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maintaining that the exclusion of the foreign I
competition enables the domestic manufacturer to sell cheaper than the foreigner could have done il no duty existed. But this proposition is so manifestly absurd that I need not repeat the ar* guments against it. It rests upon the absurdity that there will be more competition amongst our own manufacturers if we confine the home mar ket to them, than there would be if all the manu facturers of tho world bad access to it. In other words, that a part is greater than the whole. It rests on the absurdity that although the agencies of production, capital, labor, machinery, the nat ural agents and the command of the raw material upon a combined view may he cheaper elsewhere than here; that yet a mere legislative provision may give us the faculty of cheaper productions at home. It rests, too, upon the absurdity that pro tection is necessary to them, although they have the ability to sell cheaper here than foreigners could possibly do if they had access to the mar ket. They say that if we give them the home market, they can soli cheaper than foreign ers could possibly do ; as if the reply was not ready : if you can undersell the foreigner in the home market, do jt, and you will certainly not only take it, but keep it. Facts, too, have been maintained to exist which prove the proposition; and yet when these have been examined, and met by those competent and disposed to the work of detail, they have always been shown to lead to far different conclusions. It is remarkable that in all the lists which I have seen exhibited to prove this proposition, the price of the American fabric, after the doty was laid, was compared only with the price before protection was given. For fair ness, a further comparison was necessary between the price of the protected American fabric and the similar foreign article. Whenever this com parison has been carried out, the comparison was so much in favor of the relative cheapness of the foreign article in manufactures, which really re quired protection after the duty as before ; and this because the fall in price was clearly traced to reductions of the currency, improvements in machinery, or other causes operating abroad as well as at home. I should not have alluded to the sophistry, ex cept that.it is the only pretext for avoiding the conclusions to which I have attempted to lead the committee. Mr. Chairman, it is difficult to measure the effects of the depressing influence upon a country of any legislation which diminishes the profit upon the entire mass of iis productions. A very small diminution in the rate of profit upon such a mass would amount to a vast sum. When we reflect, too, that most of the profit thus lost would have takpn the shape of accumulated capital, and that the capital of such a country as ours accumulates almost upon the ratio of compound interest, we may form some conception of the vast amount of national wealth which is lost by the restrictive system. But we are told that"these are mere theoretical conclusions, and facts are demanded to sustain them. To this it might be replied, that those who seek to change the natural order of things, when reason and theory are manifestly against them, are hound to produce the facts which are to establish the propriety of this change. None such have been, or can be produced, as has been shown in every instance when they have been accurately examined. But although the burden of pront, so far as facts are concerned, is manifestly on the other side, yet we may safely assume it, for experience has decided in our favor as far as it has decided anything in relation to the matter. Sir Robert Peel, in his speech in Jan uary last, has presented us with a body of evi dence on this subject which is almost conclusive, so far as the experience of Great Britain can de cide it: “ That is the total amount of onr foreign ex ports, which, frsm the year 1842, when the great invasion upon the protection of our domestic in dustry was made by the tariff rose from <£47, 381,000, in 1842. to <f58.0UO.0OO in 1844. It may be said that the China trade has done this. I expressly exclude that trade. In 1842, apart from the China trade, the exports to all other countries, except China, amounted to .£46,411, 000: in 1844 they increased 10 millions, and amounted to <£56.000,000, and this, as I said before, deducting the China trade altogether. In the ypar 1845, we can only have the account for the 11 months succeeding December, 1844. The exports of the principal articles of manufacture to all parts of the world were, in 1843. <£41.000 000 j in 1844, <£47,312,000; in 1845. <£47,764, 000; thus shewing another increase in 1845. “ Let me take the results of the revenue as bearing upon this question. In 1842, the House will recollect, I proposed reductions on the cus toms duties to the amount of an estimated loss of *£1,438,000; and in 1844, I proposed a further reduction in the customs duties to the amount of .£273.000; and in 1845, to the immense amount m i estimated that the loss from these several reductions would be <£4,129.000; and let it be remembered, I discard the revenue from corn from both sides. Have my expectations been realized? Have four millions been lost? No. The total amount of the loss has been <£!, 500,000. I dealt with the excise last year, and made a reduction of a million in that department. I took off the whole of the glass duties. I took off the auction duties. But observe, what has been the effect?” “I believe that, notwith standing the total reduction, the absolute loss in deed of one million in the excise, the revenue from that department will be more than ever, for there has been a salient spring of prosperity which has more than supplied the deficiency.” lie also informs us that the duties were chiefly removed from four principal articles—flax, foreign cattle, lard, wool. The price of flax at Belfast,’ was in 1843, from 65s. to G7s. per ton ; in 1844, 63s. to 68s.; m 1845, 64s. to G8s.; in 1846, 70s. to SOs. Price of provisions has also risen. In 1840, only 97 cwt. of foreign lard brought in the country; in 1843, 48.212 cwt.; in 1844,76,000 cwt.; in 1845, 80.000 cwt.; in 1844, from 48s. per cwt.; 1845, 67s ; and 1846, 62s. In 1842, there were 45,800.000 lbs. foreign wool import ed ; in 1844, 65,r90,000; and in 10 months of last year, there has been r,o less than 65,216,000 lbs. In 1842, price of Sooth Down woo), when there was a duty upon foreign, was lid.; of long wool, lOd.; in 1843, of South Down wool, 1 Ijd.; of long wool, lid.; in 1814, the price of South Down wool was Is. and 2d.; of long wool, is. 2d.; in December, 1845, eighteen months after the total reduction of the duty, the price of South Down wool rose from lid., the price in 1842. to Is. 4Id. The average price in December, 1845, of South Down, was Is. 4d., and of long wool' Is. 2d.—(See Union, February 23, for Sir R.'. Peel’s speech.) (To be continued.) MYSTERIOUS. The New York papers give a very minute ac acc.onni of a mysterious occurrence which trans pired in that city on Sunday last. It is repre sented that a negro in descending the vault of a privy in search of a valuable fowl found the body of a female there. He says she was some 16 years old. with brown hair. &c. Other highly respectable witnesses were called in, who posi tively affirm that they could not be mistaken.— The police were sent for, who appeared in the course of an hour, but could nowhere find the bo dy The place had been left totally unguarded, and all is still involved in mystery. It j* f,up posed that a horrible murder has been committed on the premises. largfTyield of wheat Mr. VV. S. Barr, of Cecil County, writes to the Cecil Whig, that he shelled from his present crop 17 ears or heads of wheat, withont selecting them, and they produced 9978 grains. Who can beat that? I THE NEW ERA. What is it but a Map of busy Life ?—Cotr/irr. Port* moil tli, Va. SATURDAY, AUGUST I, 1840. OUR FLAG! FREE TRADE—LOW DUTIES—NO DEBT—SE PARATION FROM BANKS—ECONOMY—RE TRENCHMENT—AND STRICT ADHERENCE TO THE CONSTITUTION. ICT^We are much indebted to the Hon. A. Atkinson, for a copy of Capt. Fremont’s Report of the Exploring Expedition to the Rocky Moun tains in tl.n year 1842. and to Oregon and Cali fornia in the years 1843—'44- Printed hy order of the House of Representatives. We are likewise indebted to the Hon. E. B. Holmes, of New York, for a copy of his speech on the subject of the Mexican War delivered in the House of Representatives, June 18. 1846. Also, to the sarqe gentleman fir a copy of the speech of the Hon. A. Smith, of New York, in reply to his colleague Mr. Collin, on the subject of the Tariff. These two last ore Whig speech es, and touch a liltlo on every thing, but vet we thank the gentlemen for sending them to us. MR. HUNTER’S SPEECH ON THE TARIFF. Our limited means will not permit us to give all the arguments in favor of the Tariff which has just become the law of the land j but the express ed determination of the friends of the monopolists to wage an unmitigated war upon this first suc cessful effort of the people to right themselves, renders it imperative that we should put the best arguments in the mouths of our friends to combat the common enemy. We, therefore, commence to day the admirable speech of the Hon. R. M. T. Hunter, which, the New York Globe says, is “replete with sound argument and will repay the reader for his perusal or it, with much valuable information. The discussion of the Tariff ques tion is an important if not an interesting matter to the people of this country, and it is highly necessary that every man and boy of our nation should set himself at work to discover how many dollars per year he pays for the increase of the capital of those who fertilize their fields with the 8weat of the poor man’s brow.1* \\ g commend the speech of Mr. Hunter to the careful attention of our readers, and hope that no one who takes up the paper, will lay it down until he has thorough ly perused it. VIOLENT STORM—NAVY YARD BLACK SMITH SHOP STRUCK. A very 6evere storm of rain accompanied by lightning and thunder, visited us yesterday. We have not heard of any damage being done except some slight injury to the Black-smith shop in the Navy Yard, which was touched by the elective fluid during the storm. STEAMER ALICE, Capt. Skinner, will make a very pleasant trip this afternoon, to Old Point and Cape Henry. Leaving Portsmouth at half-past four o’elocfi. MOONLIGHT EXCURSION. Capt Z. Mitchell gives a romantic moonlight excursion to Old Point and the Capes, in his fine steamer the Augusta, this Evening. The Augus ta will leave Portsmouth at half-past seven o’clock, and in returning will leave Old Point at half-past ten P. M. STEAMER OSCEOLA. The Steamer Osceola will make two trips to Old Point to morrow leaving Portsmouth at hall past seven in the morning, and three o’clock in the afternoon. Returning will leave Old Point at 9 A. M. and 6 P. M. BLOVVED UP—WASHED OUT—TO GO OFF TO-NIGHT. Owing to the violent and long continued storm of last evening, Gen. Simon Ghio postponed the bombardment of San Juan de Ui.loa, and will perform that patriotic service this evening, should the weather prove favorable for the public to wit ness the terribly sublime effect of an attack upon an almost impregnable Castle, but which must finally yield to the consummate skill and perse verance of American patriots. Ghio deserves well of his fellow-citizens for his unwearied efforts to please, and we have no doubt will be well patronized at his Garden to night. THE SOUTHERN AND WESTERN LIT ERARY MESSENGER. This valuable periodical has been laid on our table. Contents—The Memphis Convention,_ Mr. Calhoun’s Report to the Senate. Continua tion of the History of Virginia. An account of Pedrn De La Gasca. Aaron’s Rod. Scenes and Sketches in Portugal. Gleanings from different Histories, and Roman History. This periodical has lost nothing in interest, hut on the contrary, | is monthly bpcoming more valuable. BLACKWOOD’S EDINBURGH MAGA ZINE. We acknowledge the receipts of the American Edition, Vol XXIII, No. I. Leonard Scott & Co., 112 Fulton Street, New York. Contents Peru ; Letters Hexameters ; Marlborough’s Des patches ; I he American and Aborigines, Part the last; Death of Zumahcarragui; New Scottish Plays and Poems; Elinor Travis, chapter the second; More Rogues in Outline; The Last Recollections of Napoloen. CONGRESSIONAL. In the Senate, on Thursday, the joint resolu tion relative to the manner of executing the pub lic printing was agreed to. The sob-treasury bill was reported to the Sen ate, and ordered to a third reading. In the House, the postage bill lies on the table, by a parliamentary process, awaiting the final de t cision, on a motion to reconsider a vole rejecting a substitute proposition offered by Mr. Hopkins. Some other matters were disposed of. 1 he House, at a late hour, went into a discus sion on the French spoliation bill. naval. The U. S. sloop of war Marion, arrived at Porto Praya. 26th April, from the River Benin, via Cape Palmas, Monrovia and Sierra Leone. She had lost two officers and two men since her ar rival on the station. The Brooklyn Advertiser, gives a rumor that Captain Slringham, the efficient and gentlemanly commander of the Brooklyn Navy Yard, is to be superseded by Captain Kearney. The " Albany’’ is rapidly progressing. 1 HE I ARIFF—THE SENATE—DANIEL werster-a small stake on an im I PORTANT QUESTION. Il was our good fortune to be in the Senate chamber of the United Staten, on Tuesday last, *he 28th of July, when the great question of Re form wan settled, anil we never expect to witness tin grand, moral and sublime a spectacle again. I There, in that small area, were congregated the j assembled wisdom of the nation, the members of both Houses, the mighty men of mind of both the 1 great parlies, overlooked with anxious, throbbing, but silent hearts, by the People and the Manufac turing monopolists, waiting in silence and subdu ed order for the final vote on the Reform Tariff Bill Its fate rested on the voice of one man— that man rose amidst the dense mass which were collected around him, venerable in appearance, with his pure white locks, hut vigorous in intel lect and physical construction, and with a firm and liquid voice gave his reasons for the vote he was about to cast, and then cast it for the People and the Constitution. No monarchical country ever witnessed so proud an event, as was pre sented on that day by the highest functionaries of a Government emanating directly from the Peo ple, upheld by no adventitious aid or hired sol diery. but sustained alone by the moral lorce and virtue of the governed. L’.ven while the heart nt wary patriot dilated at the moral grandeur of the scene, there were acts committed which made the gravest smile. The dying contortions and death struggles of as sociated wealth were amusing, as exhibited by Niles, Cameron, Clayton, Huntingdon, Webster, Simmons, rt id on me genus, and most especially were we edified and amused with the earnest efforts of Messrs. Simmons and Niles, in behalf of the laboring classes, as their ruffled shirts, (the only ones worn in that body,) were agitated in behalf of the '* bill of abominations,” of 1842. Again we were amused with the solemn tones of the “ god-like Daniel,” w hen he pledget) HIS “ reputation” for the truth of his assertions. (Good Heavens, thought we, where can be found an equivalent for that longer—for Haywood was no longer in the Senate.) In his speech on that morning, Mr. Webster made the following state ments. for the truth of which ho pledged his reputation! “ This bill does reduce duties ; but on what ? They may be some articles for the henefit(of the middling classes, but the great amount of reduc tion is on such articles as were contained in the list I read yesterday. The bill reduces duties on spirits, on spices, on tropical and all other fruits, on ready-made clothing, on rich and costly carppts, on silks, on rich cut-glass. The reduction was on this class of articles. It keeps out of the treasury more revenue than the whole amount of duties on the other articles. Here is your main reduction, and it is all on articles of extreme luxury. The whole reduction in the hill is on such articles as none of the middle classes use or have any direct interest in. It is now proposed to see whether you will or will not continue this process; wheth j er you will, while reducing duties on articles of j the highest luxury used by the rich alone, increase I duties on articles which constitute the raw mate j rial of our own home manufactured articles, out of I which all the laboring men of the country earn I their daily living—articles which furnish occupa j lion to handicraft labor. On these articles you have increased your duties. You diminish the 1 duty to be paid by the rich and raise the duty to ; be paid by the masses. You augment the duties ; undor a tariff which you declared to be an obnox ions Whig measure, and which duties you de | manded to have reduced. You are asked'now to ■ send the bill to a committee, that they may take I off the additional amount where your duties now | proposed exceed those laid by the tariff of 1842— land you will not do it. You are determined to ! indulge those who consume the richest luxuries and to raise your taxes on the poor laborer. The whole character of this bill is that. It seems to revel in the delight of taking away men’s em ployment. The characteristic runs through the whole of it. I had hoped that the gentleman (Mr. Jarnagin) who declared himself yesterday with so much emphasis against the policy of taxing the raw material, would have held to his purpose.— [ shall hold to mine. While this hill reduces the duties on the highest luxuries of life, occasioning thereby a vast loss to the revenue, and while you refuse to lower the duties here imposed on raw material down to the level of the bill of 1842, I say that your bill holds a language which cannot and which will not he misunderstood. The peo ple of the United States will seo that this is not a bill for the masses; that it is not a hill for the poor ; that it is not a hill for employment; but that it is a hill for the relief of the highest and most luxuries classes of the community. They will perceive and understand that it is a hill which goes to take his living from the poor and the laborious man, which it lessens the taxes of hif rich neigh bor. None are so blind that they will not see this; nor are people so callous that they will not feel it. In this view I admit that this is a test question. It is a test which settles who are in favor of raising taxes on the raw material, to the ruin of the Ameican laborer, and who are in favor of reducing duties on the highest luxuries of hu man life.” 4* And now I say that when this hill be passed, there will be no need of writing on the body of it whether it is a Democratic or an aristocratic hill. When a laboring man sees that the duty on the raw material which forms the staple of his work is raised, while that on silks, on spices, on pre served fruits, on rich carpets, and on rich cut glass is lowered, he will not ask any man to give the bill its name—its name is on its face. It is an aristocratic bill, and every item in it corres ponds to that geneial character.” Mr. M’Diiffie, always ready, met these asser tions of the attorney of the manufacturers, with the following brief but overwhelming reply :_ ** The Senator from Massachusetts, in charac terizing this as an aristocratic bill, imposed on Mr. M’D. the duty of saying a few wmds before the question should he taken, that he might disa buse the public mind nf any such impression. The Senator had asked with groat confidence, and surely with the expectation of not being replied to. where was the Democratic feature in this lull ? Where was the provision for the laboring clasee? He had selected a few articles of luxury on which the duties were reduced, leaving it to be inferred that these were tho principal reductions in the bill. " I will tell tho Senator u'hat are tho Demo cratic features of the bill. In the first place it has reduced the duty on salt from eight cents to two cents a bushel. It has reduced the doty on sugar from two and a half cents to one cent per lb. On all the consumers of calicoes, plain or printed, a species of goods used by all farmers, and mechanics, and laborers, and their families, (Jod knows how much. [ believe that on all the articles consumed by the poor and by the middle classes the reduction is greater than on all other articles in the bill. The simple repeal of mini rntims on coarse cottons (a sort „f tax never hnnwn till the tariff of 1816 either in this or any other ceontry,) will alone enable the people of the United Stales to consume an increased impor tation to the value of ten millions of dollars, at prices at not more than two thirds of what they now pay. ** What is the great reduction in this bill which it.is thought it to prove so injurious to the coun --- - try ? I* *H *!•» protecting duties on manufacturer® mads in large establishments by the power of machinery owned by heavy capitalists. w|m are realising from thirty to forty per cerit. profit. The repeal of these duties will opera to to reduce the profits of these men to eight or ten per cent. I do not myself believe that the money price of labor will be reduced one-half as much as the price of the commodities used by the laborers • and. therefore, that the practical effect of this bill will he most favorable to the great mass of our laborers and to nineteen-twentieths of all the peo ple of the United Slates. The laborers in their factories will get. on the whole, more for their labor than they now do.” We might leave Mr. Webster with his “slak ed reputation ” here, but to show the utter worthlessness of his assertions, and to put the country on its guard, and nut’ readers in posses sion of arguments to meet the war which has been declared against this great Democratic mea sures, we insert the following comparative table of duties, under the two acts, taken from the Un ion of the 28th instant. LUXURIES. Wines.—Champagne Burgundy Madeira Carpets.—Wilton carpets Turkey Glass.—Polished plate, 29 by 14 inches Gloves.—Gentlemens' real kid Toadies’ Gentlemens’ real French buck Braces.—India rubber, costing 17 each and above Paper.—Billetdoux, or fancy note, Gilt Pastes.—Balsams, cosmetics, and per Silks.—Pocket handkerchiefs made from fine silk Silk velvets Brocade silks for dresses Flannels.—Archer’s unshrinking, cost ing CO cents Silk and wool tlannels, costing #1 00 the square yard Hair curled for mattresses Chocolate Sardines, and other fish prepared in oil Furniture of cedar wood, satin wood, &c. Gems.—Pearls and precious stones when set Imitnt:ons thereof Cameos and imitations thereof, and on mosaic Jewelry—Composed of gold, silver, or platina 1S42. 12 9 6 23 28 27 1846. 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 26 30 30 30 25 30 16 20 14 25 25 25 23 30 14 10 12 20 30 30 20 20 40 40 30 30 30 30 ARTICLES OF GENERAL USE, &c. Wines —Sicily Madeira (low-priced) Spicc9.—Pimento Ginger Cassia Carpeting.—Treble ingrain Ingrain Iron.—Har or holt iron Nail or spike rods « Cot or wrought iron spikes Hoop iron Rlacksmiths’ hammers and sledges Iron chains other than chain cables Wrought lor ships, locomotives, and steam engines Smoothing-irons, hatters’ and tailors’ pressing, do Wood screws Coal Glass.—Plain, moulded, or pressed tum blers Gloves.— Yellow sheep, called Hoxanitan, (wagoners and reaping gloves) Imitation buck Women’s imitation kid Braces.—India rubber costing 5 francs, or 92 cts. the dozen Paper.— Medium, foolscap, icc. Sugar, commonly cnllcd brown su<rar Vinegar Salt Cloths of wool.—Broadcloths, cassimercs, coatings, and padding Low flannels, bookings and baizes Silks.—Calcutta ami other silk pocket hundkerchiefs, costing in India 32 60. for the piece of 7, and weighing 8 ounces Ditto, costing $3 75, anti weighing 12 ounces, Black gro de nap, or taffeta silk, for dresses, weighing 1 ounce to the yard, and costing in England or France 32 cents Black crapes, low-priced P*ns —Called pound or mixed pins Velvets.—Cotton Shirtings.—Costing 6] cents per yard Cotton prints, or calicoes, costing 12 cents the running yard Mousscllaine de Laine.—Cotton worsted 24 inches wide, costing 12 aents Cotton and worsted Orleans and alpacca cloth, costing 18 cents the square yard MISCELLANEOUS. Linseed oil Cables and cordage, tarred Unmanufactured hemp Wool, coarse, unmanufactured Chain cables Anchors Anvils 49 120 53 61 73 36 73 99 168 116 52 101 30 40 40 40 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 88 30 66 66 69 30 30 30 137 30 90 55 70 30 30 30 621 53 62 52 76 30 30 30 30 20 30 30 50 60 25 25 47 60 53 36 95 25 25 30 30 30 60 25 50 25 50 25 57 126 39 5 87 62 45 20 25 30 20 30 30 30 WILLIAM H. HAYWOOD, Late of the United States Senate, from the State of North Carolina, is fast reaping the re ward of his defection and desertion of his post in the hour when every eye in the country was directed to “ Look to the Senate,” for safe ty and victory in the great contest which was being waged between the MONOPOLISTS and the People—they did look, and they found Haywood the “ Grouchy” who was to prove false to his par ty and his principles. The suspicion rests strong ly upon the public mind, in Washington, that GOLD has been used by the monopolists to produce the unfavorable resnlt which makes hon est rnen weep—we know nut how any honest man can fall lower than William H. Haywood has. Receiving the hitter scorn and contempt of the highminded of his own party, and the weak faint, unwilling support of his political opponents, headed by Daniel Webster, who is “ ashamed” of his country, because the press dares to de nounce treason and traitors, he is to be pitied and despised by all. The Raleigh Standard thus speaks of Haywood and the Tariff. “ Mr Haywood has deserted his friends at a moment when they had a right to count upon hts assistance and co-operation, and in this mat ter he has proved faithless to his State, faith 1,ess to the Democratic parly, FAITHLESS to the interests of the whole South, and to the re FOSF. AND WELFARE OF Tfl F, WHOLE COUNTRV. Never before have we penned more reluctant words ; but our duty must be discharged. VVe go for principles, not men—take from os all things else, hut leave us onr principles and our country. ” I he course of Mr. Hay wood will produce re gret and sorrow among the Democracy of North Carolina—hut nothing more. Not one Democrat will be sh.ken from the path of duty. As one man, the Republicans of the good old State will continue to oppose the abominable Tariff of 1842; nor will they pause in their efforts until they shall see that I ariff abolished, and a just and equal Revenue Tariff become the established policy of the Government. Men may die, or betray tho in terests of a confiding people ; but principles are immortal.” M. THIERS. This talented Republican statesman, says the Baltimore Republican, is about to visit the French-African Provinces, in company with M. Lamoricere. GEN. ROBERT PATTERSON. Gen. Patterson left Philadelphia on Wednes day, for the army to assume his position as Brig. General of the volunteer force now in theservioe. m OUR TABLE Is most richly laden by the Messrs. Hodges & Co., from tli« rich literary fountain of Harper &. Brothers, New York. Nos. 93, 94, 95, 96 of the Illuminated Shakes peare are received. No. 5. of the Pictorial Hist >ry of England. No. 16, of Harpers’ New lV|iscellany, beiog Bell’s Life of the lit. Hon. George Canning, the British Premier. No. 80. Library of Select Novels contains a Novel hy VVm. H. Maxwell, Esq., entitled Cap tain O’Sullivan ; Adventures Civic, Military and Matrimonial, of a Gentleman on Half Pay. Also, Nos. 5, 0, and 7, of Morse's Cemgraph tc Maps, which certainly possess great merit, and which ought to be in the Library of every man, and in possession, for reference, of every family in the country. We have nothing to say in additinft to what we have so frequently remarked of the works which emanate from this preRs. When once commenced the works are completed, and no one runs any risk in subscribing for them, as they are sure to he carried nut with their original design, correctness and beauty. PENNSYLVANIA STATE DEBT. The I reastirer of the State of Pennsylvania, has given notice, that the interest on the State debt would be promptly paid this day. This announcement, cannot but be gratifying to the citi zens of that Commonwealth, as well as the citi zens of the L^nion, as all fpel an honest pride, next io discharging their own debts, to hear of the liquidation of the liabilities of their sister Stales, we have always maintained that Penn sylvania will come right, and are really pleased to hear such good news from her. THE BARQUE EUGENIA. A letter from an officer on hoard the frigate Potomac, dated off Vera Cruz, June 13th states, that the barque Eugenia, which forced the block ade, sailed from Vera Cruz on the 10th inst., was overhauled by the John Adams, and after being detained twenty-four hours, she was permitted to set sail for New York. i>ovv we insist that if the barque Eugenia, it a Mexican vessel, sailing under American colors_ and we have a strong belief that she is, it is the duty of the United States Marshall to make a prize of her, the moment she arrives at New York. And if it can be clearly proved that she is an American vessel, then it becomes the duty of the Secretafy of State, to arrest Capt. Bisene, her commander, and try him for treason, in aid ing and abetting the enemy, in running the block ade, and supplying them with arms and ammuni tion, which it was reported she had on board when she left New York, for Vera Cruz. The people of these United States have in curred great expense in blockading the port of Vera Cruz, and if Capt. Biscoe, can break the blockade when he please, and then—as he has. laugh at our officers for their unsuccessful at tempt to prevent his running in, and supplying the enemy, the whole blockade becomes a mere farce. FANATICISM IN SCOTLAND. The free Church of Scotland having collected a large sum of money in this country, for the benefit of that Church, some miserable fanatics have set up the cry that the money came from a slave country, and ought not to be received. The cry is “give back the money.” This is the watchword at public meetings and processions. It meets the ears of free Church Clergymen at every turn. We hope the money will be return ed, and also hope the fastidious in such matters, will refrain for the future, of Pegging any more money from this country. Our Anglo-saxon an cestors engrafted slavery upon us, which we have not been able to get rid of, and for which we have to suffer the proscription of the very country to whose agency American slavery owes its origin. When these colonies, protested against the forced introduction of slaves, on the plantations own ed by the English and Scotch capitalists, the Churches of England and Scotland were dumb. As regards “ giving back the money,” if we know “ Sawney” we opine be will talk of giving back thrice, before he will give once. MEDIATION. The New York Sun says that the British minister, at Washington, has received instruc tions from his government to mediate in the Mexi can question, but withholds the proposition until he can hear from Mexico. LATER FROM HAVANA. Accounts have been received from Havana, by the Rapid at. New York, to the 18th of July. Santa Anna, and Almonte, were still at Havana. The American schooner Petrel, Commander Shaw, touched at Havana on the 13th, and sailed on the 15th for the coast of Mexico. TIIE SPANISH SCHOONER OF WAR. The New York Tribune stales that the Span ish schooner of war Ilabanero which arrived at that city a few days since, brought despatches for the Spanish Minister, Sr. Calderon de la Baren. FROM MEXICO. Y esterdays’ southern mail brought gome addi tional intelligence from Vera Cruz. A letter in the Mobile Herald, brought by the steamer Prince ton to Pensacola, states that, “ President Paredes is still in the city of Mexico. The papers say the citizens are asking why he does not take command of the army of the North, as Congress has given him permission to do. The impression is. as soon as he leaves the city, his Government will cease to exist. It was said an effort to effect a change was to have taken place on the 5th inst. The Government got wind of it, and called in all the troops, who were under arms all night. The citizens feigned astonishment at the cause. The squadron is at Vera Cruz. The brig Perry has been sent off Cape Antonio after privateers said to be in that vicinity. The frigate Raritan, is expected daily at Pen sacola, from Vera Cruz. We regret to hear that it is sickly among our Vera Cruz squadron. We have no later intelligence from Gen. Tay lor’s army. SANTA FE EXPEDITION. The St. Louis papers have accounts from Gen. Kearney as late as the 19lh of July, his force then consisted of 1G-T9 men. He expected to he joined in a few days bv Price’s Regiment of 1,000 men, and the newly recruited Mormon Companies, when his united force will be 3,200 men. He He intended camping a few days at Bent's Fort. Two bales (bolls) of matured cotton have been received in Colnmbi)9, Geo., from the plantation of Mr. James Holland, of Russell county. Ala.— They were taken from the field on the 10th inet. CORRESPONDENCE—MARKETS, Sic. Nr.»v York, July 30, 5 I*. M. The Flour Market is quiet to day at our last quotations. Corn has defined a shade, we hear of sales of 12'H) bushels yellow Southern at 50 cents.' Spirii-t of Turpentine is firm at 30 cents. I't.e market for Pork is steady, but not very active. Sales of 400 hhls. mess was made to-day at #10. Qfl[er* for 1500 hhls. were made at the same price and refused. Prime is firm at $8. ’ MILITARY. I lie St. Louis New Era of the 22nd July says. Government agents are still operating pretty ex tensively in this quarter, buying up mules, horses and provisions, ami in having wagons, knapsacks, ami various other article* manufactured for the use of the army. A Saule Fe trader arrived at Independence the 18th, reports having met the advance companies of Gen. Kearney’s expedition 60 miles beyond Council Grove; they were moving on finely. * RIVER AND HAR13UR BtyL. 'Phis bill passed the Senate by a vote of 34 to 16. just as it came from the House; and now* need*only the signature of the President to be come a law. l’his bill provides very generally for the improvement of the harbors of the princL pal ports of the Union. Among them is one of $20,000 fertile harbor of Havre de Grace, in Md.; another is the usual annual appropriation of $20, 000 for the harbor of Baltimore. It’ also oppro priatos $320,000 for the improvement of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers ; $75,000 for clearing the bar from the river at St. Louis, which is a very desirahle work, and of vast importance to the whole West; $75,000 tor the Delaware breakwa ler; $80,000 for the Red River; and generally for all the hatbors of the Union. HORRID DEATH. Mr Benjamin Cross came to his death on Mon day morning by scalding, at the Atnoskeag New Mills. He was the fireman of the Steam En gine. He was found in the ash pan so scalded, that the skin slipped from every part of'the body at a touch. It is supposed that iti attempting to lift the valve to let the extra steam escape, that the steam pressed rfpen and rushing updn the un fortunate man unawares, and throwing him some fifteen or twenty feet, to the plane where found. He was about fifty years old, and has left a wife and eight children.—Manchester Dem. HIDDEN TREASURES IN MEXICO. The Matamoras Flag, of the 7th inst, speaks of a project on foul there, for sendinor an expedi tion to Chihauhau, to search for treasure which was buried by the Spaniards residing; in that vi cinity a century ago, prior; to the destruction of the settlement by the Indians, The mines in the neighborhood of where the treasures were buried, are said to have been the richest in the world, and have never been worked since the massacre. DEATH OF CAPT. MULEIOLLAND. The Now York Sun says, that Capt. M»lhol land the “ long faster.” died in the Parish of Ra pides, Louisiana the 7th of July, having fasted forty-nine days without lasting a particle^of food. During this time he would allow nobody to change his clothes, or do anything with him ; he coultf not speak j most of the lime he appeared to be in a state of insensibility, but occasionally he would arouse himself, when he seemed to know what his situation was, and what was going on around him , if any person he did not wish to see, partic ularly a doctor, came into the room he would look very angry, On the 49th day he made signs that lie wanted something to t*at. after which for several days he appeared to be convalescing. The previous shock waa greater than the system could recover from, and he gradually sunk as if from consumption. A FRAUD OF GREAT MAGNITUDE. I he trustees of the Bank of Alabama have ia sued a circular, which acquaints us that some months since, a person by the name of Bryan Hines, of Greene county, Ala., executed to Mr. Hawn, of Tuscalosa, a deed of trust, securing to said bank, for the payment of over $60,000, a number of slaves, some si*ty and upward, and nineteen mules and eight head of horses; that since the date of said deed of trust, Hines has fled, carrying with him all the property pledged, and that the present residence of the delinquent is to the trustees unknown. In view of this breach of trust, the trustees offer, for the recovery of the properly, one-fburth the amount it may bring at public sale; and they are further author ized by the Governor of Alabama to offer, for the arrest and conviction of said Hines, the sum of $250, an indictment having been found against him by the Grand Jury of Greene county, for swindling. THE GREAT WALKING MATCH. Mr. Eaton, tiro old gentleman who is perform ing the great feat of walking 1QO0 miles in a thousand hours, was making bis fiftieth trip on the 21st inst., as we learn from the Montreal Herald, in good health and spirits, and confident of success. He does not hurry himself, but takes an average of 24 minutes to the mile. The moment he lays his head on his pillow, he is fast asleep, and as yet a touch arouses him, and then there is no stretching and yawning, but starling up, he slips on Iris shoes, and instantly walks into his work. The weather has been bo far favorable, but the odds are still greatly again9t the old man.— Baltimore Sun. TRUTH The Journal of Commerce speaking of the great* to do’ made by the Pennsylvanians about the protection of their mining interests says;— “ Protection does not effect her coal in the least, and cannot; for coal is cheaper there, and in eth er parts of our country, than any where else in the world. It is the Reading Railroad the Schuylkill, and Lehigh, and Delaware and Hud son Canals, which make coal cheap. There is none imported which is at all the same thing with our coal, nor is the quantity imported now or ever to be of importance in fixing the market price.’, HAY Tl. A report that a battle had taken place between the Haytian* and Dominians, was prevalent at Azua when the brig Louisa arrived at New York, about the 6th instant, and that several of the Dominicans were taken prisoners, and the w hole party put to route. The Susan, while lying at that plane, was robbed of her medicine chest, pa pers. and money to the amount of $2,368. The papers were found several days after, buried nest a tree, by one of the crew. Capt. Cornell, her former master, remained sick at Azua. That Mediation.—The Franco American suggests says the Morning News, that it was t» Mexico ins.end of the United States that the Go vernment of England has offered its mediation — We are inclined In think that the Franco Atneri• Cain is wrong. It states that its assertion ex plains the mission of the Mr. Morphy so much spoken of. Not at all. Mr. Morphy is merely * t financial missionary—an agent of the Mexican bondholders. The Choi-era.—This fearful malady has ex tended to Aden in Arabia, at the month of the Red Sea, where four hundred persons died of it up to the beginning of.lone. The disease is gradually extending to the European and African frontiers, ' and is much more fstal than in 1832 and 1833, being in the form of collapse, which almost defies remedial measures. There were 852 convicts in the Sing Sing | State prison, New York, the 23d instant.