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VIRGINIAN - PILOT.
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The British theory of government and all of Its alleged principles as applied in law to civil power and popular lib? erty, became null nnd void In these colonies or States, as soon as they mnde their Declaration of Independence, cr certainly as soon as that Declaration was sustained and made good by our armed revolution, and recognized by all the nations of the earth. Including Eng? land. Tho whole system of government nnd law In England was inverted here. There It was a pyrnmld, standing on Its apex?the King; here, the pyramid was reversed, or restored to its natural position, standing on Its base?the peo? ple. Divine right, hereditary right, in? herent power and special privilege, rampant In Englnnd, were utterly abol? ished here In all things relating to civil and political powers, rights, liberties nnd privileges; and the right and power of man in government and temporal law. were proclaimed supreme. The Declaration of Independence dis? tinctly says that governments (and of course nil their branches or depart? ments), "are Instituted among men, DERIVING THEIR JUST POWERS FROM THE CONSENT OF THE GOV? ERNED," and the Bill of Rights of Vir? ginia even more distinctly asserts that "ALL POWER IS VESTED IN, AND CONSEQUENTLY DERIVED FROM. THE PEOPLE." But what is all that to Tories? "A man convinced against his will, Is of the same opinion still," nnd hence all reliance Is placed still by the Tory, or Federalist, or Imperialist In British precedent, authority and immemorial Judgment, when our re? motest date in fact, reason, law nnd logic, goes back no further than to July 4th, 177C, and our authority no higher than to the people. Discussing the re? cent net Ion of our Supreme Court of Appeals in nullifying and refusing to obey an act of legislature restricting and prescribing tho power of our courts in dealing arbitrarily with constructive contempts of court, the Norfolk Land? mark (of coins ) warmly applauds the court and Its sedition, and says: "The principles of our government re? quire that "the executive, judicial and legislative functions shall be separate and distinct. The Constitution of Vir? ginia, in the Hill of Rights, provides the same thing, not only once, but twice, for the sake of greater emphasis. Here nnd there Judicial power may have been abused, but the judgment of courts from lime Immemorial has been that the right of punishing for contempt is inherent in the judiciary. ?*??*?.., ? It may treat the executive branch a* it has treated the Judicial. Th. result of ell Ihls would be the cslnbli.ihtn in of |he legislative as tlie supreme tu l only power of t ho land. Judiciary and executive would become the merest non-entities. The Virginia Court of Appeals has salt, n a stand In defi ns of the fundamental plan of our national institutions." But the principles of our government -in separating the legislative and Judi? cial functions did not confer govern? mental or legislative functions on the courts, nor nny right or privilege to assert nn "inherent power" superior to the constitution, or the legislature; but, on the contrary, authorized the legis? lature to ereVt and regulate all courts, whose powers tire expressly limited to those "conferred" by tho constitution or the legislature; and as to the con? stitutional power of the Supreme Court to declare an act of legislation null and .void, it, too, Is restricted to acts al ready null and void "by reason of their | ropuguancy to the constitution of the United States, or the constitution of' this State." The act here in question is declared null and void for no such reason, but because it Is repugnant to an alleged "Inherent power" utterly re? pugnant to all our constitutions, insti? tutions and principles, while the act Itself is in full pursuance of the con? stitutional power of the legislature to regulate "the Judiciary, and to give effect to the guarantees of personal lib? erty" contained In our Federal as -well S8 our State constitution- Trial by Jury in all cases affecting life, liberty and property Is a high right of the people, and the act Dronounced null and void by our Supreme Court of Appeals was to protect and enforce that "inherent right" of the people and its constitu? tional securities. The court says no to the legislature. It refuses to recognize tho constitu? tional duty and power of the legisla? ture to regulate it. See section 1st, Article VI., of the Constitution of Vir? ginia, subjecting the judiciary to the constitution and the legislature. The court revolts, and asserts an Indepen? dence and a supremacy that have no foundation in our government, consti? tutions, institutions, or in reason, or good order, or any necessity?for if a Jury be not a sufficient nsserter of law in judicial behalf, it is at least a proper defence of personal and popular right and liberty against judicial assump? tion, usurpation and tyranny. Sec U. S. Constitution, Amendments V. and VI. See Constitution and Bill of Bights of Virginia Article I., paragraphs 10 and 1G. Any self-respecting American citizen would far prefer to risk hanging before a Jury of his equal fellow freemen, than to be subject for one second to the arbitrary power which the Supreme Court of Appeals asserts for its mem? bers invested with judicial functions. It is p. Turkish tyranny, and, as we know, hns been exercised in a manner only becoming an "unspeakable Turk;" "turbaned and bearded " But what the Court of Appeals has Just done, or at? tempted, reveals what a despotism, or imperltim in imperlo, threatens and de? fies the State, tho legislature, the con? stitutions, the laws and the people. Oh. for a Jefferson, or a Patrick Henry! PROSPERITY IS PLENTY. FAIRLY DISTRIBUTED. If anybody can give a better, truer, or briefer definition of prosperity, we shall be happy to see It. There may be other prosperities; special prosperities; and other prosperities: ns we are told that "The prosperity of fools shall de? stroy them;" but that prosperity, so de? fined, In the above heading, Is the only prosperity that can be properly predi? cated of a people, or a nation, or a com? munity. Have we got such a prosper? ity In the United States? In Virginia? Or even in Norfolk?where the bounty of heaven. In so many ways and things, endows us with perpetual plenty? Here land, water and air combine to supply us all, with all necessary food and al? most every luxury of the palate; and these we feel sure of so long as our land, water and air do not fall Into the clutches of trusts and monopoly, through fnlse pretenses of State, or other fraudulent practices. But we have other desires; and we are not prosperous even In what we have, be? cause the scarcity of money prevents a fair distribution. The sine qua non of prosperity, as reason shows and expe? rience tells, is plenty of money; for, as it is the medium of exchange and cir? culation, there can he no fair or ade? quate distribution of any abundance, without nn abundance of the medium. Then everything runs on wheels, swims, soars! Every day some contemporary cries aloud: "Prosperity is here! Loo!.'." and he exhibits to us "a beggarly account of empty boxes," showing how our ex? porters and transporters have stripped the land, and made a good thing of It on foreign shores by underselling foreign pauper labor! If that be true, what profited our people, for at what beggar? ly prices they must have been forced to sell here to enable the speculators to make r.o great a balance* of trade 1n their favor, after meeting all the ex? penses of exrort. of foreign tariffs, tare , nnd tret, commissions, &c? Is it not! self-evident on the face of the figures that they prove how our producers were oppressed and skinned, no matter what else th.y may prove. Another cry of "Behold Prosperity!" backs it by a glimpse of Wall street and the Stock Exchange, with a boom on in stocks, bonds and other insecurities?and every dollar In the great account is diverted from the fruitful fields of useful labor, necessary production and honest com? merce, to tho arid deserts of chance, trick, job, chicane and gambling, where no amount of Irrigation can yield a ' blade of nutrient grass! Is that prosperity? It Is the best of? fered for our inspection, at any rate; 1 except, perhaps, the illusive phantas? magoria of labor, Jubilant, receiving an increase of wages! Ho! ye calamity shrlekersl hero is an increase of 5 per cent, or 10 per cent.! and yet ye shriek! We could laugh, on the contrary, If It wene not so serlons_a matter. The In? crease to a few, comparatively, is but 6 or 10 cents on the dollar. Is not that munificent and generous, If prosperity has really returned (for everybody has been obliged to confess that she did ily the lend), when wc consider that It Is In return for a decrease in wages, averaging from 30 to CO cents In the dollar, and with the trusts everywhere closing up factories and workshops nnd discharging hands by the thousand? But, holdl In the midst of all the statistics proving that prosperity has been railroaded Into the country on a broad gauge, If not by our forced ex? ports abroad, here comes Porter, once Superintendent of tho U. S. Census, the great Becgum of Statistics and Statis? ticians, denying all this. show of railroad prosperity, and all the rosy deductions therefrom;? reciting figures and summing up receipts and expenditures, as? sets and debts, that quite confounds the boomers of prosperity, and proving that the railroads are really paupers, entitled to parochial or other public re? lief. We have nothing to do with his motive, or the end he alms at. Suffi? cient that the Grand-Master?ay, Past Grand-Master of all our Statistics, knocks the figures of prosperity Into plo and puts the figures to flight. But the press-boomers of prosperity still keep up their ceaseless drone, as It they had not heard the Great Porter, nor heard of him. And yet he first published his paper on the condition of our railroads in the N. Y. Sun; and since then it has been reproduced in circular form, and scattered broadcast all over the land. Yet the boomers pre? tend to have never seen It or heard of it! Will not some friend of truth send them a copy, so that they may at least explain how Porter has been so sadly derailed? It Is a curious case of cross purposes, at all events, and demands some elucidation from some enlighten? ed quarter. Meanwhile, as even the boomers of prosperity are disagreeing as to where it is precisely, the people are waiting impatiently for that plenty, fairly dis? tributed to all, which is the reasonable demand of labor, production, transpor? tation and necessary exchange upon the monopolizers of whatever prosper? ity, may be left anywhere. We fear that prosperity is a sneak, and Is dodg? ing the people. THE PEOPLE IN MOTION. The great revolution proclaimed at Chicago In 189G, and which at once ral? lied to its banner the grand army of six and a half millions of men, is now fully afoot, In motion toward a gigan? tic and resistless movement, whose mo? mentum is dally Increasing, and -which will put all opposition under foot in its rush to a magnificent victory of, for and by tho people. Every active and prominent antagonist of this revolution will perish politically forever In the foolish effort to stem the rising tide; while everyone capable of doing it good service will be rewarded with no nig? gard hand. There will be many grand prizes to be distributed to new men between the first Tuesday after the first Monday In November, 1900, and the 4th day of March, 1901. Cabinet places; foreign embassies, territorial and provincial Governorship, Judgeshlps, &c.; high ju? dicial and other positions; commlsslon erships of dignity and Importance; spe? cial missions; and all the boundless and valuable patronnge of this great Fed? eral Republic. The revolution will de? mand and have (figuratively) the head of every' enemy of the people and min? ion of cupidity and imperialism; and it will not rest content as long as the civil or any other branch of the pub? lic service contains a man who is not faithful to the constitution and loyal to the popular sovereignty. Merit shall rot be overlooked, and he who has done well In the service of the people shall find that they and their administration is not ungrateful, nor subservient to venal Influences. Woe to the conquer? ed leaders of usurpation, of the pre? tensions of wealth, and the machina? tions nnd combinations of imperialism! Honor, power and prosperity to the people and those whose capacity, cour? age and patriotism will have made them deliverers of the Republic from the Hanna harpies and the Alger army worms and vultures of the battle? fields. This Is no dream, nor fancy-picture, but a prophecy of coming events. Put i your ear to the ground, and you will hear the grand march of a people at last aroused to their wrongs and dan? gers. Out of the way, all who would oppose or impede this majestic march! Fall Into ranks, all good citizens, who love liberty and their country, and who would share in the glory of rescuing them from the hands of treachery and spoliation!_ In England, there Is a final appeal from the courts to the upper house of Parliament,?to the House of Lords. Here we can only appeal to our Gene? ral Assembly from the courts In our selection and instruction of our Sena? tors nnd Delegates. And It is our right to do so; a right constitutional, Inherent j and reserved. If self-defence be forced upon us, we must accept the battle, un 1 pleasant as it may be. If our supreme court assert a tyranny over us, and even river the legislature and State government, what recourse is there for ? us? We (cannot submit, and surrender : our inherent and constitutional rights j of life, liberty and properly In a set of men whose self-magnification makes it impossible for them to see and re? spect any rights nnd powers but their own, and these Imaginary', engendered by long concentration of self ?n self. Isn't it about time for the 6ulclding to begin in our War Department and Army Staff? French military men can? not survive Infamy or disgrace; but our Hanna heroes and Algerine pirates in uniform, grow fat on the profits of embalmed beef?"infamous, but con? tent"?to borrow a saying from the ?Letters of Junlus." Altgeld ought to be respocte.l for his name by capitalists and financiers, as It Is German for "old money." Tho more-lighting, the more Demo? crats. &_viRommN-nuors__ HOME STUDY CIRCLE (Copyrighted, 1899.) DIRECTED BY PROF. SEYMOUR EATON. SUBJECTS OF STUDY IN THE ORDER IN WHICH THEY WILL DE PUBLISHED. EVERT SUNDAY? History?Popular Studies in European History. EVERY TUESDAY? Geography?The World's Great Commercial Products. EVERY WEDNESDAY? Governments of the World of To-day, EVERY THURSDAY AND FRIDAY? Literature?Popular Studies In Literature. EVERY SATURDAY? Art?The World's Great Artists. Tbene eonrnei will contlnno until Juan 301b. Kxniiilnnf Ion* conilncfcd by mail, will b? betet nl their clone ns a bants for tbo grantlug of Certificate*. THE WORLD'S GREAT ARTISTS. IV.?MURILLO. SPAIN'S KING OF RELIGIOUS PAINTERS. Until recently few painters liavc en? joyed such continuous and universal popularity as Murlllo. A Spaniard of the. Spaniards, he was Idolized in his own country during his lifetime and ever since, and at the same time there is hardly a part of Europe where he has not gained popular applause. Ot late critical voices have been quite loudly raised, especially among artists. teenth century), when the church and the Inquisition were not only stamping out the Moor and the Jew, but guarding against any invasion of Protestant thought, that the urt of painting, be? gan to throw off its swaddling clothes In Spain and to cease being an Imper? fect echo of Italy or -the Netherlands. A number of Its loaders?such as Mo? rales, Do Vargas and Juanes?were what Pra Angelico was In Italy, except that they had none of his gentle spirit. They breathed tho same spirit as the inquisitors and tho ascetic friars, and In their art there was no mercy or who compare him dlsadvantageously to Velasquez, his great contemporary; but comparisons between men so utterly i unlike in character and life, as well as In the subjects and manner of their art, j arc worse than useless. Each reigned supreme over a separate kingdom. To j Velasquez, the state painter, fell the court and the nobility, with their strong, aristocratic personalities, rich costumes and stirring, contentious life; to Murillo, the church painter, fell the realm of religious art, with its ecstatic emptying of personality, its glorifica? tion of poverty and sacrifice and Its tension toward the other life. Modern art, with Its lack of faith and of love of technique, enshrines Velasquez as one of Its fairest idols and frowns on Murillo as a meretricious caterer to the popular vote. Though it may be true that when compared to the sunlight brilliancy of Velasquez the greatness of j Murillo Is but as that of the moon, thai is no reason for calling out. as In the ancient amphitheater, "Thumbs down!" Murillo was the last of Spain's great painters before the decadence set In. Before setting forth the details of his life let us inquire, what position he takes in the long line of Spanish ar? tists. Critics are sometimes puzzled whether to call him a "realist" or an "idealist," but to make him fit into one or the other of these much-abused nnd confused classifications Is an Impossible! feat. He was certainly rather a poet than n realist, and rather a naturalist i than an idealist. A religious poet in paint, with an underlying vein of genre, would describe him quite accurately, j Had he allowed this vein of genre full | swing he would have become tho Span? ish representative of the Dutch ideal,j the painter of the street urchin and beggar and the daily life of the common ! people. But he was soon caught in the ! strong currents of religious feeling, which swept him off his feet and filled him with an ardor that inspired his brush to depict so vividly that f-ide of Spanish religious life that was most feminine and poetic?the mysticism sc typical of the popular order of St. Francis. Far more than the Italian painters of his lime or for several gene- : rations, he wa a teller of stories and a teacher of truths, and bis works enter so much the m re into the warp and woof of Spanish life and history. A comparison of Murillo with the earlier religious painters of Spain wMJ explain his transcendant popularity. His predecessors had been either fana? tics or formalists. Owing to the long possession of a large part of Spain by tho Moors through the middle ages, the accumulation of wealth In tho hands of the Jews nnd the slow national Chris? tian development before the" glorious reigns of Ferdinand and Isabella, Spain had not until then (e. 1500 A.'D.) had uncontrolled power to crush the unbe? liever. So that Spain's mediaeval fanat? icism, made more hitter by long re? pression, did not work Itself out until the Renaissance period, and Its very historic Incongruity. Its opposition to the spirit of indifference, tolerance of religious liberty to which other coun? tries had attained, made this fanaticism tho more bloody, the more dark and in? tolerant. It was at title very tlmo (six charity; It was but a branch of relig- | u>us leaching carried out as strictly as the teaching in u theological .seminary. | The Spanish prelates, face lo face with so large a percentage of non-Christian population In the new kingdom, had to solve the same problem as the early Ohristlnn and Carlovlngian churches. Like them, they used art largely as a means of conversion and edification, but their methods smacked less of early Christian mildness thun of the brutality of Charlemagne, who drove the Saxons to the river and drowned by thousands those who declined baptism. Only In Spain fire and not water was the favo- -I rite medium of persuasion. The art of these people was ascetic, and stern; held < out no promises but ruled by fear, and I pointed to hell and not to heaven. Such were the fanatic painters who mostly | barked back to the Flemish school. On the other hand, the formalists were men tainted with the pseudo-religious art of Italy, whoso work was admired because of its external perfection and | who obeyed the formulas governing tire composition of religious subjects. Hav? ing caught something of the conversa stone style of the Italians, and. being plentifully lacking In conviction, they j did not touch the heart of the people, i They were tolerated because since the | Moors and the Jews had been extermt- | natcd, converted or exiled and danger of Protestant propaganda had passed, the fanatical school seemed to have completed it.~ work. But religious Intensity had not yet worn itself out in Spain. It simply be-I c-me more mystic under Franciscan! guidance; passionately feminine instead of fiercely masculine, the promises of love overshadowing the terrors of the inquisition. The loving Divine Child replaced the Supreme Judge, held and guided by the Immaculate Virgin. The spell under which the catholic church proclaimed the dogma of the immacu? late conception in 1S6G was woven at that time in Spain, and the most potent artistic factor in Its weaving was Mtl rillo, and it was he also who lent the charm of his . pencil to the spread of the doctrine of the sacred heart, of the seraphic nnd other visions and eesta s'es, to all these and other phases that debauch of religious sentltm nt ill ty as sincere as it was mlsgul I 1. which had Spain as its center. The fervor and faith shown by Murlllo in depicting these scenes which w re such favorites with monks and pe iple made of him the chief apostle of Ihe new rrecd. At last there had arisen a painter that could interpret the heart of the people. Bartolome Etoteb?n Murlllo was bom at Seville at the close of December. 1G17. in a small tenement house, and was baptised on January l, if.<<v His parents were In very mod. rate circum? stances. They both died in 1628, leaving the boy tc# the guardianship of the bus bond of hir. aunt, Ann Murlllo. After his pcho.il days were over. In about 1630. he was apprenticed to a relative, Ore well known fainter, Juan del Castillo (1384-1P10V a pupil of Fernnndes, more famous as a teacher than as an artist. There he passed through the weary stages of grinding colors and cleaning ?brushes until he was allowed to mas? ter Castillo's system of hard and dry I draughtsmanship. The studio was in the habit of turning out a quantity of sa? cred banners and pictures, hangings for religious processions and festivals, and In performing his share of this work the young Murillo not only gained consid? erable facility of handling, but prepared himself to earn his bread when his mas? ter left Seville for Cadiz in 1639. During tho next three years he was without master, and earned precarious liveli? hood by selling pictures at the Ferla market, held on Saturdays, with no particular stimulus to ambition. In 1642, when he was 24 years old, the tide was turned by the return of a former fellow student under Castillo, Pedro de Moya, who had studied with Vandyke In Lon? don and had come back full of enthus? iasm and prepared to proselytize for his new master not only by force of exam? ple, but by means of pictures by Van? dyke himself, which he had brought with him. Murillo felt the need of fur? ther assistance with this new world of art, and resolved to go to Rome to study. He set to work rapidly turning out pot-boilers, and set aside the money they brought for his journey, and for the orphnned sister he was leaving be? hind him; He then pluckily made a foot journey to Madrid across the Sier? ras, arriving penniless and without friends some time in 1643. He had tho good fortune to have recourse to his fellow townsma.n, Velasquez, then In high favor at the court, and through his advice remained in Madrid studying trie mr.ny masterpieces of the two gal? leries of the Hscurlal and Buenretlro, lodging in his patron's house. He spent over two years mastering the styles of such masters as Vandyke, Ribera, Ru? bens, Rembrandt, tho Venetians and Velasquez himself, and then decided to give up his ambitious scheme of for? eign travel and return to his native Seville, where hi; established himself as an Independent artist. At this crisis In his cnreer be reeeived orders for a number of pictures from the Francis? can monks of the city, thus beginning an association that decisively colored his whole life and art. for he became emphatically the representative painter of that ord<->r. The eleven pictures which he painted for the cloister of this monastery caused a great sensation In Seville, and cave him an ' Immediate reputation. They were painted during 164fi and 1R48. In 10-IS he married Beatrlz de Cabrera y Sotomnyor. In his will be states that she brought him a marriage portion and that he "brought to the Bald marriage no goods or property whatever," show? ing that until then lie bad not done more thnn enrn a. bare livelihood. He had by her two sons and a daughter. Gasper, the eldest, followed his father's profession, and became In lfiS? a canon of the Cathedral of Seville, and died in 1701). Gabriel, the younger, went to America, where he still was at the time of his father's death. Froncescftr-beoamo a nun in the convent of Madro dc Dlos. Note. This paper will be concluded next Saturday, April 22. EXAMINATIONS AND CERTIFI? CATES. At the end of the term of seventeen weeks, n series of questions on each course, prepared by Professor Seymour Eaton, will be published in the Vlr ginlan-Pilot. and blank? containing tho questions will be furnished every sub? scriber making application for same. Two weeks will lie allowed after the courses close, for the receipt of exami? nation papers containing nnswers. These papers will be referred to a Board of Examiners, who will assist Professor Baton, and ns soon as tho work of examination is complete, ihe result will be reported, and certificate's issued to the studei'tn entitled to them. Garments produced b?-'Rudolphl & Wallace represent the highest art in I a iloring. Now is Your Opportunity! 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