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?BY THE? (VIRGINIAN AND PILOT PUBLISHING COMPANY._ NORFOLK VIRGINIAN AND DAILY PILOT. (Consolidated March, 1SSS.) ' Entered at tho I'ostofflce at Norfolk, ((fa., as second-class matter. OFFICB: PILOT BUILDING, \ CITY HALL AVENUE, norfolk, va._ OFFICERS: A. H. QRANDY. President; M. OLENNAN. Vlce-Prcsldent: W. ? WILKINSON, Treasurer; JAMES E. AL? LEN. Si-cretary. HOARD OF DIRECTORS: A. H. Grandy. M. Glennnn. L. D. Starke. Jr.. n\ W. Slielton. R. W. ShulUcc. James L. Allen. D. F. Donovan. TIIKEfS L'KXTN I'BR COPT. subscription rates: The VIRGINIAN-PILOT Is delivered to subscribers by carriers In Norfolk nn.i vicinity, Pertsmouth. 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In order t-> avoid Oelnys, on nrrount ot perronal absence, istlers end all coinmu nlc*liens for The VIRGINIAN-PILOT should not bo addressed to any individual connected w th the office bnt simply to The VIRGINIAN AND PILOT PUB? LISHING COMPANY. TWELVE PAGES SATURDAY. APRIL S. 1S99. INDEPENDENCE OF CHOICE. -% , Originality and Independence both, In thought, sentiment, conviction and ac? tion, are simply Impossible, unless nt a cost too terrible even to think of, too horrible to bear or darC, and from which oven the bravest, may well re? treat with unconcealed dismay. Solitary confinement Is a state of bliss com? pared with the utter isolation in which ho would place himself who dared to ex? ercise both originality and Independ? ence. One sometimes claims to stund nlonc, or to have done so; yet, If the claim be true. It Is so only as to some matter of Indifference to the communi? ty, or on softie new matter, or, nt most, on some single subject, where the orig? inal and Independent first dissenter from tho prevailing view or practice Is eoon joined by others who thus end his solitude and relieve the tension of it. Even so limited a venture, however. Is rare, and demands a heroism beyond flint possible to battles, or 'to any cir? cumstances of danger and trial where one acts or agrees with others. Man is the most gregarious of all be? ings, and he cannot live apart in any? thing, wholly to himself; for If his sel? fishness Inspire him to live wholly for himself, he llnds thai this Is impossible, unless he conceal it. as best he may. by mixing with the biggest crowds, as pick-pockets do. And on the whole, if nil men were really to he Independent and original In all things, the net rc pults of the general discord would hard? ly be any bettor than if .-11 wore luna? tics. It in therefore probably all for the best that we are first of all gregarious, with the tendencies necessary to make It possible for us to dwell together in some sort of peace and unity. Still, there Is ft limited Independence and in? dividuality allowed us that no nelf-re epecttne person Should surrender. He may not live alone, or think, or feel, or act alone; but he may choose the company he will keep, and this he should do. and will do, if he be lu any degree capable or worthy of self-gov? ernment. Of course this llmtti J independence of olmice Bhplild be exorcised bravely and honestly, In all matters, upon the high? est considerations of which everyone Is capable. Common self-respect ought to teach this to all, as it should also teach all that he who appeals to lower considerations In the effort to Influence cr direct this choice in another, or others, Justly forfeits bis Indepei dence nnd is unworthy of any degree of eoK govcrnmonL For, surely if dishonesty Is illegal In its attacks on tho rights of property In others, it is even more Im jnornl end criminal In its attacks on the . higher and more sacred rights of other mfcn,?although the Inherent difficulty of dealing with It in these latter at? tacks may'have prevented effective leg? islation against it In some Instances. But that only i. akes the latter attack) the more dishonorable nnd disgusting. The right and duly of a free citizen Jn this country, under conscience, law nnd constitution i.! to mt'ke his own choice of men and measures, principles, policies and party, upon his honest con? viction and preference as to which or what is best for the rights nnd liberties of all concerned and the general wel? fare of the people and the country. He has a sovereign power, proclaimed by the Declaration of Independence nnd the Virginia Bill of Rights, established by pur constitutions and laws, and for the due exercise of which he Is person? ally responsible to God .and his fellow rnen; and this trust and responsibility 1? of so solemn and sacred a nature, .whatever he may think of it, that he pannot get away from it, nor obtain any release from it, under, any circumstan? ces or contingencies. This public nnd reasonable service is required of every American citizen; and it should bo tho joy and wide of all to perform It well and faithfully; for upon It depend the honor and glory of tho country, and tho rights, liberties and Interests of all. HURRAH FOR THE DEMOCRACY? Recent elections wero not great eith? er in issues, territory, or number of votes; nor were party issues, or men, or national questions much involved nny i where, or distinctly so; yet, as straws show how sets the wind, we may gather some Indications of an instructive sort even from these minor contests. Pro? bably tho greatest fight was the trian? gular one at Chicago, where two Dem? ocrats, and one Republican, were can? didates for Mayor of tho city. Not? withstanding this division of the Demo? cratic vote. Carter Harrison, the regu? lar Democratic nominee was elected over Zina R. Carter, tho regular Republican nominee, by 40,ono ma? jority, although 4.">,000 Democratic bal? lots were cast for Altgcld. No doubt Harrison's personal popularity had much to do with this result, and he was greatly helped In both parties by his recent stand against long-term franchises to street railways; but after till, there must be something conceded to Democracy itself, as Mr. Harrison avowed himself a flat-footed Demo? crat, standing squarely for Bryan nnd tho Chicago platrorm of lSDfi. And if it be true that Harrison's vote Is largely due to a spirit of independence too strong for party attachment, and an aroused feeling in behalf of popular rights and the general welfare against the encroachments of syndicated capi? tal, then Indeed is it a happy omen for the Democracy In the Presidential elec? tion of l'JOO. This independence and awakened feeling will as inevitably tend to the support of Bryan nnd the Democratic platform of ISOfi in the con? test next year, on the national Held, as they did on tho 4th day of the present month to the support of Harrison nnd municipal reform In the Chicago muni? cipal struggle. Looked at from any point of view, it is encouraging to all the opponents of imperial policy, terri? torial expansion, colonial government, I standing army and military conquest, I us well as to nil who antagonize trusts and their purposes of monopoly and the centralization of commercial and finan? cial rule. It is a. fact, illustrated by the whole history of the Democratic party, that its dissensions and siils-fights among its ambitious aspirants and their fac? tions add strength to the main body of the Democracy, as shown by the vote of its people In the next ensuing elec? tion. This was strikingly shown by the Immense and unparalleled Democratic vote for Bryan and the Chicago plat? form In 1S0C. after the bolt of the so called ??National" Democrats from Chi? cago to Indianapolis; nnd possibly the independent candidacy of Altgeld for Mayor in the recent Chicago election goes largely to explain Harrison's great vote and triumph. The disaffection or discord of a few arouses the loyal Dem | otrats to rally In full strength to th ? I rescue of a grand cause. NO TRESPASSERS ALLOWED. The population of Central America is I not so sheeplike as to fit well in Ksop's t fable as lambs who have now offended j certain American wolves by drinking below tlie latter on a stream, nnd there? by muddying the water which curiously j runs up the said stream to the lips of I the wolves. Nevertheless, that pretty [ well expresses the attitude of a num? ber of New Orleans filibusters who have been to "Washington to complain against the Niearngunns and their gov? ernment, and to ask our imperial ad? ministration to Interfere for better g \ eminent in Nicaragua, as it has done In Hawaii, Cuba, Porto Rico nnd the Philippines, not to speak of Samoa. I Certainly, we have natural rights ..f way across this isthmus, in the inter? ests of both our Pacific and Atlantic States for mutual connect.on and com? munication, that far transcend any Hint may be asserted by the actual d.-niz.ns of Central America, and that must he upheld nnd enjoyed by the people of the United States at any copt and evi ry hazard; but until these are Intcrrui ted and seriously threatened, it is our du y to cultivate the most friendly feelings and pacific relations with the Central I Americans, and not to resort to fori bio annexation or criminal aggression, except as necessary ways und mi ans t" enforce rights essential to our national safely and prosperity. Meanwhile, we surely have enough of! this filibustering and buccaneering busi? ness already on our hands in Cuba, Porto Hico nnd the Philippines, At present, all we need do is, to post the following notice; "All other nations are warned not to trespass In Central America. (Signed) IT. S." From September, 1898, to April. ISO!), Virginia, as a whole, has had an un? usual and continuous season of "fallin;', weather;" and from Christmas of last year to tho current month there has lu en nu extraordinary spell of cold weather, with zero repeatedly above the mercury, and much Ice and snow. Most of our wheat wits got in late he i ause of the preyalance "f rain, and soil too wet In the fall, and that delay in planting, followed by chill blasts, heavy frosts, with much Ice and snow, has sc. rlously injured nnd set back our whole wheat crop. Much of the sown seed h.a.? been killed, by rot and cold, and more by being frozen out of the ground If the snow which fell after Christ ma. had fallen before Christmas tin Nu vcmber nnd December), It would have covered tlio wheat with protective man? tle that would have benefited it greatly, but tho damage had been done before these Bnows fell, and they did little go?d when they came. It is still unseasonably cool for this latltudo and altitude; but it seems that the frigid period Is over, that the weather Is more settled In every re? spect, and that the bright shies wo now have ?will soon bring us a mild and genial temperature that will deliver us from much evil and improve the out? look for fruit, vegetables and agricul? tural products. It is urged openly in this country, and long steps are openly taken to carry into effect, the proposition that some, at least, if not all, the ways and means of imperial and arbitrary gov? ernment are necessary to peace and prosperity in any nation having a large territory and a lnrge laboring popula? tion. All tho evidence in this country has been overwhelmingly adverse to this proposition, except that furnished by tho usurpations and aggressions made In its behalf and under it as a pretext. In other countries, and espe? cially where the grossest tyranny has prevailed, the evidence is that the ways and means of imperial and arbitrary rule incite breaches of the peace, force resistance Mid rebellion, and destroy prosperity. At this moment, Russia, tho model of imperial and arbitrary government, is furnishing us with another object les? son in this matter. Driven to madness by unlimited oppression, extortion and humiliation, the labor element all over tbat great empire is in a ferment, and In fierce explosion here and there, in all directions, torch and sword and all violence, busy in massacre, destruction and desolation. Every effort Is made to suppress the turbulence with merci? less cruelty, and to keep the truth from the public, at home and abroad; but truth will out, and the terrible story will soon be told in full detail. A tempest in a tea-pot is imminent. The two Republics on the islnnd of Hayti are in a vielem dispute as to the boundary lino- between the Republic <>f Hayti and that of St Domingo, If the line be once drenched in blood, it may thenceforward be so distinct as to allow no disputes over it in the future. But nations go to war on ;he lOtli di? vision of a hair. In the present case, if pot .and kettle go at It after calling etch other black to mutual disgust, let the United States Intervene with a corporal's guard in behalf of peace; let Hagau furnish the belllg vents with hi: special brand of "war-beef," let Samp? son sail his fleet around the island and make a -Sth of July celebration, nnd. finally, let McKinley " commission c commission; that will settle It! But, seriously If we may leave Amer? ica and go to war with the infant Phil? ippine Republic for her Islands, where? upon to expand our boundaries into Asia, why, inspired by our example, may not tho Republics of Uncle MihgO and Aunt Hattle fight for the softest place to spread a pallet? (Jo toi THE V1R?1NIAN-P1 LOT publishes to-day an exceptionally tender end sweet poeni, entitled "An Easter I.ily." it possesses genuine merit and denotes its author's possession ? C talent which, If cultivated, will win for her renown equal to that of Adelaide Annie Proctor or Frances Ridley Havcrgnl. In Quincy, III., on April -Ith, the reg? ular Democracy elected their entire ticket, from Mayor, down, by majority ranging from 1,000, down, over the fu? sion- ticket of Republicans and gold Democrats, headed by a gold Dem? ocrat for Mayor. A straw that In? dicates how Hie wind in blowing. We already have our blue Mondays and our black Fridays. Why not, then, paint our Saturdays red. our Sundays brown, our Tuesdays green, our Wed? nesdays yellow and our Thursday;; purple? Salvation Is free, it Is true. It is like? wise true that the attention of the trust-promoters has not been directed to it. They have cornered about every? thing else that Is supposed to bo free. Kentucky distillers have i.tised the price of whiskey, probably upon the theory that people who drink it td warm themselves, in winter, will re? quire more to keep cool in spring and summer. <:. IM (> NN OI TiS I?K KK.M. >no il A. ,T. Warner, who ha? given almost undivided attention lo currency questions for many yearn, lias shown that the actual basic currency in cir? culation has been contracted by suc? cessive acts Of tho treasury to about one-tenth of (lie amount in circulation during the years of greatest prosperity, it is claimed that the banks <r K?stern clttae" are overflowing with currency fur which there is no demand. True! Ro i cause the conditions imposed by the banks on loans are such that only stock gamblers and .' peculators in lkH vd securities t an avail themselves of them. The South and West must do without moiny and resort to barter In making their exchanges. The gold standard is a disastrous experiment. Bimetallism existed from tho days of Abraham down to 1817. it?5 restoration in the United States would certainly re-establish the parity of gold and sil? ver. Franco and Germany would Im? mediately follow suit, and England, with her Indian provinces, would be compelled t? do the same In order to protect her trade. Bimetallism would take from tho banker tho power to create gold corners, contraction and panics, and would, with an expanded currency, restore permanent prices; good wages, and geni tal prosperity. From Printer'? Ink. Papers that have no claims to nu? merical circulation alwayjt claim to l;a\c a very Hue "class" circulation. V i RGlNlf\N-riL)OT'S__-=, (Copyrighted, 1S99-) DI. .CTED BY PROF. SEYMOUR EATON. . SUBJECTS OF STUDY IN THE ORDZR IN WHICH THEY WILL BE PUBLISHED. EVERY SUNDAY? History?Popular Stud:** In European History. ' EVERY TUESDAY Geography?The World's Great Commercial Products. EVERY WEDNESDAY? Governments of the World of To-day. EVERY THURSDAY AND FRIDAY?' Literature?Popular Studies In Literature EVERY SATURDAY? Art?The World's Great Artists. These ranriei will con dune unlll Juno 30tli. Examination* cendnettil !>>? uinil, will be hci?l at tlieir close n? u lmsls for tlio granting ?>r Ccrtlflentc?. THE WORLD'S GREAT ARTISTS. III.-REMBRANDT. THE .MASTER SP1RI1 OF DUTCH PAINTING (Concluded.) BY JOHN C. VAN DYKE, L. H. D. Professor of the History of Art, Rutgers College. It is worth while to repeat the state? ment that Rembrandt was a mind as well as an eye. Few painters had a keener grasp of actualities, few saw the world without so positively and so clearly. Yet the artist's view is al? ways tinctured by an individuality and everything in nature to Rembrandt was "seen through the prism of an emo? tion." The mental make-up of the man Is in all his works, and as hp lived and painting pictures from her. At | C&i sei ::he Is gorgeous in robe and hat, very quiet, dignified, quite noble; at Dresden she is seated, smiling, upon Rembrandt's knee, while he l? holding up a glass of beer and laughing bola* terously. This was his time of success and his laughter was not out of place, but already he was in sympathy with the sterner and sadder side of life. He had beard the cry of the people from iho street and the quarter and he was socially interested in the forlorn and the miserable. The year of "The Night AVatch" brought a change. Doubtless that pic? ture was accounted his great success, but he must have painted it under sor? rowful circumstances, for his beloved BASK I VAN ULE>N?BBRG, UKM Bit AN DT S WIPE. From the painting i>y Rembrandt at Cassell. through the yea re or his lifo we can [ Saskia was dying. The troubles and see the deepening and broadening of I misfortunes that came trooping thick his character in his pictures. At first! upon him after her death seemed only he had something of gay youth ab nit; to intensify .his art. He did not-decllne, him. He had surrounded himself with) but broadened under the pressin? of studio costumes, oriental dresses, tur-I sorrow. And then, in one year, be ban?3, armor, chains. Jewelry: and hol painted two canvases of profound emo ust d to dress in these and paint him-I tlonal significance?"The Good Samar self from a mirror. Many of these Itan" and "The Supper at Emmaus." youthful portraits lu silk or armor. Both pictures are in the Louvre and with a defiant smile and a swaggering | both Have been described by FrOmen air, are to-day in European galleries, tin. "The Supper at Kmmaus" proba A RABBI. From an etching i>y Rembrandt. At the same time he was painting other portraits of the hale "Glider" type-, painting nude Europas and Pro serpinas, holy families and other bibll-1 cal subjects. Saskia was bis wife, and I ho was dressing her in bright ccstumeal lily contains more soul-stirring pathos than any one picture in existence. The types are poor, mean-looking people from the Jew;;1 quarter in Amsterdam. The Christ hath no form or comlincss. lie is despised and rejected of men. The dark Hps, the brown eyes, the hag? gard /ace, tho cold hands, speak the agony and bloody sweat of th? cross, the coldness and the pallor of the tomb. It la an epitome not moro of the sor? rows of the Christ than of the rejected and forgotten ltcmbraudt. The steel had pierced his soul and while por? traying his own emotional feeling he was uncpnsclously pnftttlng that which should arouse the sympathy of all men In all lands. Yet as he advanced In years he kept growing more profound in his thoughts, his emotions, his art. He took tip the type of ape and tried to give the sum of existence in the por? traits of old men ntjd women. His rabbis wear the air of the tongue lashed and the lire-scathed, and his own portrait, which lie continued to paint, is sad-faced and somber-hucd. The shadows were settling darkly about him, but whatever his personal feeling he did not give up tho brush. He worked on, seeing clearer nnd surer tho great universal truths, the great prob? lems or existence, until at last his hand failed him. It no longer obeyed his mind. His late pictures show that his brush labored heavily and was hot, fumbling and ineffectual. And then tha end came quickly. Given the mind and tho eye, Rem? brandt had still another gift of great power?dramatic characterization. He was primarily a portrait painter and a student of the human countenance. There never was it painter who so thoroughly knew the face as Rem? brandt, with What force ho could show the emotional nature in eye and cheek and brow and mouth! He had Studied them all his lite and was master of them in all their phases. Yet not alone the mobile face?that mirror of the passions, lie could put dramatic mean? ing lp an outstretched hand, a bent knee, a bowed head, a limp form, with startling i Iteot. The cold, stltx body In "The Lesson In Anatomy'? Is not more striking than the moving figures <n the foreground of "'J he Night 'Watch" or the frightened group about the Christ In "The Supper at KnwnnAis." How ab solute the man In all Iii? characterisa? tions? not neue so in tho seated bulk nt tb? lljcures in "Tho Five Syndics" than in the whole-souled look In a wo? man':; face or the sunlight dashed full upon the arms of n windmill! Ho al? ways caught the salient feature, tho telling truth. And he needed no classic figures or ideal proportions in his art. The type of Raphael, for instance, would have been too coldly regular, too self-conscious, for him. He required the rugged burgbep, the worn outcast nnd the pallid pilgrim for his art. These ho found about him in th~ streets of Am? sterdam. He never went beyond the town for his types. His tale was told t.I'll the material at his doorstep. The eternal verities are the same at Amster? dam ns nl Athens or Rome. Rembrandt proved it In bis art. and thCfelrrlay-not a little of his greatness. in the technical power of expressing himself the great Dutchmnn was sin? gularly well equipped. He was a con? summate draughtsman, but In no ncad einlc, Itnplinolesque sense. The human llgltrc was to him something more than an outlined silhouette. It had bulk, mass, weight, light and shade- So he drew It In a naturalistic rather than a classic way, relying largely upon re Hefs of llghl by shade, and modeling the palnl with his thumb when It pleased him. The object of this was, of course, to produce an exact represen? tation ..f the model before him. His hands were nol painted like Leonardo':!, but how like llesh and blood they look! His faces were not gracefully rounded In the contours like Corrogglo's, but how ho set the eye in 'its socket! How he painted the mouth, cheek and jaw! How b" modeled the bead and how (irmly he placed it on the shoulders! The shadow cast by the hat across the fon head >d' "The Gilder" Is not brown paint, but apparently a real shadow; the ruffs In the Van Bcresteyn portraits ?in real ruffs; the cloth In "The Ma noah" picture at Dresden seems real cloth. Tht re has ricter been quite such realistic presentation In art as his. The petty Insistences of Hon and Meis nil r and nil the little men of the paint brush are bul bo much child's play by comparison. They niggled und tortured a canvns to produce a deceptive sur i face, but Rembrandt was always con ccrncd with the larger truth of mass und volume. A most potent means In Rembrandt's hands of producing the realistic appear? ance was his light and shade. And yet it was arbitrary and uncompromising to the last degree. Ho narrowed the focus of his light to a single shaft and then drove it, forced it, distorted It by sharp contrast With shadow, in his portraiture he threw the highest lllum I Inatiou upon the for. head, the nose and j the chin, allowed the shadows to deep? en suddenly along the cheeks, the of tho head and The throat, and then plunged the background in dark? ness. This produced the effect of a head peering sharply out of gloom?a powerful method of presentation, even if not exactly true to the law of sun? light. A gig-lamp illuminates darkness after that manner, but the sun does not. And Rembrandt found this out to his mortification when he essayed tho large figure-piece. The method of light? ing that answered so perfectly in his ' stands tor the single figure, the portrait and the small canvas generally was wholly Inadequate when applied to many figures on a large scale. This is Hie fault In "The Night Watch." It is illuminated by gig-lamp Hashes on dif? ferent faces but by no all-pervading sun-light from above. No wonder peo? ple insist, d that what Rembrandt meant tor a day scene was a night s.ene by torch-light. There Is no sun? light In it. For tho portrait Rcm brandt's method of lighting was well adapted .but even there It was artificial and sat rificial. it perverted color as it did light. Rembrandt never preserved the local values of lines, except as it pleased him. He sacrificed the half lights to the full-lights and tho -half loins of color to the full-tones without a qualm. His method required It. The color had to decrease as violently ns the iigiit. and Rembrandt w:is a slave to his own Invention. And yet for all that ho was a colorist of great power. He knew that hues were beautiful in ti'.i mselves .and he knew how to arrange ihc-m in beautiful combinations. He knew, ;?!??>. the subtlety, the richness and the depth Of tones. Somehow, in pplto of his distortions, his bleachlngs, his washings of color, he is always har? monious. Ho might, p rhnps, have been I a greater colorist had he been less of a I chiaroscurist, hut wo must accept him as we find him. A smaller man would not have dared his transgressions, but men like Rembrandl and Michael An? geln dare anything and are successful by virtue of Individual power. And, af'.er all, to prove Rembrandt arbitrary or artificial in his lighting and coloring Is not to prove him wrong. The chances ore a hundred to one that he adopted the only method with which he could express himself. The genius of the man invented i:. and, though wc may question It, wo cannot gainsay the powerful results produced by It. The epoch-creating man always begins by making his own tools and surely Rem hrnVidt dates an epoch In art. Mentally, emotionally, technically, plctorjally, he (Continued on Fifth Puce.)