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?BT THE? VIRGINIAN AND PILOT PUBLISHING COMPANY. 10RF0LK VIRGINIAN AND DAILY PILOT. (Consolidated March, 1S38.) Entered at the Postofflco at Norfolk, ,Va.. as. second-class matter. OFFICE: riLOT BUILDINO. ;._ CITY HALL AVENUE. norfolk, va. OFFICERS: A. H. GRANDY, President; M. GLENNAN. Vlco-Presldent: W. ?. WILKINSON. Treasurer; JAMES E. AL? LEN, Secretary. BOARD OP DIRECTORS: A. H. Crnndv M. Olonnan. L. D. Starke, Jr., T. W. Sbcllon. R. W. Shulllce. James E. Allen. D. F. Donovan. T It II K K ?' K ? T.H r K K CO f Y. subscription rates: The VIRGINIAN-PILOT ?3 delivered to subscribers by carriers in Norfolk ami vicinity Portsmouth, Berkley. Suffolk West Norfolk. Newport News, for to c:nts j>er week payable to the carrier By mall, to any place In the UnlteU States, postage free: 1>A1I.Y, our yenr - 85.oo His moittlis - ?.00 ? ibrce monllM - - a**0 " one hkintli - - -_ ADVERTISING RATES: Advertise? ments Inserted r.t the rate ef '?> cents a (Square, n .-t insertion: each subsequent Insertion 10 cents, or SO cents, when in? serted Every oilier Day Contractors are not allowed to exceed their space or ad? vertise other then their legitimate bust aess, except by paying especially .or too mi:'t. Reading Nolles Invariably :0 cents per line lirst insertion. Each subsequent In? sertion .15 cents. Ne employe of the Vlrgtnlan-Pllot Pub? lishing Company ir. authorized to contract any Obligation In Ihr name ef the com? pany, or to make purchases It", the name of the same, except upon order?, signed by the PRESIDENT OF THE COMPANY. Jn order to avoid delays, on account of personal absence, letters and all commu? nications for Th< VIRGINIAN-PILOT should not be addressed to any individual connected with the office, bin simply to The. VIRGINIAN AND PILOT PUB? LISHING COMPANY. TWELVE PAGES FRIDAY, MARCH 31, 1S33. JEFFERSON ON EXPANSION AND DEFENCE. In his 3d annual message to Congress, i before the purchase of Louisiana had been approved by the Senate. Thomas Jefferson said: "Whilst the property and sovereignty of the Mississippi anil Its voters sei uro I nn Independent outlet for the produce of the Western States and an uncon? trolled navigation through their winde course, free front collision with other powers and the dangers to our peace from that source. Hid fertility of the country, its climate ;.nd extent, PROM? ISE IN DUE SEASON IMPORTANT AIDS TO OUR TREASURY, AN AM? PLE PROVISION FOR OUR POSTER? ITY, AND A WIDE SPREAD FOR THE BLESSINGS OF FREEDOM AND EQUAL LAWS." Thai was the expansion Jefferson ad? vocated and carrli I but. 1-Iow different from it Is the forcible annexation of distant Asiatic, territory \vhi ??: no long, er allows it to be snld of us as Jefferson said in his third annual mi ssag >: '.'Separated by a wide ocean from the nations of Europe and from the politi? cal Interests thai entangle them to? gether * * w e should he most tin Wise, indeed, were ive :? cast rtv.'.'iy THE SINGULAR BLESSINGS OP THE POSITION In which nature has placed us, tii" opportunity she has en? dowed us with of pursuing, n| a dis? tance from foreign contentions, the >aths of Industry, pence and happl-| >ess, nf cultivating general friendship, nnd of bringing collisl ms nf interest to the iimpfrnge of reason rather than of Force. How desirable, then, must it he In a governmcnLiitke ours to see Its citizens ridopt individually the view, the Interests ami the conduct whl ih their country should pursue, divesting them? selves of those passions and partialities which tend to lessen useful friendship, and to embarrass and embr >i! na In the calamitous scenes nf Europe." In his farewell message, re-iterating his often expressed reliance on the mi? litia?so different from the present views prevailing at Washington, Mr. Jefferson said: ''Considering the extraordinary char ncter of the times In which we live, our! attention should be unremittingly fixed | on the safety of our country. For a ? people who are free, and who mean j to remain so. a well organized and ; tinned militia is their besl security. I| ] Is therefore Incumbent on us at every meeting to revise the condition of the militia, and to ask ourselves If It Is I prepared to repel a. powerful enemy at every point of our territories exposed to invasion. ? * Congress alone hav? ing the power to produce an unit Urn state of preparation in this nreat or? gan of defence, the Interests which they so deeply feel In their own and their country's security, will present this as among the most. Important objects "f their deliberation." Compare this Jefferson Inn Democ? racy with McKlnleylsm Hannnlsm. JEFFERSON NO ENEMY OF HOME MANUFACTURES. One of the great central Ideas of Thomas Jefferson was that this coun? try should export agricultural products In exchange for foreign goods. His voluminous writings show thai this w.is a hobby of the father of the Demo? cratic party.?Chicago Inter-Ocean. And yet a plank In thr. platform of 3S00. upon which Mr. Jefferson was lirst elected iTesirtont war. OS follows: "EN? COURAGEMENT OF SCIENCE AND THE ARTS IN ALL THEIR BRANCHES, to the end that the American people may PERFECT THEIR INDEPENDENCE OF ALL FOREIGN MONOPOLIES, institutions and influences." That Jefferson may have been for free trade seems to be true, and from that the Chicago paper infers what this' platform of 1800 so flatly and fully refutes. But the ignorance and Inaccu? racy; of all the foes of Democracy as to Jefferson and Democracy are prominent characteristics, flagrantly displayed In their denunciations of^the Dcmocratlo platform of 189C. In his first annual message to Con? gress, Jefforson said: "Agriculture, MANUFACTURES, commerce and i navigation, the four PIL.DARS OF OUR PROSPERITY, are then most thriving when left most free to Individual en? terprise." And In his second message lie urges on Congress to "PROTECT THE MANUFACTURES ADAPTED TO OUR CIRCUMSTANCES." In a special message of January 18, 1S03, he advises among other things that the Indians be encouraged to abandon hunting and to take to stock-raising, agriculture and DOMESTIC MANU? FACTURES. In his 6th annual message he speaks of the tariff, he says: "The great mass of articles on which. Impost is paid are foreign luxuries, purchased by those only who are rich enough to afford themselves the use of them"; and he asks: "Shall we suppress the Impost and give that advantage to foreign over domestic manufactures?" In his final message to Congress, Jefferson says: "The suspension of our foreign commerce, produced by the in? justice of the belligerent powers, and the consequent losses and sacrifices of our citizens are subjects of just con? cern. The situation into which we have thus been forced has impelled us to apply a portion of our Industry anil capital to Internal manufactures and improvements. The extent of this con? version Is daily Increasing, and little doubt remains that the establishments formed and forming Will, under the auspices of cheaper materials and sub? sistence, the freedom of labor from tax? ation with us, and of protecting duties and prohibitions, become permanent." These extracts surely, establish that the Chicago Inter-Oocan Is mistaken that It was a hobby of the great Dem? ocrat to confine our people to agricul? tural products to be exchanged for for? eign goods, and wc are surprised that a Virginia paper should copy the error. The telegraph informs us that Han? na. McKinley . Hobart have held a conference In Which they have come to an understanding that it will be Mc? Kinley and Hobart again in 19(10. as In 1896. This being so, It Is entirely un? necessary and supererogatory for the pi ople and voters of the party to hold a national convention, a? the three per? sons named have settled It; but there will be a "make believe" convention all the same: and that, it seems, is all that Republicans require in anything,? merely "pretend like" and "make be? lieve," as children say in their mock plays and games. Palmer, the billy bynumlte candidate for President in 1S90. received 134,4S,". votes; Bryan, the Democratic candi? date, received 6.3:17,SC7, a much larger vote than was ever cast before for the candidate of any party for Pesldent, ami only exceeded by Hanna's manu? factured vote for McKinley in 1S96. Yet Perry Belmont dares to call his squad of billy bynumlte foragers and strag 1 is the Democratic: party! The Bryan Democrats had ti,203,3S2 majority over the Belmont billy bynumites, and didn't miss 'em; nor did McKinley need 'em, as he had Hanna. Many of our contemporaries are still disporting with each other about when the twentieth century begins, notwith? standing the Vlrglnlan-Pllot gave ac curatc and authoritative data on the subject. They might settle it by bor? rowing money and executing notes payable on the first day of the twen? tieth century. The banks will do the rest in accordance with the latest Im I i oved methods. Notwithstanding the old saying that vouches for their veracity, figures are great liars, are naturally full of deceit, ami. in knavish and running hands, may mislead or confuse the wisest of us. Therefore, beware of figures that are not as strongly backed by reason, as by authority. The N. Y. Journal has a striking car? toon of a savage giant a? "The Trusts," seizing a small person, as "The People," by the hair and foot, and casting the latter to the ground, with great vio? lence,?Hanna, Alger and McKinley looking on laughing and crying "Bravo!" Rear Admiral Schley has a tremen lus advantage of Rear Admiral Samp? son in banquet oratory. 'When it comes to speaking of the destruction of Cer vera'8 fleet the former can speak from experience, while the latter has to de? pend largely upon hearsay for his facts. It is announced that twenty-five cent cigars cost only two and a half cents in .Manila, but that is a very poor Justifi? cation of the sacrifice of blood and treasure in order to hold the Philip? pines. Kansas City Is struggling with a milk scandal, in view of tin- fact that water is plentiful and cheaper than any chem? ical known, this scare would seem to be wliolly unwarranted. Tlie strongest proof Senator Vest has yet given his constituents that he Is opposed to expansion is "found in the fact that during his recent illness he worked off thirty pounds of flesh with? out violating his constitution. Out In Arizona they handcuff pris? oners around telegraph poles to save the expense of building Jails. Occasi? onally the public breaks the handcuff to hang them on the pole. Why will people who desire to see their effusions In print write on both Bides of the paper, thereby virtually passing them to the waste basket, themselves? Echo answers why? We do not subscribe to the opinion that the surgeon of the future will be able to perform all operations with the aid of a pneumatic pump and a screw driver. Spain is deeply In sympathy with the Filipinos, but the latter needs some? thing more substantial than sympathy from Dcopla who are angling for the same thing. Missouri has actually sent a man to the penitentiary for train robbery. If this thing happens often holding-up trains in that State will cease to be "eminently respectable." It, is reported that Speaker Reed has declared that he can see the expansion movement growing larger. What the speaker really sees is his expanding shadow. That's all. Vast changes are being wrought In the world's way of doing things. France hasn't had a crisis and Agulnaldo hasn't Issued a proclamation for nearly a week. When Generai Eagan was put on the stand to testify before the Court of In? quiry, ho knew enough this time to make his remarks Tit for publication. There Is, beyond the peradventure of a doubt, we think, a future for the councilman who will father the pro? position to pay councilmen a salary. PEOPL'ES FORUM. NOTE.?Tho People's Forum being freely open to all parlies, classes, per? sons, views and capacities, the Vlr glnlan-PHot Is responsible for none of the statements nor opinions ex? pressed therein, nor for the style In which they are set forth. The Ignorant and uneducated shall be heard hero equally with the learned. MAINTAIN PUBLIC SCHOOLS. Editor Virglnlnn-Pilot: A communication In to-day's Ledger Indicates that an effort is being made to impair the efficiency of our public schools by reducing the pay of the teachers. For years many of our people have been fighting hard to Im? prove the public schools of this city, and now that they have been greatly improved, for some one to coma In and by pleading lack of finances to cripple them may be putting fire to a magazine that will explode. Every street ought to be paved and officials given a decent salary, but not at the expense of our little ones. Not one of the present officials will resign If their salary is not raised, but they have votes that must be caught. Side streets belong to people who have pull and the children may grow in ignor? ance. Hoys and girls of Norfolk, to aims! Your rights ore in danger. Speak to every man you meet and ask him to help you. Fathers, brothers, see that the rights of your sons, brothers anil sisters arc given as much consider? ation as voter's. 1 tat which is worth doing Is worth being done right, nnd to show the enemies of our public schools that the friends of the schools know how to light nnd have the courage to do it. Maintain the public schools. OLD PUBLIC SCHOOL SCHOLAR. " TOLL ROADS. Editor of VIrglnlan-PJIot: In your issue of March 22d "The Suf? ferer" has more to say in condemna? tion of wide tires. I admit wide tires and nil others are horse killers when used to haul loads over such roads as he describes. But wide or narrow tires on good roads makes mile difference in drought. My contention first was. after roads were well made and good, that wide tires for heavy loads would lessen the cost of keeping them. So kept In good condition would save man nnd beast. Recently I read In the Virginian Pilot that in a town on Kennehec river, in Maine, where ice is harvested, that they passed an ordinance lining a man for entering stores or public places with ice creepers on, owing to the destruc? tion nnd de facing of floors_Some may say this is an arbitrary law. Rut after being carefully considered T think not. Take the city of Norfolk. She expends vast sums of money to pave ami put streets in order. As a general thing the the work is fairly well done. Now, it after these streets are completed and turned over to the nubile for use the city allows people to use trucks and drays that serve these new streets Just as these Maine men's Ice creepers serve n good floor, Is It not their duty to the tax payers to do as they did in Maine? prohibit and preserve the streets? I be? lieve In a man using any kind of a ve hicle ho chooses on his own premises and doing Just as he likes, so long as he dors not cause loss or annoyance to his neighbors. Not long since on a coun? try ro.irl a careless boy was crossing with a plow -the result was that the ronil was gouged where he crossed. Tins is only one instance; yet it shows tho treatment our roads get by thoughtless people. Good roads are a blessing to any community. To keep them so is money in tax payers' pock? ets. I would not ask your valuable space, hut streets nnd county roads are <>f so much Importance, that these dis? cussions may lead to needed reforms and better streets and roads. Respectfully, B. B. DUMVILLE. Mr. Editor: Sir:?In to-day's Issue of your paper your local columns say that an effort will be made next winter to extend the boundaries of tho city of Norfolk out to Tanner's Creek. Now lei me just say to you that the people of that section beyond Ilunters Vllle are a unit against being taken Into Cue endearing arms of the city of Norfolk. In the nnme of common ~cnse what would induce them to forego their present tranqulllty and contentment to go Into the city and bo taxed nnd get nothing for it. I'll assure you, Mr. Edi? tor, we are not hankering after the fatherly care of your city government. We have water, streets, lights, sewer? age and other conveniences, nnd are free from the blighting Influence of your political ring. So pray tell me what Inducement there is to tempt us to tack on to the city's coat tails. No, my dear Editor, we don't need your city government: wc arc happy where we are. The people Of the City Park section are running their own affairs to suit themselves, so please dont worry about us. We are not nmbl'.lous to In? crease the population of Norfolk Just now. ONE OF THEM. March 24, 16D9. _VIRGINIftN-PILOT'S_& HOME STUDY 6IRGLE, (Copyrighted, 1899.) DIRECTED UV PROF. SEYMOUR EATON. SUBJECTS OF STUDY IN THE ORDER IN WHICH THEY WILL BE PUBLISHED. y EVERY SUNDAY? History?Popular Studies in European History. EVERY TUESDAY? Gcocraphy?The World's Great Commercial Products. EVERY WEDNESDAY? Governments of the World of To-day. EVERY THURSDAY AND FRIDAY? * Literature?repular Studies in Literature. EVERY SATURDAY? Art?The World's Great Artists. Ttie*o c-nnrRo* will roailnno nntil Juno 20th. Kxnminnttans ranttneled by innli, vr mi be hold At their clone as a bn?ia lor ibe ffrattllug uf CertldOntes. POPULAR STUDIES IN LITERATURE. V.-BUNYAN. THE RELIGIOUS ELEMENT IN EARLY LITERATURE. (Concluded.) BY F.DWIN Ml MS. A. M.. (Trinity College, Durham, N. C) Bunynn's success In literature is sur? prising for two reasons. One Is that the people among whom he lived were never so opposed to literature. Their opposition to theatres and dramatic literature extended to all forms of liter? ature; In the mind of the puritans it was a frivolous thing?too frivolous for any man intent on his own soul. After Bunyan had written "'Pilgrim's Pro? gress" a good many of his friends pleaded with him not to publish It. He refers to the controversy or dispute In his good-humored preface: "And some said. 'Let him live;' some, "Let him die;' Some said. 'John, print It;' others said. ?'Nut so.' -:-? Some said It might do good; others, 'No.' " Their objection was, they wanted "solldness"?"speak thy mind." They will have nothing to do with what Is "feigned"?"metaphors make us blind." eel by the archals forms of thought?the seemingly primeval ideas. We have had so much of science, and science w have nothing to do with such supersti? tions; we have "n*il still more of mate? rialism, and that docs not harmonize with the stern laws of the puritan world. And so we almost laugh at the crude Ideas of Christian and Faithful, and Bunyan as a "forgotten worthy." But are we not in danger here? Does wisdom abide with us when we get too far away front that which Is perma? nent In puritan literature'.' Readers ..f "The Celestial Railroad" will recall the striking way In which Hawthorne deals with t'ne modern sub? stitutes for "The Pilgrim's Progress." Instead of the long and tires..nie j nir n??y of weary pilgrims we have the through train from ihe city of De? struction to the Celestial City, Mr. Smooth-lt-Awny Is guide instead of the st^rn Evangelist. He has "square pieces of pasteboard" Instead of the antique roll of parchment (the bible); on board the train are "porti?s of th+ first E"n try" and "flowers of fonhionable so? ciety," with names such as "Take-It Basy," Mr. "Llve-ln-the-World," Mr. "Hide-Sln-ln-the-Hcart," all from the town of "Sh?n-Repentance." Their bur? dens are deposited In the baggage ear and not on overladened backs. Apollyon JOHN 13 LTNTA-N. Bunyan'a answer Is a plea not only for his books, but for nil art. Using the figure of catching flsh? "They must be groped for, and be -tickled, too, Or they will not bo catehed whate'er you do." A simple way of saying what Brown? ing does? "Art may tell a truth Obliquely, so the thing shall breed tho thought Nor wrong the thought, missing the mediate word." Another reason why we are surprised at Bunyan'a astonishing success in lit? erature is that, he seems to have had no literary training whatever. He says he never went to school to Aristotle or Plato; he evidently forgot how to write and had to learn again by himself. There is no evidence that he read any book besides the bible. How, then, are we to account for the writing of "Pil? grim's Progress." It Is the old ptory of the self-education of genius. He had as a child nnd as a man a strong Imagi? nation; the stories of the bible and the teachings of his mother and father were deeply realized by him. Heaven and hell, the angels and devils nnd hobgoblins were as real as his own life. This sensatlve mind might have be? come morbid; indeed, so it was for a long time, but his healthy, human sense triumphed. In his early life his contact with men was of inestimable value to him. From that centaet came his knowledge of human nature and his home-bred eommen sense. There was nothing of the nscetle in Bunyan's nature; he had the sense of humor, nnd In everything that he wrote we feel the human interest?pre-eminently in "Pil? grim's Progress." As Mr. Fronde has pointed nut, his confinement in Bed? ford jail was a good thing for him. There he had time to reflect, to read, to dream; while if he had been at liberty to preach all the time he would have scattered his powers. His imagination, his knowledge of the world, hia life of reflection in the prison .and. more than till these, his constant reading of the bible, contributed to the development of his artistic nature. It is difficult for a man of the nine? teenth century to enter sympathetically intc the life of the first half of the seventeenth. Our theology is many stages removed from puritan theology; I: Is a long call from Milton to Brown? ing and from Bunyan to Phillips Brooks and Lyman Abbott. "We don't hear much nowadays about repentance and pardon for sin, nnd Justification by faith, and hell fire. "Pilgrim's Pro? gress" and "Grace Abounding" are written In a peculiar style. His use of antique words has a tendency to keep people from reading hia books, but more than by words readers are repell is tho conductor, having made p< m with the pilgrims. .Miss Prudence, Miss Piety ana Miss Charity, \vh<> kept the Palace Beautiful, have become "old maids." and Tophet has not oven a metaphoTTcal existence: Vanity Tail has riiurfi!?s and nowhere are the rev? erend clergy held In higher respect. The burden of nil this allegory of Haw? thorne's Is, "Hear. ye. O yol enlighten? ed nineteenth century! fte.ici the old 'PIlKrlm's Progress." for. after all, the most attractive figures are those of the two dusty foot travelers In the pil? grim's guise, with cockle shell and staff, their mystic rolls of parchment In llielr hands and their Intolerable burdens on their backs." for only they will have the nngels to greet them as they come out of the River of Death. Trinity College, Durham, N. C. Selected Studies and Criticism. mth We might say that ptlrltanism s-ild its last great words, with Milton w< re It not that its spirit continued In Eng? lish life, wer?; it net also that four years after his death, In 1C7S, John Bunyan, who had previously written religious poems and in 1665 "Tho Holy City." published ' The Pilgrim's Pro? gress" It is tho journey of Christian, the pilgrim, from the City of Destruc? tion to the Celestial City. I class "The Pilgrim's Progress" lu re because in its imaginative fervor and imagery and in Its finality of naturalness ii belongs to the snlrlt. of the Elizabethan t lutes. Written by a man of the people, it is a people's book: and Its simple form grew out of passionate feeling and nol out of self-conscious art. The passion? ate feeling was religious, and in paint? ing the pilgrim's progress toward heaven and his battle With the world and temptation and sorrow the book touched those deep and universal Inter? ests which belong to poor and rich. Its language the language of the bible, and Its allegorical form initiated a plentiful prose literature of a similar klrd. But nine have equaled It. Its form is almost epic; Its dramatic dia? logue, its clear types of character. Its vivid descriptions. AS of Vanity Fair; nnd of plat es, such as the Valley of tho Shadow of Death nnd the Deict able Mountains, which represent states of the human soul, have given an equal hut a different pleasure to children and men. to the villager and the scholar.? Stopford A. Brooke. Bunyan's knowledge of human nature i was more than experimental; It was in? trospective. And If a man who be llevod dancing and bell-ringing to be sit-fill pastimes could not bo expected to have a very healthy creed, or a. man who was In prison twelve years for the complicated crime of not attending church and preaching In conventicles might have been excused for not having a very charitable one, there Is no sign, of either In ' The Pilgrim's Progress." It Is the work of a man whose self is wider than his creed atid his art wider than himself.?William Renten. He was universally esteemed fof tho beauty of his character and tho liberal? ity of his views, while the fame of his sufferings and the power of his dls- s. course drew multitudes to hear him preach. In London let but a day's no? tice bo given and the house would not contain the half. Says an eye-witness: "1 have seen, by my computation,, about l.L'UO persons to hear him at a * morning lecture on a working day la dark working time. I also computed about 3,coo that came to hear him at a town's end meeting house; so that half were fain to go back again for want of room; and there himself was fain at a back door to be pulled nlmast over people to get upstairs to the pulpit." Put he has a larger audience new. It Is by the "Pilgrim" that he affects the minds and hearts of survivors mure and more widely as generations pass away. The historian will value It as an ef? fect?a record. In part, of contemporary Institutions and ideas nnd an oxpreS sinn of the new Imaginative force that had been given to common English life by the study of the Bible. The peo? ple will treasure it for its artless story "i Christian experience?its perpetual narrative of their personal recollections. More than 100,000 copies circulated in England and America during his life.' Sinne his death It has been rendered Into every language of Europe, and In? to more other languages than ahy book save the scriptures.?Welsh. STUDENTS NOTES AND QUES? TIONS. 1. Macaulay says that Bunyan Is "the mosl popular religious writer In the rCugllsh language." it will be useless jreforc to specify editions. Editions of "The Pilgrim's Progress" are Indeed legion, We have noticed twenty-eight lillYerenl editions by American publlsu . ra aloni . As a curiosity we may men* Lion "Tho Pilgrim's Progress Dono Into .Modern English," by .lohn Morrison (Macmlllan). Editions that we rterson ally like are "The Golden Treasury" (Macmlllan) and "The Temple." edited by Ii racl C illanes, M. A., of Cambridge <A. c. McClurg & Co.). The new edl tlon Just, published by toe Century Cotnpany.prlnted a( the Do Vlnne press, with many illustrations by the Rheada, will commend Itself to the lovers df beautiful books. 2, No student Interested In Runynn shoe.],; tall to rend Macaulay's enthu? siastic e ssay suggested by Snuthey's edition of "The Pilgrim's Progress," published with a memoir in 1830. Tho s: ay was written in the late months of that year, when tho essayist was in tho : ill vigor ? f his prime, although he was then but little pact 30. Immediately ort Its appearance every one began to read ?The Pilgrim's Progress" who had never rend it before, or not since child? hood. Macaulay war, much amused one tliw a abort time after the nppenrnnce of the r< view when sitting In the library ???;' the A lienaeum club he heard a. gen tleniau call out: "Walter, Is there a copy of "The Pilgrim's Progress" In tho library?" Every copy wan out. :;. It infiy not, perhaps, be generally known that tho .article on Bunyan in the Encyclopaedia Britannien was writ? ten by Macaulay. It was written for the eighth edition, published I8.r)3-G0, but along with the articles written also by him on Goldsmith, Johnson and Pitt, it was retained for the ninth or pres ent edltl n of the work?among the very finest things In it. It will be In leresting to record here what Mr. Plaek, the publisher of the encyclo : ' rlln, has said of the spirit In which Macaulay contributed thoso articles: "He hnd ceased to write for the reviews or other periodicals, though often ear n stly nollclted to do so. It Is entirely lo lila friendly feeling that I nin ln debted for those literary gems which could not have been purchased with mi m nnd It Is but justice to his memory that I should record as one of the many instances of the kindness arid ; ncroslty of his heart that lie made it a stipulation of bis contributing to the eneyeloi icdln that remuneration should not be so much as mentioned" 4. Two lives of Bunyan can be spe ' illy r. .imended to our students?ft) "Bunyan," by J. A. Eroude in tho "Eng? lish Men of Letters" series (Harper's), whl ?:? i.-- critical r-ml descriptive as well a i biographical?a study of Bun y'an's writings as well as of his life, and (2) ".lohn Bunyan," by the Rev. Canon Vcnables In tho admirable se rlcs edited by Eric S. Robertson, en? titled "Great Wrlters"rT (Scrlbncrs). This last-named scries, though not so well known as the "English Men of :. ::? rs" scries, has many excellent fca 1 lures to recommend it. QUESTION. What well-known allegory by a fore rr.ost American writer is a sort of par ody en Bunyan's "Pilgrim's Progress"? EXAMINATIONS AND CERTIFI? CATES. Al the end of the term of seventeen, weeks, a series of questions on each course, prepared by Professor Seymour Eaton, will be published in the Vlr glnian-Pilot, nnd blanks containing the questions will he furnished every sub? scriber making application for same. Two weeks will be allowed after the courses close, for the receipt of exami? nation papers containing answers. Thi sc papers will be referred to a Board of Examiners, who will assist Professor Eaton, and as soon as the work of examination is complete, the result will be reported, and certificates issued to tho students entitled to them. ii ? ana ? Flies March Is colng rap'dly. and those who not looked aft. r their beds should 1 do so at once. Our BED BUG KILLER will keep the beds clean .-.n entire season. Price. 2ic. with brush. '< It !:> now warm enough to bring oat the moth files, and their eggs deposited in your woolen clothes means their de sf. net irr. during Summer. Moth Palls. 5c. lb.; 0 lbs. 23c. Napthalln Flakes, 10c.; 3lbS. 25c. Camphor. f*')C lb. Crysta Alba, 15c. box; 2 far 25c. Burrow. Ii l Co. 296 MAIN ST. Goods delivered free In Portsmouth, B*rk)ty and Atlantic City.