VIRGINIAN - PILOT.
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The VIRGINIAN AND PILOT PUB?
SATURDAY. APRIL S. 1S99.
INDEPENDENCE OF CHOICE.
, Originality and Independence both, In
thought, sentiment, conviction and ac?
tion, are simply Impossible, unless nt a
cost too terrible even to think of, too
horrible to bear or darC, and from
which oven the bravest, may well re?
treat with unconcealed dismay. Solitary
confinement Is a state of bliss com?
pared with the utter isolation in which
ho would place himself who dared to ex?
ercise both originality and Independ?
ence. One sometimes claims to stund
nlonc, or to have done so; yet, If the
claim be true. It Is so only as to some
matter of Indifference to the communi?
ty, or on softie new matter, or, nt most,
on some single subject, where the orig?
inal and Independent first dissenter
from tho prevailing view or practice Is
eoon joined by others who thus end his
solitude and relieve the tension of it.
Even so limited a venture, however. Is
rare, and demands a heroism beyond
flint possible to battles, or 'to any cir?
cumstances of danger and trial where
one acts or agrees with others.
Man is the most gregarious of all be?
ings, and he cannot live apart in any?
thing, wholly to himself; for If his sel?
fishness Inspire him to live wholly for
himself, he llnds thai this Is impossible,
unless he conceal it. as best he may.
by mixing with the biggest crowds, as
pick-pockets do. And on the whole, if
nil men were really to he Independent
and original In all things, the net rc
pults of the general discord would hard?
ly be any bettor than if .-11 wore luna?
tics. It in therefore probably all for the
best that we are first of all gregarious,
with the tendencies necessary to make
It possible for us to dwell together in
some sort of peace and unity. Still,
there Is ft limited Independence and in?
dividuality allowed us that no nelf-re
epecttne person Should surrender. He
may not live alone, or think, or feel,
or act alone; but he may choose the
company he will keep, and this he
should do. and will do, if he be lu any
degree capable or worthy of self-gov?
Of course this llmtti J independence of
olmice Bhplild be exorcised bravely and
honestly, In all matters, upon the high?
est considerations of which everyone Is
capable. Common self-respect ought to
teach this to all, as it should also
teach all that he who appeals to lower
considerations In the effort to Influence
cr direct this choice in another, or
others, Justly forfeits bis Indepei dence
nnd is unworthy of any degree of eoK
govcrnmonL For, surely if dishonesty
Is illegal In its attacks on tho rights of
property In others, it is even more Im
jnornl end criminal In its attacks on the
. higher and more sacred rights of other
mfcn,?although the Inherent difficulty
of dealing with It in these latter at?
tacks may'have prevented effective leg?
islation against it In some Instances.
But that only i. akes the latter attack)
the more dishonorable nnd disgusting.
The right and duly of a free citizen
Jn this country, under conscience, law
nnd constitution i.! to mt'ke his own
choice of men and measures, principles,
policies and party, upon his honest con?
viction and preference as to which or
what is best for the rights nnd liberties
of all concerned and the general wel?
fare of the people and the country. He
has a sovereign power, proclaimed by
the Declaration of Independence nnd
the Virginia Bill of Rights, established
by pur constitutions and laws, and for
the due exercise of which he Is person?
ally responsible to God .and his fellow
rnen; and this trust and responsibility
1? of so solemn and sacred a nature,
.whatever he may think of it, that he
pannot get away from it, nor obtain any
release from it, under, any circumstan?
ces or contingencies.
This public nnd reasonable service is
required of every American citizen; and
it should bo tho joy and wide of all
to perform It well and faithfully; for
upon It depend the honor and glory of
tho country, and tho rights, liberties
and Interests of all.
HURRAH FOR THE DEMOCRACY?
Recent elections wero not great eith?
er in issues, territory, or number of
votes; nor were party issues, or men, or
national questions much involved nny
i where, or distinctly so; yet, as straws
show how sets the wind, we may gather
some Indications of an instructive sort
even from these minor contests. Pro?
bably tho greatest fight was the trian?
gular one at Chicago, where two Dem?
ocrats, and one Republican, were can?
didates for Mayor of tho city. Not?
withstanding this division of the Demo?
cratic vote. Carter Harrison, the regu?
lar Democratic nominee was elected
over Zina R. Carter, tho regular
Republican nominee, by 40,ono ma?
jority, although 4.">,000 Democratic bal?
lots were cast for Altgcld. No doubt
Harrison's personal popularity had
much to do with this result, and he
was greatly helped In both parties by
his recent stand against long-term
franchises to street railways; but after
till, there must be something conceded
to Democracy itself, as Mr. Harrison
avowed himself a flat-footed Demo?
crat, standing squarely for Bryan nnd
tho Chicago platrorm of lSDfi. And if it
be true that Harrison's vote Is largely
due to a spirit of independence too
strong for party attachment, and an
aroused feeling in behalf of popular
rights and the general welfare against
the encroachments of syndicated capi?
tal, then Indeed is it a happy omen for
the Democracy In the Presidential elec?
tion of l'JOO. This independence and
awakened feeling will as inevitably
tend to the support of Bryan nnd the
Democratic platform of ISOfi in the con?
test next year, on the national Held, as
they did on tho 4th day of the present
month to the support of Harrison nnd
municipal reform In the Chicago muni?
cipal struggle. Looked at from any
point of view, it is encouraging to all
the opponents of imperial policy, terri?
torial expansion, colonial government, I
standing army and military conquest,
I us well as to nil who antagonize trusts
and their purposes of monopoly and the
centralization of commercial and finan?
It is a. fact, illustrated by the whole
history of the Democratic party, that
its dissensions and siils-fights among
its ambitious aspirants and their fac?
tions add strength to the main body of
the Democracy, as shown by the vote
of its people In the next ensuing elec?
tion. This was strikingly shown by the
Immense and unparalleled Democratic
vote for Bryan and the Chicago plat?
form In 1S0C. after the bolt of the so
called ??National" Democrats from Chi?
cago to Indianapolis; nnd possibly the
independent candidacy of Altgeld for
Mayor in the recent Chicago election
goes largely to explain Harrison's great
vote and triumph. The disaffection or
discord of a few arouses the loyal Dem
| otrats to rally In full strength to th ?
I rescue of a grand cause.
NO TRESPASSERS ALLOWED.
The population of Central America is
I not so sheeplike as to fit well in Ksop's
t fable as lambs who have now offended
j certain American wolves by drinking
below tlie latter on a stream, nnd there?
by muddying the water which curiously
j runs up the said stream to the lips of
I the wolves. Nevertheless, that pretty
[ well expresses the attitude of a num?
ber of New Orleans filibusters who have
been to "Washington to complain
against the Niearngunns and their gov?
ernment, and to ask our imperial ad?
ministration to Interfere for better g \
eminent in Nicaragua, as it has done
In Hawaii, Cuba, Porto Rico nnd the
Philippines, not to speak of Samoa.
I Certainly, we have natural rights ..f
way across this isthmus, in the inter?
ests of both our Pacific and Atlantic
States for mutual connect.on and com?
munication, that far transcend any Hint
may be asserted by the actual d.-niz.ns
of Central America, and that must he
upheld nnd enjoyed by the people of
the United States at any copt and evi ry
hazard; but until these are Intcrrui ted
and seriously threatened, it is our du y
to cultivate the most friendly feelings
and pacific relations with the Central I
Americans, and not to resort to fori
bio annexation or criminal aggression,
except as necessary ways und mi ans t"
enforce rights essential to our national
safely and prosperity.
Meanwhile, we surely have enough of!
this filibustering and buccaneering busi?
ness already on our hands in Cuba,
Porto Hico nnd the Philippines, At
present, all we need do is, to post the
following notice; "All other nations are
warned not to trespass In Central
America. (Signed) IT. S."
From September, 1898, to April. ISO!),
Virginia, as a whole, has had an un?
usual and continuous season of "fallin;',
weather;" and from Christmas of last
year to tho current month there has
lu en nu extraordinary spell of cold
weather, with zero repeatedly above
the mercury, and much Ice and snow.
Most of our wheat wits got in late he
i ause of the preyalance "f rain, and soil
too wet In the fall, and that delay in
planting, followed by chill blasts, heavy
frosts, with much Ice and snow, has sc.
rlously injured nnd set back our whole
wheat crop. Much of the sown seed h.a.?
been killed, by rot and cold, and more
by being frozen out of the ground
If the snow which fell after Christ ma.
had fallen before Christmas tin Nu
vcmber nnd December), It would have
covered tlio wheat with protective man?
tle that would have benefited it greatly,
but tho damage had been done before
these Bnows fell, and they did little
go?d when they came.
It is still unseasonably cool for this
latltudo and altitude; but it seems that
the frigid period Is over, that the
weather Is more settled In every re?
spect, and that the bright shies wo now
have ?will soon bring us a mild and
genial temperature that will deliver us
from much evil and improve the out?
look for fruit, vegetables and agricul?
It is urged openly in this country,
and long steps are openly taken to
carry into effect, the proposition that
some, at least, if not all, the ways and
means of imperial and arbitrary gov?
ernment are necessary to peace and
prosperity in any nation having a large
territory and a lnrge laboring popula?
tion. All tho evidence in this country
has been overwhelmingly adverse to
this proposition, except that furnished
by tho usurpations and aggressions
made In its behalf and under it as a
pretext. In other countries, and espe?
cially where the grossest tyranny has
prevailed, the evidence is that the ways
and means of imperial and arbitrary
rule incite breaches of the peace, force
resistance Mid rebellion, and destroy
At this moment, Russia, tho model of
imperial and arbitrary government, is
furnishing us with another object les?
son in this matter. Driven to madness
by unlimited oppression, extortion and
humiliation, the labor element all over
tbat great empire is in a ferment, and
In fierce explosion here and there, in
all directions, torch and sword and all
violence, busy in massacre, destruction
and desolation. Every effort Is made
to suppress the turbulence with merci?
less cruelty, and to keep the truth from
the public, at home and abroad; but
truth will out, and the terrible story
will soon be told in full detail.
A tempest in a tea-pot is imminent.
The two Republics on the islnnd of
Hayti are in a vielem dispute as to
the boundary lino- between the Republic
<>f Hayti and that of St Domingo, If
the line be once drenched in blood, it
may thenceforward be so distinct as to
allow no disputes over it in the future.
But nations go to war on ;he lOtli di?
vision of a hair. In the present case, if
pot .and kettle go at It after calling
etch other black to mutual disgust, let
the United States Intervene with a
corporal's guard in behalf of peace; let
Hagau furnish the belllg vents with hi:
special brand of "war-beef," let Samp?
son sail his fleet around the island and
make a -Sth of July celebration, nnd.
finally, let McKinley " commission c
commission; that will settle It!
But, seriously If we may leave Amer?
ica and go to war with the infant Phil?
ippine Republic for her Islands, where?
upon to expand our boundaries into
Asia, why, inspired by our example,
may not tho Republics of Uncle MihgO
and Aunt Hattle fight for the softest
place to spread a pallet? (Jo toi
THE V1R?1NIAN-P1 LOT publishes
to-day an exceptionally tender end
sweet poeni, entitled "An Easter I.ily."
it possesses genuine merit and denotes
its author's possession ? C talent which,
If cultivated, will win for her renown
equal to that of Adelaide Annie Proctor
or Frances Ridley Havcrgnl.
In Quincy, III., on April -Ith, the reg?
ular Democracy elected their entire
ticket, from Mayor, down, by majority
ranging from 1,000, down, over the fu?
sion- ticket of Republicans and gold
Democrats, headed by a gold Dem?
ocrat for Mayor. A straw that In?
dicates how Hie wind in blowing.
We already have our blue Mondays
and our black Fridays. Why not, then,
paint our Saturdays red. our Sundays
brown, our Tuesdays green, our Wed?
nesdays yellow and our Thursday;;
Salvation Is free, it Is true. It is like?
wise true that the attention of the
trust-promoters has not been directed
to it. They have cornered about every?
thing else that Is supposed to bo free.
Kentucky distillers have i.tised the
price of whiskey, probably upon the
theory that people who drink it td
warm themselves, in winter, will re?
quire more to keep cool in spring and
<:. IM (> NN OI TiS I?K KK.M.
>no il A. ,T. Warner, who ha? given
almost undivided attention lo currency
questions for many yearn, lias shown
that the actual basic currency in cir?
culation has been contracted by suc?
cessive acts Of tho treasury to about
one-tenth of (lie amount in circulation
during the years of greatest prosperity,
it is claimed that the banks <r K?stern
clttae" are overflowing with currency fur
which there is no demand. True! Ro
i cause the conditions imposed by the
banks on loans are such that only
stock gamblers and .' peculators in lkH
vd securities t an avail themselves of
them. The South and West must do
without moiny and resort to barter In
making their exchanges. The gold
standard is a disastrous experiment.
Bimetallism existed from tho days of
Abraham down to 1817. it?5 restoration
in the United States would certainly
re-establish the parity of gold and sil?
ver. Franco and Germany would Im?
mediately follow suit, and England,
with her Indian provinces, would be
compelled t? do the same In order to
protect her trade. Bimetallism would
take from tho banker tho power to
create gold corners, contraction and
panics, and would, with an expanded
currency, restore permanent prices;
good wages, and geni tal prosperity.
From Printer'? Ink.
Papers that have no claims to nu?
merical circulation alwayjt claim to
l;a\c a very Hue "class" circulation.
V i RGlNlf\N-riL)OT'S__-=,
DI. .CTED BY PROF. SEYMOUR EATON. .
SUBJECTS OF STUDY IN THE ORDZR IN WHICH THEY
WILL BE PUBLISHED.
History?Popular Stud:** In European History. '
Geography?The World's Great Commercial Products.
Governments of the World of To-day.
EVERY THURSDAY AND FRIDAY?'
Literature?Popular Studies In Literature
Art?The World's Great Artists.
These ranriei will con dune unlll Juno 30tli. Examination* cendnettil
!>>? uinil, will be hci?l at tlieir close n? u lmsls for tlio granting ?>r Ccrtlflentc?.
THE WORLD'S GREAT ARTISTS.
THE .MASTER SP1RI1 OF DUTCH PAINTING
BY JOHN C. VAN DYKE, L. H. D.
Professor of the History of Art,
It is worth while to repeat the state?
ment that Rembrandt was a mind as
well as an eye. Few painters had a
keener grasp of actualities, few saw the
world without so positively and so
clearly. Yet the artist's view is al?
ways tinctured by an individuality and
everything in nature to Rembrandt was
"seen through the prism of an emo?
tion." The mental make-up of the man
Is in all his works, and as hp lived
and painting pictures from her. At |
C&i sei ::he Is gorgeous in robe and hat,
very quiet, dignified, quite noble; at
Dresden she is seated, smiling, upon
Rembrandt's knee, while he l? holding
up a glass of beer and laughing bola*
terously. This was his time of success
and his laughter was not out of place,
but already he was in sympathy with
the sterner and sadder side of life. He
had beard the cry of the people from
iho street and the quarter and he was
socially interested in the forlorn and
The year of "The Night AVatch"
brought a change. Doubtless that pic?
ture was accounted his great success,
but he must have painted it under sor?
rowful circumstances, for his beloved
BASK I VAN ULE>N?BBRG, UKM Bit AN DT S WIPE.
From the painting i>y Rembrandt at Cassell.
through the yea re or his lifo we can [ Saskia was dying. The troubles and
see the deepening and broadening of I misfortunes that came trooping thick
his character in his pictures. At first! upon him after her death seemed only
he had something of gay youth ab nit; to intensify .his art. He did not-decllne,
him. He had surrounded himself with) but broadened under the pressin? of
studio costumes, oriental dresses, tur-I sorrow. And then, in one year, be
ban?3, armor, chains. Jewelry: and hol painted two canvases of profound emo
ust d to dress in these and paint him-I tlonal significance?"The Good Samar
self from a mirror. Many of these Itan" and "The Supper at Emmaus."
youthful portraits lu silk or armor. Both pictures are in the Louvre and
with a defiant smile and a swaggering | both Have been described by FrOmen
air, are to-day in European galleries, tin. "The Supper at Kmmaus" proba
From an etching i>y Rembrandt.
At the same time he was painting
other portraits of the hale "Glider"
type-, painting nude Europas and Pro
serpinas, holy families and other bibll-1
cal subjects. Saskia was bis wife, and I
ho was dressing her in bright ccstumeal
lily contains more soul-stirring pathos
than any one picture in existence. The
types are poor, mean-looking people
from the Jew;;1 quarter in Amsterdam.
The Christ hath no form or comlincss.
lie is despised and rejected of men.
The dark Hps, the brown eyes, the hag?
gard /ace, tho cold hands, speak the
agony and bloody sweat of th? cross,
the coldness and the pallor of the tomb.
It la an epitome not moro of the sor?
rows of the Christ than of the rejected
and forgotten ltcmbraudt. The steel
had pierced his soul and while por?
traying his own emotional feeling he
was uncpnsclously pnftttlng that which
should arouse the sympathy of all men
In all lands. Yet as he advanced In
years he kept growing more profound
in his thoughts, his emotions, his art.
He took tip the type of ape and tried
to give the sum of existence in the por?
traits of old men ntjd women. His
rabbis wear the air of the tongue
lashed and the lire-scathed, and his
own portrait, which lie continued to
paint, is sad-faced and somber-hucd.
The shadows were settling darkly about
him, but whatever his personal feeling
he did not give up tho brush. He
worked on, seeing clearer nnd surer tho
great universal truths, the great prob?
lems or existence, until at last his hand
failed him. It no longer obeyed his
mind. His late pictures show that his
brush labored heavily and was hot,
fumbling and ineffectual. And then tha
end came quickly.
Given the mind and tho eye, Rem?
brandt had still another gift of great
power?dramatic characterization. He
was primarily a portrait painter and a
student of the human countenance.
There never was it painter who so
thoroughly knew the face as Rem?
brandt, with What force ho could show
the emotional nature in eye and cheek
and brow and mouth! He had Studied
them all his lite and was master of
them in all their phases. Yet not alone
the mobile face?that mirror of the
passions, lie could put dramatic mean?
ing lp an outstretched hand, a bent
knee, a bowed head, a limp form, with
startling i Iteot. The cold, stltx body In
"The Lesson In Anatomy'? Is not more
striking than the moving figures <n the
foreground of "'J he Night 'Watch" or
the frightened group about the Christ
In "The Supper at KnwnnAis." How ab
solute the man In all Iii? characterisa?
tions? not neue so in tho seated bulk
nt tb? lljcures in "Tho Five Syndics"
than in the whole-souled look In a wo?
man':; face or the sunlight dashed full
upon the arms of n windmill! Ho al?
ways caught the salient feature, tho
telling truth. And he needed no classic
figures or ideal proportions in his art.
The type of Raphael, for instance,
would have been too coldly regular, too
self-conscious, for him. He required the
rugged burgbep, the worn outcast nnd
the pallid pilgrim for his art. These ho
found about him in th~ streets of Am?
sterdam. He never went beyond the
town for his types. His tale was told
t.I'll the material at his doorstep. The
eternal verities are the same at Amster?
dam ns nl Athens or Rome. Rembrandt
proved it In bis art. and thCfelrrlay-not
a little of his greatness.
in the technical power of expressing
himself the great Dutchmnn was sin?
gularly well equipped. He was a con?
summate draughtsman, but In no ncad
einlc, Itnplinolesque sense. The human
llgltrc was to him something more than
an outlined silhouette. It had bulk,
mass, weight, light and shade- So he
drew It In a naturalistic rather than a
classic way, relying largely upon re
Hefs of llghl by shade, and modeling
the palnl with his thumb when It
pleased him. The object of this was,
of course, to produce an exact represen?
tation ..f the model before him. His
hands were nol painted like Leonardo':!,
but how like llesh and blood they look!
His faces were not gracefully rounded
In the contours like Corrogglo's, but
how ho set the eye in 'its socket! How
he painted the mouth, cheek and jaw!
How b" modeled the bead and how
(irmly he placed it on the shoulders!
The shadow cast by the hat across the
fon head >d' "The Gilder" Is not brown
paint, but apparently a real shadow;
the ruffs In the Van Bcresteyn portraits
?in real ruffs; the cloth In "The Ma
noah" picture at Dresden seems real
cloth. Tht re has ricter been quite such
realistic presentation In art as his.
The petty Insistences of Hon and Meis
nil r and nil the little men of the paint
brush are bul bo much child's play by
comparison. They niggled und tortured
a canvns to produce a deceptive sur
i face, but Rembrandt was always con
ccrncd with the larger truth of mass
A most potent means In Rembrandt's
hands of producing the realistic appear?
ance was his light and shade. And yet
it was arbitrary and uncompromising
to the last degree. Ho narrowed the
focus of his light to a single shaft and
then drove it, forced it, distorted It by
sharp contrast With shadow, in his
portraiture he threw the highest lllum
I Inatiou upon the for. head, the nose and
j the chin, allowed the shadows to deep?
en suddenly along the cheeks, the
of tho head and The throat, and
then plunged the background in dark?
ness. This produced the effect of a
head peering sharply out of gloom?a
powerful method of presentation, even
if not exactly true to the law of sun?
light. A gig-lamp illuminates darkness
after that manner, but the sun does
not. And Rembrandt found this out to
his mortification when he essayed tho
large figure-piece. The method of light?
ing that answered so perfectly in his '
stands tor the single figure, the portrait
and the small canvas generally was
wholly Inadequate when applied to
many figures on a large scale. This is
Hie fault In "The Night Watch." It is
illuminated by gig-lamp Hashes on dif?
ferent faces but by no all-pervading
sun-light from above. No wonder peo?
ple insist, d that what Rembrandt
meant tor a day scene was a night
s.ene by torch-light. There Is no sun?
light In it. For tho portrait Rcm
brandt's method of lighting was well
adapted .but even there It was artificial
and sat rificial. it perverted color as it
did light. Rembrandt never preserved
the local values of lines, except as it
pleased him. He sacrificed the half
lights to the full-lights and tho -half
loins of color to the full-tones without
a qualm. His method required It. The
color had to decrease as violently ns
the iigiit. and Rembrandt w:is a slave
to his own Invention. And yet for all
that ho was a colorist of great power.
He knew that hues were beautiful in
ti'.i mselves .and he knew how to arrange
ihc-m in beautiful combinations. He
knew, ;?!??>. the subtlety, the richness
and the depth Of tones. Somehow, in
pplto of his distortions, his bleachlngs,
his washings of color, he is always har?
monious. Ho might, p rhnps, have been
I a greater colorist had he been less of a
I chiaroscurist, hut wo must accept him
as we find him. A smaller man would
not have dared his transgressions, but
men like Rembrandl and Michael An?
geln dare anything and are successful
by virtue of Individual power.
And, af'.er all, to prove Rembrandt
arbitrary or artificial in his lighting
and coloring Is not to prove him wrong.
The chances ore a hundred to one that
he adopted the only method with which
he could express himself. The genius of
the man invented i:. and, though wc
may question It, wo cannot gainsay the
powerful results produced by It. The
epoch-creating man always begins by
making his own tools and surely Rem
hrnVidt dates an epoch In art. Mentally,
emotionally, technically, plctorjally, he
(Continued on Fifth Puce.)
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