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VIRGINIAN - PILOT.
?BY THE? .VIRGINIAN AND PILOT PUBLISHING COMPANY. tORFOLK VIRGINIAN AND DAILY PILOT. (Consolidated March, 1S3S.) Entered at tha Postoffice at Norfolk, Va., as second-class matter. OFFICE: PILOT BUILDING. lLL. CITY HALL AVENUE. _NORFOLK, VA._ OFFICERS: A. H. QRANDY, President; M. GLENNAN. Vlce-Prcstdcnt: W. ?. WILKINSON, Treasurer; JAMES E. AL? LEN. Secretary. BOARD OF DIRECTORS: A. H. Grandy M. Glennan, L. D. Starke, Jr.. *. W. Shelton, R. W. Shulllce. James l. Allen, D. F. Donovan. Timi'.ll CESTS PER COPT. SUBSCRIPTION RATES*. The VIRGINIAN-PILOT Is delivered to subscribers by carriers In No/folk arid vicinity. Portsmouth, Berkley. SuITolk West Norfolk, Newport News, for 10 cents per week payablo to the carrier By mail, to any place In tho United States, postage freo: : JOAI1.Y. ouo jrnr - - er> 00 - m uionlbs - - - 3 00 " Ibree moulhi - ? 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CUBA'S DOOM Our press telegrams from Havana ut? terly Ignore the solemn obligations of the United States to establish home rule and self-government in Cuba as Boon as it can be safely done, and they eeem to take It for granted that our government In Cuba recognizes no such obligations, but Is bent on retarding 'Cuban Independence and perpetuating American rule. The telegram from Havana, April 6th, has these very sig? nificant and threatening paragraphs, no doubt Inspired In high American official quarters: HARMFUL AGITATION. General Gomez, If reinstated, would be of greater service to the United States in the disbursement of the 000,000, but his political program ineana the keeping up of agitation and dis? turbance In the minds of the people and the weakening of American author? ity by producing the Impression that everything done by the Americans is temporary and may sooner or Inter be overturned. American observers consider any euch agitation as extremely harmful to the Industrial revival and the restora? tion of Cuban credit. Some who are high In authority and who have excep? tional opportunities of knowing the character and Ideas of Gomez, think tho United States Government may have trouble with him yet. His altitude has always been consistent regarding Inde? pendence for Cuba, nnd he la .still working for the same end. His charac? ter Is narrow, resolute, arbitrary, ex? acting and likely to make him a con? stant disturber. The harmful and dangerous thing Is that such views should be cultivated and expressed by Americans at the very center of American authority,? aimed, l.s they are, not only at Gomez and the spirit of Cuban patriotism and Independence, but at the prompt com? pliance of the United States with Its public promises, made by Congress, re? iterated by the President and ratified by the press and people of America, to aid the Cubans In creating a govern? ment of their own at as early a date as possible. These are on the surfaces. But looking deeper, or reading between the lines quoted from the Havana tel? egram, it reveals the existence of a dream, if not of an actual plot, to cre? ate in Cuba, by indirection, the same State of things brought about by di? rect and open usurpation and aggres? sion in the Philippines. - It eeems that In the official mind at Habana, at least, It is a very wrong Impression "that everything done by the Americans Is temporary and may sooner or later be overturned." Gomez jfrlll keep up "agitation and disturbance In the minds of the people" by teaching them that the United States is an hon? orable government and a gracious friend and deliverer that will sacredly observe Its pledgee! Evidently, to Judge from the tone and ifenor of this telegram, it is tha domi Bent policy at Habana, to sacrifice American faith and honor, and Cuban liberty and Independence, as well as Cuban interests, to speculative deals And financial Job3 that depend for their euccese upon tho annexation of Cuba to the United States, or her subjection to indefinite military rule and the Spoliation by American trusts,?to be accomplished, if need be, by either ''forcible annexation," or "criminal ag? gression." Alasl for Republics and their patriots ??O woet for liberty. Independence and manhood, that fall into the cruel clutches cf tho monstrous ogre whpse f*lx In at .Washington, . HEMP I Tho attempt to revive the cultivation of hemp or flax in the Southern States is looked upon by many as an entirely new movement to introduce a culture never . before known to our farmers. But It was formerly a leading product In many States, and up to the war of Recession It was grown more or less In nearly every Southern State, If not up? on every Southern farm. The flax wheel In nearly every home In some sections of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky and perhaps others, stood side by side with the cot? ton-wheel. Even after there ceased to bo any market for our hemp or Its manufactures (Importe from abroad su? perseding our native hemp products) the plant was largely grown for Its j seed, from which linseed oil was pro? duced. It will grow well and produce abund? antly in nearly all our Southern States, on suitable soil, with proper .cultiva? tion; but whether It Is a hopeful ex? periment to revive It as a profitable venture In the production of textile material, is another matter. With 6o much or fine linen fabrics Imported so cheaply, and with cotton cloth of all grades so abundantly manufactured, It seems there Is little room for hemp among us; but energy and skill, with plenty of capital, can do much. THROUGH SHIPMENT. In the matter of cotton primarily shipped uncompressed to a certain point, where it Is unloaded and com? pressed, the same company reserving the" transportation of the cotton after compression and delivering it at its destination: shall the company charge through rates or local rates for the shipment? the Interstate Commerce Commission has Just decided that? "The carrier may, as part of a con? tract for through shipment, nllow the cotton to bo stopped oft" for the pur? pose of grading and compression; but that the privilege enters Into and be? comes part of the service covered by the rate, and should be specified in published tariffs; second, that the de? terminative features of a through ship? ment Is tho contract, and if the cot? ton starts and proceeds upon a conti act for through shipment, as Is shown to be the fi'ct in this case, it may be con? sidered as a through shipment und be given the benefit of a through rate." That It is unjust to condemn and pun? ish apolitical antagonist for serving the Commonwealth, to the best of his knowledge and ability, is so self-evident that the fact has to be entirely hidden or distorted before proceeding against him. But somebody has to carry on tho government, State and Federal, or anarchy, chaos and all disorder and crime would supervene, and violence and evil men would bear sway; 60 that. In real truth, the men who admin? ister the government conscientiously, enforcing the lnws with courage, vigor nnd Impartiality, should be forgiven all errors of Ignorance and mistake, nnd Judged with clemency as to all others that cannot be so excused. Party among a free people seems in? evitable; yet they, of nil men, should be least servile to party, and always suffi? ciently Independent and fearless to vote and speak their mind as to mon and measures; nnd that, theoretically, is the Intent of the American Republic and its constitution; nnd, therefore, if our government, or administration, fall short of that excellence prescribed by our Institutions, the people are to blame for it very largely. Washington is, so to speak, more c less, the mirror of the whole country, reflecting largely, nnd more or less accurately the whole condition and public will; nnd if fraud and wrong are rampant, the peoplo are primarily responsible by allowing or backing them Perhaps one of the great provocations to lynching. Is the abuse of Executive Clemency, as it is called,?a term only applicable to an exercise of the rcyal prerogative of mercy. In Texas, F.d waul Beeves, convicted of train rob? bery and sentenced to imprisonment fcr life on a verdict of his uecrs, has had his sentence commuted by Presi? dent McKinley to twenty years, on the ground that tho original sentence was exceedingly severe. An attack on a train of cars, for any felonious purpose, almost necessarily Involves murder, or a readiness to commit it, and the only adequate penalty, ns in burglary Is capital punishment?death. But here comes our Federal chief magistrate who says that it is inhuman to imprison a man for life only for having been con? victed on due process of law for tram robbery! If Beeves repeat Ills crime and fall Into the hands of his first Jurors, they will hang him! More and more troops uro ordered to -Manila, and the cry is still for "More!" Many are sent, but few will return. Napoleon nnd other great soldiers are abused In unmeasured terms ns wh le sale murderers, who are responsible for all the pain, death, misery, ruin and desolation caused by the wars they made or might have prevented; but be these mon guilty, or not, as charged, they at least have the excuse of having followed the hot Impulse of the passion for glory, and having shared in the hardships and dnngers of the field. But what Is to be said of the nun who never smelt powder, and don't Intend to, who order war ns they order break? fast, fully Intending to partake of the latter, but to keep nway from tho former? American canned beef ie not winning honors at homo or abroad. Every day adds to the mass of evidence that Gen? eral Miles, when he condemned It knew what he was talking about* , ^- , All our merit was that we admired and glorified our patrolt ancestors, and professed to he patriots of the same old breed; but on the first test, we failed, lost our merit (If there were any In our false pretences), and now expose the fact that we are, somehow, descendants of the Tories whom our fore-fathers detested so much. The Phoebus Sentinel, launched six weeks ago by Mr. L. M. Brown, pre? sents evidences of healthy growth. It hae a splendid advertising patronage, and Is cleanly In appearance and mat? ter, and gives the news of Its home. It has the best wishes of the Vlrglnlan Pilot for a continuance of the success it has already attained. Hon. Josephus Daniels, managing ed? itor of the Raleigh News and Observer, Is receiving the congratulations of friends, particularly his brethren of the press, on the advent of an assistant who has been christened Worth Bagley Daniels, In memory of his uncle. En? sign Worth Bagley, who fell at Car? denas. Kansas not long since elected a dis? trict judge, and then disqualified him because he gave cigars and liquors and promises to voters before the election. While they always did have a lot of ridiculous customs in Kansas, and probably always will, that particular law might be adopted with propriety by every other State in the Union. An advertisement looks as well In one paper as another; but it is seen in one, unseen In another; in one it talks, in another it is dumb; and while In one it meets and greets everybody, In an? other It sadly "Wastes its sweetness on the desert air." General Miles has promised to at? tend the ceremonies attendant upon the laying of the corner stone of Chicago's new postofTice, but it Is distinctly un? derstood that he will not be expected to respond to the toast, "What I know about embalmed beef." A hundred or more reasons have been advanced why Quay should be retired from command of the Pennsylvania contingent of tho G. O. P. None of them mention age, but all of them have the merit of being good. It now transpires that the memo? randa of beef contracts prepared by Commissary General Eagan's office have disappeared from the files. Come, General, tell the public what became of them. The fact that Mr. Grover Cleveland has not been Invited to either of the New York dinners does not necessarily mean that he would prefer to dine by correspondence. The legal tenderness of beef-steaks and fowls should be regulated by the statute of limitations, as to the age of marketable steers and roosters. A newspaper whose contracted issue will not "go round," cannot be truly said to have a circulation, as It fails to complete the circle. Another rumor that Alger is about to resign has escaped from Washington. Like Its predecessors It Is unfortunate? ly too good to be true. Men who become misers lay them? selves liable to suspicion that they have forgotten that coffins are not equipped with pockets or Iron safes. There are no amusing features In tho Maxwell street (New York) police dis? trict, unless setting fire to and burn? ing houses can be called fun. "False returns" may serve a candi? date for office, but it is the cash re? turns to advertisers that elect the newspaper. Some men are really so fond of an argument that they cannot be persuad? ed to eat anything that will agree with them. The candidate who runs for a place, Is more apt to "get there" than the one who stands for It merely. There Is nothing more natural than feeling put out when we find that we have been taken In. They used to be known among us as patriots, while helping us whip Spain; but now they nre Filipino rebels and bandits. The tramps who are locked up in our city prisons, for the reason that they are tramps, Always find prison pens the unexpected wages of penury. We have noticed that the dog in the manger rarely goes out of business without giving notice. It Is easy to count a majority, but sometimes impossible to account for it. oi'iMo.vt of tiii: Pit ems, THEY ARE ALL ONE WAY. It Is amusing to see the interest with which the enemies of the Democracy are -regarding little revolts against the authority of the party. For Instance, when Mr. Croker comes out and antag? onizes Mr. Bryan, declaring that the silver issue is dead, ho becomes at once a tlgure of friendly interest to recreant Democrats as well ns to avowed Re? publicans. Hut notwithstanding this interest, which would lure the Democ? racy on to destruction, the party is standing pat to Its traditions and its policy. Wo may hear now and then of traders In politics like Mr. Croker or tho lato Mr. Hynum, who are concern? ed about tho flesh-pots, but when It comes to party actio? there Is but one side to tho question.?Atlanta, Consti? tution, ? * ' ?? ? ' * ??> ' * _^_VIRGINIf\N-PILOT'S_, HOME STUDY CIRCLE. (Copyrighted, 1899.) DIRECTED BY PROF. SEYMOUR EATON. SUBJECTS OF STUDY IN THE ORDER IN WHICH THEY WILL BE PUBLISHED. EVERT SUNDAY? History?Popular Studien In European History. , EVERY TUESDAY? Geography?The World's Great Commercial Producta, EVERY WEDNESDAY? Governments of the World of To-day. EVERY THURSDAY AND FRIDAY? ' Literature?Popular Studies in Literature. EVERY SATURDAY? Art?The World's Great Artists. Tlioso ronrae? will coutlnne unlll Juno 20lli. Examination* conducted by niitll. Will bo bold nt Ibelr close as a bnuls fur ibo eiautliig of Cert tllculci. THE WORLD'S GREAT COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS. IV.-COTTON. I S? (Concluded.) ' I The cotton plant Is not everywhere the same. Of the genus there are several specie3 cultivated that differ in size, in the color of their flowers, and, in what Is of most importance from a commercial point of view, the length, strength and fineness of the fibers of the thfts. in the United States there are two species principally cultivated. The product of the species that is most gen? erally grown is known as "upland cot? ton." The product of the other species Is knjown as "sea island cotton." "Sea Island cotton" is the most valuable cot? ton known to commerce. Its libers arc longer, finer and stronger than that of any other species of cotton, and in the mass it has a more beautiful appear? ance. Its "staple"is often two and a half inches long, while the length of the staple of ordinary cotton is not more than an inch or an inch and a half long. "Sea island cotton" Is grown princi? pally on the low, fiat Islands which line the coast of Georgia and South Carolina. It seems to thrive best on a soil that is slightly saline and where there are saline ingredients in the at? mosphere. When grown on the interior uplands of the continent it loses to a considerable extent its distinguishing characteristics. Hut it has been suc? cessfully introduced into several coun? tries where formerly it was finite un? known, as, for example, Egypt, East Indies, Queensland and New South Wales in Australia, southern Spain and Algeria, and it Is grown somewhat ex? tensively in the West Indies and Cen? tral America. Although at present grown over a small and distinctly lim? ited area in our own country, there are good Indications that it might be profit? ably cultivated In parts of southern California and In southwestern Ari? zona. The great Importance of an enlarged area for the growth of sea Island cot? ton will be seen from an examination an ordinary grade of cotton, the bulk of St is from Egypt. The value of this im? portation is not far short o? being $5, 000.000 annually. In 1S98 it was Sl.7TS.0aC. Since the opening of the cotton-selling season of 1S97 low prices in cotton have prevailed, and, as a consequence, small profits from cotton-growing have been the rule. This diminution of the profits of cotton-growing is having several im? portant influences on the agriculture of those districts of our country where cotton Is the principal crop. First, it is inducing a greater use of fertilizers and the adoption of Improved methods of tillage generally; second, It Is leading to the adoption of wheat as staple crop of the districts, along with cotton; and, third, it Is leading to the adoption of cattle-raising und the production of beef, butter and milk as Important In? dustries of the districts. Together with Improved tillage, diversified farming and the raising of products In which the cheap, Ulllnstructcd labor of foreign countries cannot compete is the hope of the agriculture of this country every? where, whether south or north. Great Rrllain Is the chief cot ton-man? ufacturing country of Ibe world, and by far the largest portion of our cotton export goes to help supply the enormous demand for the fiew raw material needed to sustain what for many years has been Great Britain's mo;;t import? ant Industry. Hut Germany is rapidly advancing ns a cotton-manufacturing country, and a large portion of our raw cotton goes to that country. Lesser but still Important portions go to France, Italy, Spain. Belgium. Canada and Japan. In fact, our cotton goes to every civilized country In the world. The portion sent to Japan Is rapidly In? creasing. In 1893 It was twenty-five times what It was In 1894. The portion sent to Russia Is decreasing. The amount sent In 1S9S was not more than a half that sent In 1SS8. The reason of this is that Russia is now using a largo amount of cotton grown In her own rot ton-producing districts of Turk? estan and trans-Caucasia in Asiatic Russia. The following table gives the dlslrlbU WHERE OUR EXPORT COTTON" GOES of tho prices which this species of cot? ton obtains In the market, as compar? ed with the prices obtained f,,r upland cotton. In the ten years ended August 31, 1S9S, sea Island cotton had a range (in avernge prices per year) from 17.70 cents a pound in 1S9S to 24.7 cents a pound in 1890. Ordinary cotton had in tho same time a range from 5.9 cents in 1898 to 10.1 cents In 1S90. The average for sea island cotton for a period of ten years ended Aug. 31, 1S9S, was 20.23 cents, while the average for ordinary or upland cotton was but 8.17 cents. Our exports of sea island cotton dur? ing the last five years have averaged 17,2f>f',976 pounds per annum, with an average value of J3.2S0.SS4 per annum. In addition to what we export, we use a very great deal in our own home manufactures. Next to the sea island of our own country tho cotton grown In Egypt is the most valuable known ti> commerce. The system of Irrigation practiced In that country makes it possible for suili clent moisture to be regularly supplied to tho roots of the plant (an important matter) during the whole of the seven months required for its growth, while the remarkable dryness of the atmos? phere, which is a feature of that coun? try, allows the fiber of tho plant to ma? ture to an excellence that is not found In any other cotton except our own sea island product. Notwithstanding the availability to our manufacturers of our own native grown cotton, we nevertheless import nnnunlly a considerable quantity. For the five years ended 1S98 our Importa? tion of foreign cotton has averaged 118,000 bales of 400 pounds each per an? num, or, in exact figures, 47,066,698 pounds per annum.. While some of this cotton la from Peru, and other small 1 cotton-exporting countries that produce. tion of our export of raw cotton with respect to the principal countries Im? porting- it. The figures are for an aver? age of five years ended June 30, 1S9S: Amount ex? ported to rounds. Value. Great Britain ...1,646.119,000 $107,f.7l,000 Germany. 068,268,000 44.933,000 France. 343.7SS.000 23,226,000 Italy . 103.931.000 10.4Sli.000 Spain. 115.G5.-..000 S.lfi'J.000 Belgium. C0.9S2.000 4.243.000 Russia. ri6.247.000 3,967,000 Sweden- Norway 13.303.000 960,000 Holland . 11.691.000 835,000 Austria-Hunga'y 8,212.000 672,000 Canada. 41.160.000 3.198,000 Japan. 36,036.000 2,484,000 Mexico . r*257,000 1,689,000 Total export ..3.079,544.000 $214,232,000 The most Interesting Item in nil the statistics of cotton commerce is the comparison of the amount of cotton re? tained for home consumption by Great Britain and the United States, respec? tively. For an average of five years, ended 1S97, the figures are as follows: Bounds. Retained by Great Britain for homo consumption.1,473,041,000 Retained by United States for home consumption.1,303,960.617 It Is thus seen that the amount of cotton annually retained by United States cotton manufacturers Is not far short of being equal to that annually retained by British cotton manufactur? ers. The interest of the figures lies In the consideration thnt, while the Brit? ish amount is now practically at a standstill <or is increasing but slowly, the United States amount la increasing rapidly. The following table shows a ,comparison of amounts In. round num .c.ompariHon oi amounts m.ioui. bera CoejiB/iierie? of ar^am' -YlJ Retained Retained tor consumption for consumption Great Britain. United States. Year. Pounds. Pounds. 1877.1,186,000.000 653,000,000 1883.1,485,000,000 1,118.000,000 1888 .1,461,000,000 1,180,000,000 1895.1^53,000.000 1,568.000.000 1897.1,600,000.000 1,344,000,000 The United States is destined to be? come the greatest cotton-manufactur? ing country in the world. Indeed, no? thing can prevent the realization of this destiny. The raw material is a, native product, and can be brought to factory without expensive transporta? tion. Coal for motive power can bo as easily and as plentifully obtained with u.s as anywhere else In the world. Our population Is the largest civilized home population possessed by any country. The genius of our people makes it certain, in the future as in the past, that whatever inventive or operative skill Is necessary for the per? fect production or perfect working of all machinery needed in the manu? facture will bo amply forthcoming. Great Britain, however, at present has the pre-eminence. Her cotton man? ufactures avernge $500,000,000 annually. Her exports of manufactured cation goods average 5333,000,000 annually, and have been as high as $382,000,000. Her imports of raw cotton approximate 1, 750.000,000 pounds per annum- The magnitude of this importation can be realized when It Is remembered that It,Is equal to about seven-twelfths of the United States' nnnunl exportation of raw cotton, arid is more than seven seventeenths of the world's total ex? portation. More than six-sevenths of the raw cotton purchased by Great Britain conies from tho United States. The next largest portion comes from Egypt. Great Britain, indeed, purchases moro ? than two-thirds of Egypt's total pro? duction. The next largest portion cornea from India. But only about one-eighth of India's export of cotton goes to Great Britain. Tho remainder Is sent principally u> other European countries nnd to Japan. But In addition to the United States, Egypt nnd India, every other cotton producing country contributes to Great Rrltaln's annual Importation of raw cotton. The more important of theso minor contributors arc Brazil, Peru and the British West Indies. Note.?A study nf the world's wool product will be commenced next week. EXAMINATIONS AND CERTIFI? CATES._ At the end of the term of seventeen weeks, a series of questions on each course, prepared by Professor Seymour Eaton, will bo published In the Vir? ginian-Pilot, and blank? containing the questions will be furnished every sub? scriber making application f?r same. Two weeks will be allowed after the courses close, for the receipt of exami? nation papers containing answers. These papers will be referred to il Hoard of Examiners, who will assist Professor Eaton, and as soon as tho work of examination is complete, the result will be reported, and certificates issued to the students entitled to them. ? Condensed Milk ? } Has No Equal . as m k An Infant Food, # ? "INFANT HEALTH** Sent \ / FREE on Application. ft HEWVORttCOKDttlStDMllKCO.n.'?! M Now is Your Opportunity! I am Offering Unusually Low Rates to all Catarrh Suf? ferers Who Begin My Treatment Before April 18th. The coming two or three months ara probably the l-'^t In tho year for treat? ment, being free from tho extreme heat of summer and cold and snows of winter, SO THAT CATARRH CAN HE CURED MORE READILY THAT AT OTHER SEASONS wf the year, when recovery Is retarded hy "catching cold." For this season I want as many CATARRH SUF? FERERS as possible to BEGIN TREAT? MENT NOW and as nn inducement I AM OFFERING TREATMENT AT ABOUT HALF MY USUAL PRICE, PROVIDED YOU BEGIN BEFORE APRIL 18 1S99. Can you afford to neglect this opportunity? Will you let Catarrh destroy your health when you ca,n be cured on such favorable terms? Even if you do not want to bepin treatment now call and have a talk with me. Consultation always free. HAS OFFICES No. 1 AND I. No. Sil MAIN STREET. OPPOSITE COMMER? CIAL PI-ACE. NORFOLK. VA. HOURS : - - - 9 to 12.30 A. M? 2 to 6 P. M, SUNDAYS: 11 A. M. to 1 P. M. TUESDAY NIGHT AND THURSDAY NIGHT 7::0 P. M. TO S P. M. SPECIALTIES: CATARRH AND ALL DISEASES OF THE EYE, EAR, NOSE. THO AT AND STOMACH. Consultation Always Freel Medicines Free to Patienlsl