaxed her protective policy, and Iter markets.-no now thrown open to the American former. Shall we recipro cate this liberal movement ?—or shall we perti naciously adhere to that poliev which speaks to England this language : •• We do not expect you to hov of US, BECAUSE WE WII.L NOT BUY OF you ?” Let the farmer who looks for a vent for his immense surplus, answer through his repre Rentatives. The question before the Senate em phatically is, Shall the agricultural and commer cial classes be longer ground down to pamper the already wealthy and bloated manufacturer—nr shall they be relieved from that depleting ex hausting process which is going on under the tariff of 1842? 1 he idea that labor is protected by high tariffs, is by ns, who have always li red imonu the manu facturers, known to be all gammon. The pro tection is to capital, not labor; to the rich, at the expense of those who “ sow and reap ;” to bankers who are afraid of being occasionally called upon for specie, under the operations of foreion com merce. I repeat, let those in Congress, who doubt that foreign commerce is an object to us, visit New York, and accompany me to our docks, and there see the flour of Indiana, Illinois, and Michigan; the pork, lard, and beef of Ohio; the tar and turpentine of North Carolina—not to men tion the cotton of the south—all wending their way to Old England. The game is in the hands of the Senate, to be played for “ weal or for wo” to the country. Gud grant they may emancipate us from that accursed policy which is suited only to the dark ages! The protectionists do not yet quite despair. It is sometimes suggested that it would ho marvellous if a single democratic sena tor could not 1m induced to he among the mission: when the final vote is taken. The eyes of the whole country are upon every member of the Senate. If all are not at the post of duty when this great question is taken, the people will insist upon knowing the reason, and the true and the whole reason. I have no fear for the result.— The protectionists reckon without their host.— Money cannot buy, panic makers cannot frighten, a true democrat. Every friend of free trade here regards the hill as safe. The Whigs and protec tionists almost give up, but cherish still a faint hope—a hope founded only,upon the remote pos sibility that one democratic senator may either be coaxed or frightpned over to their side, or be in duced to he away when the question is taken. Such an expectation is surely illusory. Twenty eight democratic senators are here regarded as certain tor the bill.” CASTLE OF SAN JUAN DE ULLOA. The following description of this fortification, taken from an article in the New York Sun, will afford some idea of the efforts necessary to a suc cessful bombardment of this almost impregnable castle :— So great is the superiority of stone over wood en walls, that our naval commanders and engi neers have deemed it impossible for the whole force of our navy to take the Castle of San Juan de Ulloa, defended as it is at present. It 13 laid down as a rule and confirmed bv experience, that one gun in a well constructed fortification is as efficient as ten guns fired from a ship. The chan ces are that in an attack between a land battery of ten guns and a ship of one hundred, the latter would be destroyed. A ship is every where ex posed ; her hull, rigging, men. guns and carriages, A fort, and especially that of San Juande Ulloa, exposes to the firo of an enemy only the gun it self, a small part of the carriage, and now and then a head or arm raised above the parapet. The ratio of the exposed surfaces are as about twenty to one in favor of the fort. Moreover the ship is always in motion, so that her gun, though pointed accurately for the moment, may by anal most imperceptible motion of tho ship, carry its shot at a wide distance from the mark. The gun in the battery is perfectly stationary, and the mo tion of the ship can at most vary the shot aimed at it but a few inches. A paixhan gun or shell or hot shot, which would be destructive to a vessel, would be powerless against the stone rampart of a fort. A ship has many vital points. A single shot may disable her by carrying away a portion of her rigging or her rudder: a few shots may sink her, or hot shot may set her on fire. The risks of the battery in comparison with these are small. One case in which a fort can he put on an pquality with shipping, is that in which the mag azines are exposed, as were those of San Juan de Ulloa at the time it was taken hy the French. The Castle was then lost, as it were, by accident. Two magazines were blown up—destroying a large number of men,—and six more were left to follow the samo fate. The governor of the garri son surrendered, to protect himself against his own means of destruction. The French did not themselves drpam of taking it, and the 8250sh(>t and shells they fired,might as well have been thrown into the sea as against the stone walls of the Castle, as it regards any effect produced, except that of the explosion of the maga zines. The Castle at that time was without bomb proofs ; now it is strongly fortified, well supplied with bomb proofs, which will secure the rnaga zincs, and garrisoned by a full and well disciplined corps under tho commands of French and English artillerists, and well supplied with guns of heavy calibre and furnaces for red hot shot. We can no more calculate on exploding the magazines, than we can on meeting Paredes at the head of an ar my without arms. San Juan de Ulloa is at this moment one of the most formidable fortresses in the world. INSURRECTION IN CHILI. The recent election of General Bulnes to the Presidency, it appears, has caused considerable dissatisfaction, and called forth the bitterness of his enemies. On the 7th March, at lOat night; a general alarm was given throughout the city of Santiago, | when the insurrectionists intended to strike a heavy Mow. To inflame the ppople, huge pla cards denouncing the Executive in very inflama tory language, were borne through the streets with torches in front. The military, headed by the President, wore at once called out, hut owing to the great crowds and excitement it was long lime before the city could be quieted. Toward morning, however, order was restored, and martial law at once prevailed. By daybreak upward of 20 ringleaders and a large number of others had been arrested From the New Orleans Picayune, July 16. LATEtf FfyOM THE ARMY. The steamship New \ork. Capt Phillips, ar rived Iasi evening from Brazos Santiago, via Gal veston. She lell the Brazos on the Hih and Gal veston on the 13«h inst. She brought among her passengers Col. McIntosh and son. I.ieut. Bihb, Lieut. Power and Lieut. Lawe. Twenty dis. charged soldiers also came over on her. It gives ns pleasure to state that Cnl. McIntosh has recov ered in a great measure from his wounds. He was at the public table last evening at the St. Charles, as his numerous friends in Savannah, New York and throughout the country will be most happy to hear. The brig Empressario. previously reported a ground on the Brazos bar, has been got off with out any damage, and was to sail for this port on the 12th inst. The revenue cutler Forward was at Galveston on the 1 I th inst. trom Brazos Santiago. She has been ordered to cruize off the coast of Texas. I he British sloop of war Rose arrived at Bra zos Santiago on the 9th of July, from Tampico, and the U. S. schooner Flirt arrived there on the I 111* Rum the same port. They confirm the re ports already given of the St. Mary’s attempt up on the Mexican gunboats. Sic. Wo derive our news from the army in a great measure from the Malamnrns Reveille of the 8th inst. I’he7th Regiment of Infantry left on the 6th for Camargo. Three companies by the way of the river, on the steamer Big llatchie, the others taking up the line of march by the way’ of Reynosa ; both detachments were expected to ar rive about the same time. Besides the Aid and theBig Hatchie. the Troy, Capt. W right, had arrived at Matamnras, and the papers expected a grnere/ move before long. Verbal accounts represent that there are ten boats at Matamnras, |and that the army is moving as fast as it is possible to despatch the troops up the river. rhe general health of the army is represented as good, a few cases of dysentery and camp fever alone occurring. From the Philadelphia Ledger. INTERESTING FROM MEXICO. Ry an arrival at New York, from Havana, on the 9th instant, we have dates two days later than previous advices. The steamship Clyde arrived at Havana on the 7th instant. She brought ad vines to the 23d ult., inclusive, with the following important items. An American brig had been re" ported as blockading the port of Alvarado. Her boats had, in pursuing a loaded vessel into the port, come in encounter with some armed boats of the Mexicans, and according to the Mexican ac counts, had been driven off; but it seems that they were recalled by signals from the brig. The latter sailed the next day. 'The inhabitants of Alvarado had turned out cn mnsse, and subscrip tions to the amount of 03000 had been made for the erection of fortifications. One brigade of tbe army of reserve had march ed to the aid of the army of the North, showing that the-outbreaks in Jalisco would he suppressed previous to any movement against the army of General Taylor. The remaining body of reserve would remain in the capital till the arrival of Gen. Bravo, so that the forces previously announced as having collected at Monterey have been very much overrated. From the Castle of Perote a large number of mounted guns and ammunition had been sent to the defence of the city of Mexico. 'I’he steamship Clyde, sailing from Tampico subsequent to the bombardment, announced an ac tive connnnading going on between the Mexican gun boats Queretana and Poblana,and the Ameri can brig St. Mary’s. The English steam frigate Vesuvius had sailed from Tampico for Vera Cruz, in consequence of the refusal of the captain of the St. Mary’s to per mit hellion to be taken on board the Clyde._ Much trouble was expected to accrue from this refusal. The following statement was received by ex press at Vera Cruz on the 30th ult: “ The Cali fornia.1) have separated from Mexico. Cen. Tay lor has occupied the country at the right of the Rio Bravo, and had advanced towards Saltillo.— The town of Altamira, distant a day’s journey from Tampico, was in the hands of the Ameri cans.” Gen. Rodriguez de Celia has taken the place of Bravo, in the government of the department at Vera Cruz. fn relation to the expected visit of Santa Anna to Vera C#uz, the Picayune says: It was the general belief in Havana that upon the arrival of the English steamer of the 9ih inst. for Vera Cruz, Gen. Santa Anna would leave at once, with his friends Almonte and Rpjon, for Mexico. This determination on the part of the ex-President hns been formed upon his receiving assurances that ihe Castle of San Juan de Ulloa would, upon his arrival, declare in his favor._ General Santa Anna expressed himself freely in regard to the war with United States, and avow ed his resolution of doing all in his power to pros ecute it vigorously against us. 'Phis is in fact the only course which he can pursue under the cir cumstances in which Mexico is placed, for so in flamed is the animosity of the Mexicans at present against the United States, that it would be fatal fur a public man directly to attempt to stem the current. From all that we can learn of the tone ot feeling in Mexico, the two great Departments of V era Cruz and Tamaulipas have for some time been ripe for throwing off the yoke of Paredes and placing Santa Anna again in power. Intelligent gentlemen here, familiar with the.politics of the country, anticipate confidently that the next arri val will bring us news that Tamaulipas has al ready revolted under Gen. Parrodi, who is a fast friend ot the ex-President. Our previous advices from the Departments on the Pacific, and the latest message of Paredes himself, have shown us how extensive is the disaffection there. We look then for the downfall of Paredes at an early day. We find in the New York Sun further particu lars of much interest respecting affairs in Mexi co :— The revolution in favor of Santa Anna has ex tended to all the cities from Acapulco to Mazatlan, embracing the departments on the Pacific, which are now in arms against Paredes, with the excep tion of Oajaca and La Puebla, two southern de partments which remain neutral, yet, in heart they are doubtless with Yocatan, their neighbor! Formal declarations of independence have’ been received in Mexico from both the Californian._ The revolutionists of Jalisco having been attacked at Colena by the Paredes army, retired to Guada laxara, a large city, which they were fortifying. A division of the forces was ordered there by Pa redes, which had been intended for the defence of Monterey. The Usurper desires to suppress all domestic insurrections before he attacks General Taylor. The Junta or Congress fixed the 6th of July for the cli>se of its session. It had passed some im portant nets. On the J6th June it proceeded to elect a President and Vice President, ninety three votes being given—58 for Paredes, 13 for Bravo, 7 for Herrera, 2 for Perez, 1 for Kineoo, I for Arraya, and I for Feriaz. General Paredes was declared President, and General Bravo Vice Pres ident. The former having obtained permission to lead the army against the Americans, received his commission on the 18th of June, and the vanguard r>f the forces under Gen. Arevalo, left Mexico on the 19th, en route for Monterey, and Paredes would follow ns soon as Bravo arrived from Vera Cruz. Gen. Bravo set out for the Capitol on the 24'h June, leaving Gen. de Sela to command San Juan de Ulloa and the Department of Vera Cruz The Cabinet Ministers tendered their resignation Ill Paredes nil hearing ilial he was to leave with the nrmv. He refused to receive them. Meija is apiMiinteil Cuninninler-in Chief of the Nnrthern division of tlit* nrmv. Ampudia remains at San Lius Putnsi. Arista is said to be coming to Mexi co. In the mean tiinp extravagant rumors are cir culated in the newspapers relative to die Ameri can forces, whose march upon New Leon and Monterey in said to have commenced without op position. and the Vera Cruz papers have it that General 'l’avlor is within a tiny’s jnujpey of Tampion. Vera Cruz itself has been almost evacuated, the merchants retiring to Jalapa and Orizaba, with their property. An attack on the Castle is said to have been planned by Cnm. Conner, to commence on the 10th of July, with the following vessels :—Frigate Cumberland. 50 guns; do. Raritan, 50; do Potomac. 50; Cor vette John Adams. 25 gnus; brig Somers, 10 gons ; steamer Mississippi, 8 guns ; do. Princeton, 7 cons. There Were at Vera Cruz, when thp British steamship Clyde left there, and Cnpt. Simmons of that vessel, reports seeing six other U. S. ves sels of war off the harbor as he came out. 'The British Squadron there consisted of the steamer Vesuvius, a ship of 50 guns,another steamer,and a brig. A Spanish brig which attempted to run the blockade of* Vera Cruz, was fired into and seized by the Princeton. No lircr lost. The brig was released. So great is the alarm at Vera Crnz. that the soldiers are on duty night and day. The project of the new Republic of the Rio Grande is spoken of. The Mexicans say it is another annexation scheme of the Yankees, who are seducing the people of Tamanlipas, New Leon, Chihuahua, &e., &c.. into the measure hy means of newspa pers puhlished in had Spanish at Matainoras The Indians have ravaged the Department of Du rango, committing terrible depredations and cliaa-* ing the Government troops. Martial law has been proclaimed at Vera Cruz, Tampico and Al varado. The Junta or Congress received the report of a Committee relative to the War, which suggests that Congress ought to adopt measures for the defence of the country. It appears, however, that the report on the measures for prosecuting the war was referred hack to them. Tampico has declared for Santa Anna, as also Guadalaxara, Seleya, Lagos, Guanaxualo. and the Californias, in addition to other cities and departments. Only a very small part of Central Mexico adheres to the administration of Paredes, and would no doubt revolt as soon as he got under way with the army. An overland mail from the Pacific, under seal for the United States Government, has arrived, hut the nature of the important intelligence it is said to contain has not transpired. From the New York Herald. EXTRACT FROM A I.ETTEIt OF SANTA ANNA. “ Should the fortress of San Joan d’Ullna sec ond the many calls upon me from other portions of Mexico, it will be deemed decided evidence that my country is convinced that, in banishing, great injustice has been dune to me. So direct a mode of announcing my innocence of having shap ed my public course in instance, except in the way believed most conducive to the* good of the Republic, must occasion me to feel it obligatory upon me to obey with earnest affection the wishes of the nation; and I will immediately proceed from this to the post in question. As, however, it has not been my desire to interfere with the measures of the present administrator of my coun try’s destinies, it will nut he expected of me to enter Mexico unless I have the countenance and support of the gallant soldiery and citizens of the fortress and city of Vera Cruz. “General Paredes was instrumental in sup planting my own government with that of Her rera ; he having himself, subsequently, supplant ed the government which overthrew mine, is proof, on his part, that he also did me injustice; and, inasmuch as I 3m aware of the existing ne cessity for whomsoever is in power, to consider it. hy virtue of the oath of office, obligatory upon him to uphold his position, 1 shall deem the mea sures which General Paredes may consider requi site to avert my return, as in no way personal towards myself, but as acts, which, by law, he is called upon to perform, in order to sustain it.— I shall not, therefore, deem General Paredes my enemy. My wishes are for the prosperity of my country.” NAUVOO AGAIN IN COMMOTION. By the arrival last night of the steamer St. Croix, 6ays the St Louis New Era of the 15th iost., we learn that Nauvoo is or.ce more the theatre of great excitement. On Sunday a body of about eighty persons, mounted and armed. left there for the purpose of pursuing some despera does who, it was said, had severely beaten a small body of Mormons and New Citizens, whilst en gaged in harvesting in a field a short distance from the city; five or six of them were arrested and lodged in jail on Saturday. The |x»sse that have gone out declared their determination of tak ing the balance. A gentleman who came down in the St. Croix informs us that things look squal ly,and that a fight between the New Citizens and Amies, is nearer a crisis and more probable now than at any lime since the origin of the difficul ties. The hamsters are said to have been most cruelly used, flayed almost alive with hickory godes and then thrown into a ditch and covered over with brush and dirt; this outrage has terribly inflamed the citizens of Nauvoo. The following handbill has been issued calling upon all to pre pare for war:— CITIZENS OF NAUVOO—Once, more lo Arms in defence of your Person mul Proper ty ! !—Whereas a portion of country in this vicinity is again overrun by an armed band of villains who have commenced their outrages by scourging and severely wounding American cili zens, amongst whom are some of the New Set tlers, and whereas, the peace of this city is again menaced by these outlaws, who have determined to carry off the property of New Citizens in the neighborhood it is therefore enjoined of every friend of LAW AND ORDER immediately to arm themselves and stand prepared to assemble on the Public Square, North East of the Temple, at the ringing of the alarm bell, for the purpose of enforcing the Laws of the Country. Warrants will be issued against the ringleaders of the mob—and every movement will be made in strict accordance with the law. Let every friend of Civil Liberty and Public Ordpr arm for the maintainancs of his rights as an American citizen. Nauvoo, Saturday evening, July 10, 1846. MEDIATION. I he Lnion says that Sir Robert Peel must have been mistaken in bis impression, when be announced that the British Government had tendered to the United States the ofTer of their good offices for the purpose of mediation between them and the Mexican government. The Union .says, no offer of mediation has been submitted lo onr government—and doubts very much whether Mr. Pakenliam has received any instructions to that effect. Murder—The •• Spirit of Jefferson” states that a most brutal murder has been committed near Union. Loudoun county, by a man named Benjamin Ridgway, upon one Joseph Reed._ Ridgway entered Reed’s house at dinner lirno, and conducted himself in a very abusive manner._ Reed ordered him to leave the house, and upon his refusing, said he would get his gun, when Ridgway followed him. and inflicted several mor tal wounds upon his bosom and throat with a knife. I CORRESPONDENCE-MARKETS. &«:. New York..Inly 1:3. 5 P. M. Michigan floor is held at $4:i4 00. nnd Genesee ** $4.1214.18?. a consrderale advance on our pr«* vioiis quotations. 'Vo hear of no safes of North Carolina or Vir ginia corn. la |>r<>vMtotoi rhere has not been rnitrh doing. n.o Mark,.! ,s |„jr al jfl ,;,r rri,|ie „nd *9.5^ 621 lor Me,s. GEN. la VEGA. A correspondent „f the Baltimore Patriot, wrr *r**»n Mafnmurn* «.*>vs_ I have seen „ stated'in a. ,,„e of the late papers, uni (>on La \ e..a. was delivered t„Gen. Taylor on rl.e halt)., held. hT Col. Twig*,. This is an error-rer'atnlj „f ,,,, 0.0s.q„e„ce after his rap tor- hr the as riant Mav ; h„. as every.hin.r col, nect-l w.th .he treatment of thi* d.stingnished prisoner .... the field, most Ire more or less interest mc. 1 heo leave to -orrerl the error, and to stale what belell the gallant General, alter he wan con dueled to Col.Twiggs, bv order ofCfepr. May The artillery hattaliott (a regiment offi.nl) was Stationed on the 9th at the outset of thn fthapparal and was there formed “ in square.’' This hatT talion. which hadsefFered the day before more than any other, except the 8lh Infantry, was phred in this position fur these reasons ; to protect the train aganrst the charge of the enemy's cavahy, t„ rp_ pair any disaster which might occur in the ord nance, amt to afford fresh tmopafor pursuit, wIipo haute was gained. Cot. Twiggs sent for Col. Childs, who com manded it, sod turned the prisoner over to him. but Childs, having dismounted. (Gen. Vega was on foot,) sent an order to his battalion, that the prisoner should be received with the honor doe ,h*f ra',k- A® 8,,un »» >l>e prisoner issued from the chappnra), the words “ present arms” were given. The square “ presented arms”'in perfe- t silence, ami as he approaclied not a smile of oral - ncatton or a word of exultation was seen or heard (so much fur the delicacy of the common soldier. wh„ had perhaps, the day hefi.re. lost his nearest Irtend by the enemy‘a cannnn,»hnt.> Gen. Vena seemed surprised at the salute, courteously and slowly, raised his hat, and the square was brought to a shoulder. ** C«‘l. Childs then catted from his position. Capt. Magroder who commanded .me of the companies of Urn square. Capt. Magroder had known Gen. La Vega helm*. and insisted *po" hrs mom.ting Ins (( apt. M. s) horse. No sooner was this done than it became necessary for the battalion to move on, and Capt. Magroder was ordered by Col Childs, to escort the prisoner, with a small com mand. to Gcr>. Taylor. Fortunately no rescue was attempted, as bis command was very small, and the order was promptly executed, ami Gen* La Vega was int.ixluced on the field by Capt. iMagrnder to Gen. Taylor. Gen. Taylor shook him warmly by the hand, and addressed to him the following very handsome remarks : “ GeneraJp-1,d«> assure you I deeply regret that this misfortune has fallen upon you. I regret it sincerely ; and I take great pleasure in. relurnincr to yon the sword which you have this day won with so much gallantry,” handing him, al the same time, the sword which Gen. Vega had yielded up ip Capt. May. Gen. V. made a suita ble reply in Spanish, and was then taken charge of by Col. 1 wiggs, at the colonel's own requpst. and entertained by him in the most hospitable manner, in hrs own tent, until his departure for New Orleans. One must record and admire so much courtesy and gentleness, united in a most sanguinary field with so much devotion and coinage. Ihk Ney)T I A riff.—The Republican press throughout the country, except a few papers in Pennsylvania, sustain the new Thriff, which is doubtless the most just and proper one passed by Congress since the foundation of the Govern ment— the exulting cries of the panic makers to the contrary notwithstanding. Under it the gen eral industry of the country will prosper, without regard to special interests.—Balt. Sun. CLIPPINGS. I he Cincinnatians have got np a very pretty crim. con. case. Mrs. Pike was absent, and Mr. Pyke took in a Mrs. Donaldson to supply her place. Mrs. Pyke unexpectedly returning about midnight, found no room for herself—applied to the police, and the guilty ones were loeked up in seperate cells. ' W aykarr fortune.—In one of the markets in this city, says the New York Son, may bo seen a middleaged woman, whose his'ory is* full of interest. She is a younger daughter of a titled English aristocrat, whose estate is valued at $25,(XX) per annum. She was brought up in lux ury, fell in love with, and married her father,* groom,was turned out of house and home, and obliged to fly from her country to avoid her fath er s vengence. She passed through many trials which rend the heart, in her career from wealth to poverty, She is now selling fruit in a New York market. For obvious reasons, we do not go into detail. A strange commentary on English customs. Verily, • truth is stranger than fiction.* A Profitable Hoax.—Recently at ihe Cop per Mines on Lake Superior, a ‘ green horn1 asked some miners to show him where to dig ; (hey of fered to do it, provide that he would'treat to a quartof1 pmirie dew* which ho did. and ihey set him to work under a shady tree, in mere sport. Before night, he siruch a • !>ead,' and the next day sold out for $4,000. What did the hoaxers (eel like ‘ selling out’ tor, we marvel. ‘'Ihe Maid ok ai.i. work »m Trouble' is the title of an engraving which represents Peel »s a house maid at the hall door, talking to Cob den, who, as a baker, carries a basket marked free trnde. The maid is weeping, and says, ‘ Kicbard Cobden, they’ve been and given mo warning, and 1 shall lose my place thro’ talk - ing to yon.' ^*REAT Hritaiw and her Screw_. I he last trip of this steam ship from New York In Liverpool, was made in thirteen days, ten of which she bad to contend against head winds, and and the Iasi three with winds so light as not to assist her prioress, 'This is considered under the circumstances, about the quickest passage on re cord, and has demonstrated the superiority of the screw over the paddle-wheel. Shipwreck.—The ship Gcntoo, from Cal. cotta tor Boston, with a cargo of indigo, shellac, dyo stuffs, saltpetre, hides, skins, gunny bag** &.C., was lost at Stray’s Bay, ,y„g.)*||as, near' Cape of Good Mope, night of April 29th last, and a lady, two children, maid servam, and three u» the cre w were drowned. The captain, officers and remainder of the crew, seventeen m number' were saved. ’ Epr.s— I he Murorrbr —W« learn—and fn„n good authority—(hat Epes. the murderer of Muir, was seen |,y i|,e toll keeper on the Man chester Hoad on Inst Tuesday week. E. passed the gate, and doubtless went to Richmond, where he made his way North. We mention this to put Northern Police on their guard. In the meantime, the vigilance in uther quarters should not he relaxed.—Pet. Intel. Death of C. J. McKvett.—The New Oi lmans Delta states that Caleb J. McNulty, former Clerk of the IJ. S. House of Representatives, a private in the Young Guards of Mount Vffnui., Ohio, died on board the steamboat Alhambra, on ihe IOlh inst. His remains were buried with nilitary honors at Helena, Arkansas. The Recent Excitement at Lexington. Kr., in pe fere nee to the ease of Shelby, charged wi.h the nnrder, of Horme, seems have subsided. The Lexington frazette of the 18th contains nothing Edition un the subject.