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THE LEGITIMACY OF POWER. _ I Tho limits of authority and the legitl- i macy of power comprise a subject that I may be discussed without passion and be considered in the pure light of rea? son and truth. But it hardly conduces to such consideration to dub in advance a matter for discussion with this head? ing: "A Great Vindication of Popular Right." It Is putting the cart before tho horse; It Is a verdict before trial; a Judgment before hearing; an attempt to prejudge and prejudice the case; and, to Impartial observers, raises a suspicion that this labored title Is to cover a fear that somebody may mistake the thing so dubbed as "A Great Invasion of Popular Right." Yet that is what the Richmond Times does In undertaking to defend a recent decision of the Su? preme Court of Appeals of Virginia. This "Great Vindication of Popular Right," as the Times calls It, is a re? fusal of tho court to obey the legisla? ture in Its efforts to restrain the courts in exercise of the power to govern by injunction, or in exercise of their power to punish for alleged contempt of court; these efforts, on part of the legislature, seeming to plain common people as be? ing by for rind in the name of the peo? ple to protect tho people from the arbi? trary action of courts. There la no pre? text on part of the Supremo Court that the legislature violates any provision of the Federal constitution or State con? stitution In tho act as to contempts which It pronounces null and void; but slmp]y_b__use It is the opinion of the court that It and all other courts have an Inherent (or "divine") power, of which no power can deprive them; that this power is also Inherited from Eng? land, and that It is a common-law power. The real point Is this: has a creature of the people nny power not granted by the people, and may It disobey the will of the people exercised constitutionally? Or may any branch of the public ser? vice of tho people deilne itself and Its powers, in contempt of the people and tbelr laws and constitutions? Yet that is what our Supreme Court of Appeals has done. If it Is right, then the Gov? ernor or Executive Department, may define that department and do as it may think "necessary and essential," Without constitutional warrant, and even In contempt of tho constitution and the law. Or the legislature may do the same, notwithstanding the fact that the court eaya to the contrary, for It may Impeach tho court, or Its judges, and turn them out; or it may abolish the court; or supersede it by nnothor. It 1b too lato to discuss or question the supreme and exclusive political power of the people in this State and country. They constitute the State; they made it; they framed its consti? tution, subject only to the constitution of the United States and acts of Con? gress passed in pursunnce thereof; and apart from or outside of our State con? stitution, or acts passed in pursuance thereof; has any person or agency any cower of a public sort? The 4th clause or section of article 1st of our Btate constitution says: "All pl wer is vested in, n.nd conse? quently derived from, the people; mag? istrates are their trustees and servants, and at all times amenable to them." And In the ICth clause or section of the some article, it Is declared: "No government separate from, or in? dependent of, the government of Vir? ginia ought to be erected or establish? ed within the limits thereof." But our Supreme Court of Appeals "ereoU" itself into a separate and in? dependent government here! If there was even ground for any pretext that the act cf legislature as t6>. contempts the constitutional powers of our State courts, we might say, as in other cases, that this is a mere mistake, not an usurpation; but as It Is, it is a flagrant attempt to set up within this State a separate and independent power, su? perior to the State, its government and the people. The constitution creates the courts; but it says, article VI., section 1: "The Jurisdiction of these tribunals, and the judges thereof, EXCEPT SO FAR AS THE SAME IS CONFERRED BY THIS CONSTITUTION, SHADE BE REGULATED BY DAW." Certain? ly, then, no court in this Stato can have any power not conferred by the consti? tution or by law. No law nor constitu? tional provision confers any 6Uch pow? ers as the court arrogates in this case; and to claim "Inherent" powers Is only a device to set up imperial or "divine" rights, which are repudiated by all free governments. To claim such powers'un? der the common law is ridiculous, as it has no force whatever in Virginia ex? cept that granted it by the Code of Vir? ginia, 1887, chapter 2, sections 2 and 3, in which it Is distinctly provided that it shall have force "so far as it is not re? pugnant to the principles of the bill of rights and constitution of this State, ? ? EXCEPT IN THOSE RE? SPECTS WHEREIN IT IS. OR SHALL BE, ALTERED BY THE GENERAL, ASSEMBLY." In exercise of the sovereign will vest? ed in them by the people and in pur? suance of the duty imposed upon them by the constitution of the State, to "regulate" the courts and Judges, the members of the General Assembly, rep? resenting the people, enacted the fol? lowing (section 37C8 of the Code of 1SS7): "The courts and Judges may Issue at? tachments for contempt, and punish them summarily, only in the cases fol? lowing: "First. Misbehavior in the presence of the court, or so near thereto as to ob? struct or Interrupt the administration of justice; "Second. Violence or threats of vio? lence to a Judge or officer of the court, or to a Juror, witness, or party going to, attending, or returning from the court, for or In respect of any act or proceeding had or to be had In such court; "Third. Misbehavior of an officer of the court In his official character; "Fourth. Disobedience or resistance of an officer of the court, juror, witness, or other person, to any lawful process, Judgment, decree, or order of the said court." Section 3771 provides that offenders of the first class above shall not be fined more than $50 nor imprisoned longer than ten days, without a Jury be em? panelled to fix the same. Section 3772 rends as follows (and Its provisions are of vast Importance to the liberty of the citizen): "If any person, by threats or force, attempt to Intimidate or Impede a judge, Justice, Juror, witness, or an of? ficer of a court, or any sergeant, con? stable, or other peace officer, or any revenue officer, in the discharge of his duty, or to obstruct or impede the ad? ministration of justice In any court, he shall be prosecuted as for a misde? meanor and punished by fine and im? prisonment, or either. In the discretion of the Jury." Not content with all this, and bent on maintaining arbitrary powers of usur patlon and tyranny, already unlawful and unconstitutional, the Supreme Court of Appeals arrogantly says: "Your pretended acts to restrain us are null and void. We shall do as wo please. We decline to be regulated by you." The powers assumed by the Courts, State and Federal, under pretexts of contempt, as well as Injunction, are enormous and despotic and in direct vio? lation of the provisions of Amendments 5 and G of tho Federal constitution, which guarantee all men "due process of law" In all cases affecting life, lib? erty, or property, and in nil criminal cases, trial by Jury, the right to call witnesses in their behalf, &c, and the Bill of Rights of Virginia assure every citizen of the State the same rights. In the Democratic platform of 1000 "government by contempt" should he denounced side by side with "govern? ment by injunction," as tlvrc are many atrocious abuses \inder the pretence of "contempt" that have no connection with Injunction; and "the Legislature of Virginia should re-enact the law as to contempt which the Court of Appeals of Virginia declares null and void; and if the said court again attempt to nulli? fy it, Impeach every Judge concerned in the treason. In a letter to Thomas Ritchie, dated December 2.*>th, 1S20, Thomas Jefferson j wrote as follows: "Vhe Judiciary of the United States is the subtle corps of sappers and min? ers, constantly working under ground to undermine the foundations of con? federate fabric. They are construing our constitution from a co-ordination of a general and special government, to a general and supreme one above." The decision of the Court of Appeals of Virginia Is truly In line with the progress of Imperialism. THE INTOXICATION OF WAR. Milltnry conquest is very seductive in its excitement, its chances, its prizes, Its glory. As a great game of skill and char.ee, its great stakes, its risks of life and death, its victories and de? feats, it fascinates and allures men and nations- But unnecessary war is a great crime and a great horror, If wo will but consider it. Our soldiers in the Philippines have our strongest sympatlUes; we are proud of their daring; we glory In their deeds; we advance with them .step by step, ns they drive the enemy. Even though they he so far off, we see them in our mind's eye: and as we read, we re? strain ourselves with difficulty from cheering them with our shouts. But they a re-laying and being slain; thoy are wounding and being wounded; _'. . ._._.i-- - those brown or yellow fellows, too, 111 cqulpped as they are, are fighting bravely for homo and country, with a pathetic constancy and devotion that extort our pity and our admiration. They, as well as our men, have moth? ers, wives, daughters, children, fathers, brothers and friends filled with anguish and fear for them nil day long, and through the ' sleepless nights. How many hearts are desolated by every victory or defeat! How many homes are destroyed! How many widows, orphans and others are left helpless and friendless! How much want, misery and grief! "Tho Baths of glory lead but to the grave." "Who is guiltless of his country's blood, who sends her sons to war, whether "to wad? through slaughter to a throne, And shut the gates of mercy on man? kind." like Napblcon; or like Cortez and Piz arro, to massacre barbarians to rob them of their lands and gold? How much better "To scatter plenty o'er a smiling land. And read their hist'ry in a nation's eyes." In any war, except for deliverance, or self defence, victory and defeat are equal calamities,?unless, indeed, do feat may be a blessing in disguise, and turn aside, to better things, the forces bent on courage and rapine. "Can tyrants but by tyrants co quered be, And Freedom find no champion and no child Such as Columbia saw arise when she I Sprung forth a Pallas, armed and un defiled? Or must such minds be nourished in the wild. Deep in the unpruned forest, midst the roar Of cataracts, where nursing nature smiled On infant Washington? Hath earth no | more Such seeds within her heart, or Europe no such shore? - But France got drunk with blood to vomit crime. And fatal have her Saturnalia been. ? ??? ? '? Are grown the pretext for the eternal thrall Which rips life's tree, and dooms man's worst?his second fall.?Lord Byron in Childe Harold. Our Imperial policy has got us Into | the fight over the questions as to who | shall be king of Samoa; and has plac? ed us in a most pronounced attitude of I opposition to the^self-govcrnment of the Samoans. Samoa has a king; but he wns elected by the people; and though I he is satisfactory to the majority of the Samoans, to the German represen? tatives, he is not PERSONA GRATA I to the English; and so our ship, the] Philadelphia, Admiral Kautz, com? manding, has Joined the British cruls-| ers In bombarding the villages along | the coast supporting the King, Mataa fa. This shelling and some ensuing I fighting ashore resulted in the killing and wounding of a number of persons, Including natives and a few English, Germans and Americans. We have taken to the sword, and we are likely j to have enough of it, before all's done, ?even though no war result between I any two of tho great powers from this] collision at Apia. We seem to have drifted Into the rapids of a Niagara from which noth? ing can deliver us but a restoration of the Democrats to Federal rule. As private trusts aro monopolizing the purchase, manufacture and sale of tobacco for private gain, at the expense of its producers, manufacturers, deal? ers and consumers, why should not every State, or the United States, take this monopoly into its own hands for the common benefit of the government and all tho people. This Is already done in all the principal nations of Eu? rope, if not in every one,?including Spain, France, Italy, Germany, &c. In view of the questions raised by Mr. Perry Belmont, in his controversy] with Mr. W. Jennings Bryan as to the | relative merits of Democrats who eat ten dollar dinners, and Democrats who eat one dollar dinners, it might inter? est the former to ascertain what has become of the good old Jefforsoninn Democrats who could dine well on about fifteen cents worth of "bacon and greens." Tho evidence heard so far by the Court of Inquiry warrants the belief that General Miles made a serious mis-1 take in failing to say worse things about the beef Commissary General j Eagan purchased and shipped to the] army. Tho refinement of cruelty was reach? ed by the St. Louis alderman who so- I lected the week before Easter as the proper time to propose that women re? move their hat? when seated In public 1 edifices of any kind whatsoever. An "entangling alliance" with Ger? many and England has already em? broiled the United States In a quarrel] over the control of the Samoan Islands that may possibly bring on a war of] great dimensions. If Hon. John Sherman recovers, and I it is universally hoped he may, ho can tell us in his forthcoming recollections how he felt when reading his own] obituary. In ISCt-'Ge, Mr. Scward used to limit | the war to 90 days; but it continued for! four years, or 1.46? days. Conquering peace is slow work, if the other fellows have pluck, guns and ammunition. Wonder If Hanna, McKinley, or any of their backers, think of the blood? shed, the misery, tho lives lost, the cost, pain and destruction caused by tho war -VIRGINImN-PIUOT'S (Copyrighted, 1899.) DIRECTED liY PROF. SEYMOUR EATON. SUBJECTS OF STUDY IN THE ORDER IN WHICH THEY WILL BE PUBLISHED. EVERY SUNDAY? History?Popular Slu?is In European History. EVERY* TUESDAY? Geography?The World's Great Commercial Products. EVERY WEDNESDAY? Governments of the World of To-day. EVERY THURSDAY AND FRIDAY? Literati.re?Popular Studies In Literature. EVERY SATURDAY? Art--The World's Great. Artists. Tlicso conmet ? ill continue mull .Tune 30ih. Exanilnnllntia comliieleil by llinll, will bi> liolil At iliclr closo na a biiala for ibe Krailling of Certldcalee. popular studies in european history. V.--THE OTTOMAN TURKS. BY SAMUEL. B. HARDING, FH. D. Professor of History, University of In? diana. It was about the middle of the thir? teenth century that the ancestors of the Ottoman Turks emerged from the wilds of central Asia and stepped into the light of history. The crusades were practically over and Jerusalem was lost to Christendom forever; the power of the Seljukian Turks, whose outrages had brought on those movements, had been broken Into a number Of petty sultanates; and wandering hordes of Mongols were striking by turns Into the heart of eastern Europe and of western Asia. In resisting such a Mongol horde, ac? cording to Turkish chroniclers, the Sol jnkian sultan of leonlum was one day hard beset In the plains of Angora. Suddenly a troop of horsemen appeared on the crest of a neighboring ridge, took in the situation, and dashed In -to the aid of the weaker party with such effect that the Mongols were put to fight. Turning to thank his chivalrous rescuers, the sultan found that they were a band of Turks, kindred to the Seljuks, who had been dislodged from their old home in Khorasan, and wore now, to the number of loo families, with their flocks ami herds, wandering In search of a new location. In reward for their services the sul? tan of Iconium settled the newcomers In northwestern Asia Minor, with cer? tain mountain pastures for their sum? mer sojourn and a neighboring plain for their residence in winter. There, under their leader Ertoghrul. they tend? ed their flocks and warred for their suzerain, and gradually they grew in numbers. In wealth and In power. In 12SS Ertoghrul died and was succeeded by his more energetic son Othman (or through alliance with a domestic fac? tion in civil war. A permanent footing was gained when Sulcyman, the eldest son of Orkhan, seized Galllpoll, In 1">S7. on the destruction of tho walls of that city by an earthquake. Three years af? ter this step Orkhan died, leaving- his power to his son Murad (or Amurath) the First, Suleyman having died the year before. ? EUROPEAN CONQUESTS. Among a half-score of able generals, Murad was himself the bravest, the most skillful and the most zealous for the faith. In his reign the outlying settlements in Europe became a con? solidated power, and the horsetail standards penetrated us far as tho Dan? ube. In ISfio Adrlariople fell into his hands; here the Turkish capital was established, and here it remained until its removal to Constantinople ninety years later, l'hlllppolis and the r.reat er part of ancient Thrace and Macedo? nia-soon followed Adrlanople?and the only districts OUteldc of the vicinity of Constantinople which were now left to the Greek empire were tho lands about Thrssalonlca and tho ancient Pelopon? nesus. But the Turks soon had other enemies to contend with besides the Greeks. Beyond the narrowed boundaries of the empire, in tho fourteenth century, lay the Slavic-speaking lands. Bulgaria and Scrvlo. tilled with peoples more war? like and more energetic than tho worn out Greeks; beyond these again were the nations of central and western Eu? rope. Alarmed at the ranld progress of the infidel, a crusade was preached against the Turks by Pope Urban V., and In rcSDOhsc to this call the Chris? tian princes or Servia, Bosnia and Bul? garia united their forces. In 1.171. with those of the king of Hungary. Over confidence, however, wrecked the ex THE OTTOMAN" EMPIRE IX TUB SIXTEENTH CENTURY. Osman), from whom this people derive their name of Osmanll, or ottomans. I'p to this time the Ottomans had, in the main, remained a mere pagan horde; under Othman they embraced Mohammedanism and were consolidat? ed into a nation. Filled with the zeal of new convert?, ihey then embarked upon a career of conquest. Tartly at the pxpfti.'o of the Greek emperors of Constantinople, who still ruled large districts in Asia Minor, partly at the expense of other Mohammedan chiefs, the territory of the Ottomans grew constantly larger, until at last Othman had become the most powerful prince of western Asia. FROM ASIA INTO EUROPIA Othman died In 1326. He was suc? ceeded by his son Orkhan, hy whom, in 1330, the Greek city of Nlcaea?the second city of the empire, fatuous as the sent of the early councils of the Christian church?was taken. This con? quest bronchi the Turks to the shores of the Bosporus, across whose narrow waters they could see the domes and towers of Constantinople. A quarter of a century, however, was to pass before the Turkish power crossed that narrow strait and gained a foothold on the Eu? ropean continent. Meanwhile Orkhan and his brother (the first grnnd vizier of Turkish his? tory) labored to organize his Asiatic conquests and to improve the olTlciency of the heterogeneous forces which com? posed his army. At this lime was formed the famous corps of Janissaries, or "new troons" The source from which they were drawn was of deep significance. Every lifth year the chil? dren of the subject Christian villages were assembled, and from them the Turks took one-fifth of the number, selecting especially the sturdiest and most promising boys, who were then carried off to be brought up in the Mohammedan faith; from these lads the Janissaries were recruited. (For three centuries this enormous drain upon the Christian populations was kept up, and so long as the Janissaries continued to be recruited In tills way they constituted the most formidable part of the Turkish army; they ended, however, by mastering those whom they were designed to serve, and It was not until the present century that this new Praetorian guard was finally got rid of by the sultans.) The entrance of tho Turks into the European provinces of tho empire, like that of tho Saxons Into Britain, came first in the form of piratical raids, then ; pcdltlon, for on tho Hivor Marltza. near ! Adrianople, the camp of the crusaders j was surprised at night by the Turks, and the crusaders, heavy with drunken sleep, were dispersed with terrible slaughter. KOSSOVO AND N1COPOLIS. iThe advantage which wns thus gain? ed by the Turks was speedily followed up. The remainder of Thrace was won; Bulgaria and Servia made their submission and .agreed to become trib? utary states. The power of the Slavs, however, was merely bent, not broken. In 13S9 .1 new force of Servians, Bos? nians, Bulgarians and Wallachlans was ans. Bulgarians and Wallachlans was assembled under Lazarus of Servia, and on June l? they met the Turkish forces under Murad at Kossova. After a long and obstinate contest, which left the field of battle "like a tulip bed, with its ruddy severed heads and roll? ing turbans," tho victory rested with the Turks. Murad, however, did not j live to enjoy It; at the moment of-vic? tory he. was struck by a blow from a Servian dagger, and, like Lazarus him? self, he found the martyr's death which he had sought. With tho battle of Kossova the Inde? pendence of the Slavic states of the Balkan peninsula conies to an end. On the accession of Bayezid (or Bajazet) tho First, son of Murad, tho humbler ti? tle of emir Is laid aside for that of sul? tan. In this ruler the darker side of the Turkish dominion comes into view. Bayezid was the first to establish it as a principle of the Ottoman succession that a new sultan might put to death his brothers to avoid possible rivalry for the throne. He was the first, too, to abandon the almost ascetic temper? ance taught by the koran and gave himself up to the foul moral corrup? tion which has characterized so many of the later sultans. Withal, however, Bayezid was not without the Ottoman ability as a warrior. When a hew cru? sade against the Turks was headed by Sigismund, king of Hungary, and an army of 100.000 men was In 1396 march? ed Into the Turkish dominions, boasting that "even should the sky fail, they could uphold it with their lances." Bayezid justified his name of "the thunderbolt" by the skill and energy with which he overthrew the enemy at the battle of Nicopolls; but the glory of that exploit was dimmed by the mas? sacre of 3,000 of tho prisoners by which it was followed. The victory of Nlcopolla raised ths Turkish power to a higher pitch, than It had ever before reached. Raids for slaves arid booty now began to pene? trate Into Hungary Itself, while to tho south Athens and Peloponnesus were alike subjected to the Mohammedan rule. More Important were the attacks which were now, for the llrst time, directed against Constantinople Itself. Nothing, It was felt, could preservo the doomed city save the active lnterpoal tion of the Latin powers of the west, and to gain this the emperor, Manuel II., vesting all power in his nephew and colleague, Spent several years In fruitless embassies to Italy, Paris and Liondi n. THE OVERTHROW AT ANGORA. Aid came, however, not from the west, but from the east. There In the steppes of Asia a new Mongol empire had slowly been forming under the fa? mous Tlmour, or Tamerlane, till It stretched from Delhi to Damascus, from the BCa of Aral to the Persian gulf. Tlmour was now an old man of nearly 70 years. Hitherto he had scrup? ulously refrained from aggressions upon the Ottomans, for they, too, were felt to be lighting the battles of the faith. But the power of the Turk had steadily been growing eastward as well us westward, and by the close of the fourteenth century the two "scourges of Cod" had come face to face in Ar? menia and Caucasia-. Under such cir? cumstances penc? was difficult to maln toln. Mutual grounds of complaint were found and insulting embassies were ex? changed; at last wnr was declared on the part of Tlmour, in 1400, by seizing the ottoman city of Slwns and putting to the sword all of the Inhabitants, to? gether with one of the sons of Bayezld, who had been placed over the city as Its governor. To meet this new enemy Bnyezid waa forced to raise the siege of Constanti? nople and hasten to Asia. It was not until 1102. however, that the forces of the two sultans met. On July) 20 of that year Tlmour, with a vas^y su? perior force, succeeded In entlcYxg his adversary Into the- plain of Angora, the sceno of the llrst victory of the Otto mans, 150 years 'before, and there tlie battle took place. The 30,000 Janissa? ries, under the Immediate command of Bayezld, together with a force of Chris? tian Servians on the left wing, fought "i'ke lion::." as Tlmour admiringly said. On tho right wing, however, the Sel juks and Mongols from the newly con? quered states in As4a Minor deserted to the enemy, and the battle was lost; the troops Who remained loyal to Bayezld were crushlngly defeated and ho him? self was taken prisoner. For fight months Bayezld lived In captivity and llinnjlied?of chagrin, it la said Tlmour survived his prisoner only two years, but In that time he overran the whole of the Turkish em? pire In Asia, occupied Its chief cities and restored the various petty princes whom Bayezld had dispossessed. Of the great empire won by the valor of Othman and his successors there re? mained onlv scattered fragments con? tested by rival claimants and existing only by tho sufferance of the Mongol sultan. Tho power i :' the ottoman, It might well seem, waa vanished never to return. Note? This paper will be concluded next week. EXAMINATIONS AND CERT.FI CATES. At the end of the term of seventeen weeks, a series of questions on each course, prepared by Professor Seymour Raton, will he published In the Vir? ginian-Pilot, and blanks containing the questions will be furnished every sub? scriber making application for same. Two weeks will he allowed after the. courses close, for the receipt of exami? nation papers containing answers. These papers will be referred to iL Board of E::umlncrs, who will assist Professor Eaton, and as soon as tho work of examination Is complete, the result will be reported, and certificates Issued to the students entitled to them. Slugs anil piolil Files March Is rrolnr: rhp'dly, and those who have not looked after their beds should do so at once. Our BED BUG KILLER will keep the beds clean an entire season. Price, 25c. with brush. It is now warm enough to brlnsr out the moth files, and their ckks deposited in your woolen clothes means their de? struction during Bummer. Moth Balls, 5c. Ib.; 6 lbs. 25e. NapthSl'.n Flakea, 10*.; 2ibs. 2.?c. Camphor, ccc lb. % Crysta Alba, 13c box; 2 for 21c. Burrow. Bffi I Go.' 296 MAIN ST. Goods delivered freo in Portsmouth, Berkley and Atlantic City. Camphor, Insect Powder, &c, should be usea freely, early in the season. Repol the Invasion of rbnoxlous Insects by the use of efft.lont preparations. It will save the troublo of rovitin.tr them after they have obtalnr-d a foothald and be less ex oenslvc. Poison for Red Bugs, 23 cents for full pint, with brush. ROUT. F. HOLMES & CO., D: ugglsts. OKI No. "C. new No. 13C Main St._ IRWINS EXPRESS CO., 218-Vater St.. Phone G.Eiilur Phone Wa haul anything to and from any. where in the three citlaa. Spccla.1 facilities for hauling Baff?, Rollers Furniture and Planoa. Let* filled and filling, wanted.