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VIRGINIAN - PILOT.
- ?BT THIS? [VIRGINIAN AND PILOT PUBLISHING COUPAKT. t. , -, . -? KORFOLK VIRGINIAS AND DAILY PILOT. _(Consolidated March. 1595.) _ Entered at the Postoffico at Norfolk. (va.. aa sccond-clasa matter. _ OFFICE: PILOT BUILDING. ? . CITY. HALL AVENUE. norfolk. va._ OFFICERS: A. H. Grandy. President; W. S. Wilk? inson, Treasurer; James E. Allen, Sec tetary. BOARD OF DIRECTORS: 'A. H. Grandy. L D. Starke. Jr.. T. W. Bhelton, R. W. Shultlce, W. S. Wilkinson, Jiunc K Alleu, D. V. Donovan. tu it t:t:t:Kx r.h i?i-.h t in'T. subscription rates: The VIRGINIAN-PILOT Is ?ellwed t?J Subscribers by carriers in No/folk an.l Vicinity, Portsmouth. Berkley. SvitTo.u (West Norfolk. Newport News, W cants per week paycblo to tii? eat By mall, to any place, In the LI u" tttateo. postage free: ?A11.T, one year - ? - V rix luonilia llirre nioutti* one in.mi ii ? .1.00 ADVERTISING BATES: Advert.! Bicnts le.scrtou at the rate of <?> c',ll? " t?quare. 11, si insertion; each SUbscijiiiiM Insertion 40 cents, or 60 vents, wnen in? serted Every Other Hay. Contractors n.o tlot allowed to exceed their space or roi vertiae ether th.-.n their leBltlnjsto pu?' siess. except by paying especially -or me ?arre. Reading Notfcei invariably to cents per line lirst insertion. Each subsequent in sertlon 13 cents. Nt cmplcve or the VIrglnlan-Fllot 1 ub llshinn Company Is authorized to contruct any obligation in the name of Vie: com? pany, or to make purchase's In the natno of the same. except upon oidr 1 - [Bill ;:? the PRES! DENT OF THE COMPANY. In orfjor tn nvotd ?let.iys. on account <>f personal absence, leti-rs end all commit, nlcatiens for The. V1RQINIA N-PILOT should not b" addressed to m.y Individual connected with the ofllr" hot simply to The VIRGINIAN AND I'H-OI Po'lt L1SH1NG COMl'ANV. _ SIXTEEN PAGES eUNDAT, MAY 21, 1899. THE TAINT OF IMPERIALISM. The Chicago Record prints n letter from H. H. Van .Meter, of that city, to President McKinley, in which he shows by printed extracts from a number of letters sent by soldiers in Manila to their friends at home that they are afraid to write the exact facts ab iut the situation there. One soldier writes that "some of the hoys are getting Into all Kinds of trouble over their letters, and 1 hope no one will publish any of onlne." Several other extracts of a similar character are quoted indicating n sort of military censorship, a military in? quisition over the freedom of speccli and the mails contrary to the American principle. It Is a strange nnd a new thing in this land of liberty, to be eure, when an American citizen is threatened with prosecution for treason because lie has mailed certain public documents to American citizens in Man:!;;, and when our soldiers In Manila arc afraid to write to their friends and relatives at home concerning condi? tions there, lest tin y be jerked up by the thumbs and punished for daring ta exercise the right of free speech. Imperialism is a dangerous thing. It Implies classes of citizens, some with more privileges then others. It implies government control over citizens. n?u unlike th? control < r the Cxar of Rus? sia over his subjects. Let our govern? ment get In the way oll gOV< ruin,' colo? nies, let the administration in Wash? ington rot a taste of Czurlsm and ac? quire some of the prerogatives of the Czar, and there Is no telling to whiit lengths it will go.?Richmond Times. And ret the wilier of that, and the Times, are practically should r to shoulder with this Imperialism in our domestic iioiit; s: How rapidly lite Imperial taint In our policy toward the Philippines, and others, lias spread to our treatment of our own citizens, the vot?ntci r sol? diers, whose ttnie of enlistment has expired, but ? ho are yet held to the meanest of military service, the tyran? ny of criminal aggression and cru< I subjugation! Mark, loo, how even their letters are under censorship, and nobody outside of the Philippine a refill: knows what is the true i indltlon of things there. The telegrams signed "Otis'* tell us only what the Amerii an authorities out there desire us to be? lieve, or hear. Whoso suppresses the truth. In giving what purports to be material information, will hlso invent falsehood^ for the same reason that he will not tell the whole story. But the Times is as Imperial as any ?when It comes to the judiciary. If despotism raises a cry of protest and resistance In the squad to which th Times belongs, all thai Is necessary to make the same thing just and ndces sarv Is to take it out of the hands of the military, or th" executive, and put It In the hands of the Judiciary. Per? sonal government, to the extreme pout of the worst possible oppression, with? out law, aeainst all laws and constitu? tions, and in obvious indulgence (,f private spite, becomes not only exact Justice, but above all restraints of law and government. How easy it Is to cover every tyranny with the mantle of a Judge, who may be the mosl bit? ter enemy of liberty nnd the people, and the vilest and most obsi quious to ?1 of absolute power! Why prate of ri?ht, freedom, law nnd the people, if the name of Judge, <>v court, or the judiciary can warrant anything or everything, and overbear everybody, until revolution dare pull the cloak of Justice from any man, or ofllclal, who dares attack free speech, whether It be about him, or his opin? ions, or his dealings with persons or things? Iffanythlng be unlawful, no matter by whom done, let the law take Its prescribed course, whether- you can iroly on it, o/noL Let no man, except in immediate self-defence or sclf-nssert tion. against direct attack, whether he bo citizen ?r ollicial. take the law in his ow n 1 Kiids, or niuke the law to suit himself. He who agrees that any man may do this, Is an enemy of liberty and tho peoph?an Imperialist, and a min? ion of usurpation and tyranny. Leave any op. n way, or covert way, for wr?nis, und it will be Bure to find and use It. No man nor office can be trusted With despotic powers. WE DON'T KNOW WHAT WE SHALL DO I Why do wo stop at little local ox Cti Ions to Norfolk and vicinity, when v o ve so many/things to show that tm well worth being seen by all the world? A European excursion to Nor? folk, or an excursion from Europe to America via Norfolk, with this city as the port of arrival and departure, la a schi me well worthy of our efforts and energies, and that offers a line field of action for the most public spirited of our citbtens and of their highest ex ecutive ability. It is feasible, too, at tili.? very moment, when the name of N( :?:' dk is arousing curiosity among all tin? wide-awake people. Here is the natural centre of the do? mestic trade of all North America and much of that of 'Central and Sjuth America; here is the centre, established by all the laws of nnturc, transporta? tion and commerce, for all tho ex? changes, intercourse ami international Interchanges of the world: and here, from every standpoint, it, the centre to? ward which ull material interests tend as to the gate-way of nations, inward or outward, tile pott or all navies and or the fleets of the future, and the clearing house of all accounts between the continents tm every score; and here is the centre of land and water, of time, climate and temperature, of the population, labor and capital of the earth, and of that diversity among men, races and nations which really makes possible a cosmopolitan unity In alt practical things, without regard to in? cidental and circumstantial differences. Tills is enthusiasm. So It in; and with full warrant, in a great cause. The Chesapeake and Its tributaries; the Atlantic, and its seas, gulfs, bays and affluents; these and all that they com? mand, are servants of Norfolk, and will yet wait upon her glory. Hut we must I help. , HUSTLE AND BUSTLE. We fear that as a city, we somehow lack in that pusli and enterprise where? by so many inferior cities and towns got ahead of us In exploiting- and ad? vertising themselves by grand func? tions and public demonstrations that attract visitors and wide attention. For many years Norfolk lias had strong claims on the consideration of the traveling and business portion of the world, nnd a great deal of curiosity and expectancy has been excited in her be? half among all men of Intelligence by her unique place and possibility in the development of affairs. Hut all that is :i it enough to secure her that atten? tion she deserves In the great competi? tion between sections and localities, be twe ii the established and that yet to come, between vested interests nnd those that are still speculative, and bc twecn the sure old ways ami the new enterprise and progress. Norfolk possesses .lust that kind of ro I sources that appeal only to tin: few, and do not speak for themsolves at all to the nishiug crowd, who require spe? cial attractions to command their no? tice and engage their efforts. It is es? pecially in tills kitack of making the mos; of our possessions that we fall deplorably behind other more noisy competitors; and. whatever may be said of noise, brag, and clatter, they arc indispensable in this bustling .-.nil hust? ling world, if we would no; be left, or passed by without being observed. "Is the South relapsing into barbar? ism-.'" anxiously Inquires a New York correspondent of the N. Y. Sun, who signs himself "Patriot." Wc answer: "No, sir; tho South is no: relapsing into barbarism." Wiieti was the South bar? barous heretofore, that it could now "r. lapse" to thai condition? Before the <!:.-.? ivery of America and the peopling of this country by Europeans, chiefly I'n; lisli. it Is sometimes carelessly said that the Indians were barbarous; but there are evidences now extant in these Southern States that even the Indians we:,- not barbarous, but civilized, with a civilization somewhat different from what is nowadays called so, but In some respects better. The Indians, in war, were sometimes cruel, almost as cruel as wo in the- Philippines; but that do, s not prove that Americans are bar? barous. j Thai an Indignant community may take mail vengeance upon a barbarous savage who first murders a woman's husband before her eyes, and then de? liberately makes her the victim of the jai-i . sosi outrage possible, may be wrong, sinful, unlawful and even hor rible; but it Is not barbarism, but the unrestrainablo Impulse of a. manly peo ple under the excitement ami resent? ment caused by the barbarism of the savage criminal ami outlaw. It Is also barbarism for distant and indifferent persons like "Patriot," who do not feel that their own blood Is any thicker than water, to malign and abuse people who are aroused to fury by unspeaka? ble nnd repealed atrocities on their own neighbors, friends, kindred, wives and daughters. ''Patriot" I? barbarous, un? christian and unmanly; a mean and cowardly traducer of men who mean to exterminato a certain foul crime, even if adso that requires the extermination of ail Its perpetratosv and their sym? pathizers.and apologists; for in this they know there can be no politics nor sectionalism among- real men,?North or South: Woman must be safe where ever true men exist, Norfolk Is getting: there. Her advant? ages are telling. Vested Interests and ancient habits are all against us; but these are obliged to yield before the ir resistable forces with which nature has endowed us, and the demands of the progress and developments of the age. Norfolk comes more and more to the front as the inferiority of other local? ities in position, capacity, convenience, climate and in all the essential equip? ments of a central depot of collection and distribution for the world's rapidly expanding commercial and other needs becomes so evident In comparison with her surpassing superiority in all de? tails. Such announcements as these show how the tide is turning hither ward: Two new lines of steamships between Norfolk and Europe will be In operation beginning Sept. 15 next. The North American Transport Company (Simp? son, Spence & Young), and the Johnson Blue line (William Johnson & Co., Lim? ited) will operate the new lines in con? nection witli the various railways en? tering Norfolk. The Johnson line will put on three boats monthly to Liver? pool and one boat monthly to Rotter? dam. The North American Transport Company will put on three boats monthly to Hamburg, two boats month? ly to London and one boat monthly to Rotterdam. A passenger service may be added later. In facing Dollar Dinners Colonel Bry? an must have endured hardships much greater than have fallen to the lot of his old regiment. While he may not recall his military career with any un? usual degree of satisfaction, nothing can deprive him of the title of Colonel. He has acquired a martial flavor at small expense of time and effort.?N. Y. Sun. We can assure our solar contempora? ry that the Dollar Dinners did not serve embalmed beef, nor did Col. Bryan have any hand in supplying the men who served their country, with the rot? ten ennned products in excess of the demand of former years. Nothing can deprive him or that satisfaction, while what martial flavor he may have ac? quired Is untainted, nnd beyond the reach of any sun whose kiss Is said to breed carrion. 1 There Is very littlo humor among millionaires, bosses and politicians, or long ago a gentleman with shaved head, striped apparel, and the orna? mental ball and chain that mark his eminence In Iiis career, would have pre? sented his credentials to the U. S. Sen? ate. That there are Senators already seated who ought to be so costumed, by no mean assures a genial reception for the gentleman coming "in charac? ter,"?as it Is said that the most shady side of the Senate is hottest on cartoon days, when some reckless artist dares gives "scenes from the life of a Sena? tor." Unless things mend, the time is near by when the striped Senator will arrive. It is painful to notice from time to time that Bryan I tee In various parts of the country fly to the courts for in? junctions just as if government by In? junction were not solemnly banned by the Chicago platform.?The imperialist,. "Government by injunction," as even the Infant class ought to know. Is n new usurpation nnd device of judlcl i! tyranny to limit civil liberty and op? press the people, while the ancient rem? edy of injunctions Is a writ of right to protect the liberties nnd rights of ill people. To quibble like that about a grave matter Is not only to confess tho crime, but to jest about it. flov. Roosevelt in his address before the Independent Club, of Buffalo, on "Property, it* Abuses and Uses," makes 6i line a picture oj.' the perfect ptibllt man (himself) that It almost persuad ?.?> us all, notwithstanding tho -swapicion that it Is overdrawn, to unite In a pe? tition for hint to become universal de ? lator. What a Paradise and .Millen? nium we should have If all our Covern, ors and other ofllelalri were Roosi veils, after tin; Luflalo pattern! Yet h i\v .- I . If Platt and other wicked partners shall lead Theodore Into temptation, or forcu him astray! Signer Crlspi, ex-Mlnlster of Italy, contributes an article to a leading Ital? ian review en the European Pi i e< ference, _iu. which, substantially, \\t takes the position that the trust, combining States and Interests, in? stead of separating them ami mak them antagonistic, If introduce d international politics, will be the coui.se for tho security of gem ral peace, with ;ho disarming of nations. One universal despotism is no: a:, al? luring outlook; but the trust is d spotic, or nothing. The strategist of the N. Y. Sun :s an "amooslng cuss." The evidence is con. elusive that he is a diligent and paitiftl student of Philippine geography; but how little that helps to make an oflli prophet, or an able General, is dem n. titrated daily by the failure of his n itary forecasts, or probabilities, a ? na'.do, or l.nwton, MacArthur, or sonii other fellow, upsets bis predictions us fast as announced; yet it must be own? ed that the Sun's expert goes on with a philosophy and serene patience that are very admirable, indeed. Was ii an irreconcilable fool, or was it merely a careless fool, who deprivi I the Charleston reunion of its chicl ln< terrat and significance by keeping Gen. Wheeler on; of sight when his presence would have counted most?- N. Y. Sun, How Qen. Wheeler is loved and re spec ted in the. South is well proved by the honor they accord him, in spite ot his evil associations and the praises of the wicked. I The world knows that this nation Is Incapable of oppressing any people. Sustained by the rectitude of our mo? tives, with a firm purpose to act Justly towurd all the millions of those almost numberless Islands, we ought to go for? ward as unitedly as we entered upon the war which lias led to existing con? ditions and duties.?Washington Post. So said the Tories In 1776, and the Post and Its nftlllatod press should study the Tory literature of that day, and especially Dr. Sam Johnson's "Tax? ation No Tyranny." The old Tory ar? gument and the imperial doctrine run on all-fours In double-harness, like twin kittens._ The imperialists now all swear by Mr. Lala, an ex-Filipino, now of New York, where he has lived long enough to be naturalised, and of course knows no? thing of Agulnaldo and the present Filipino sentiment or situation. But the government employs him as a good enough white-washer, sind he is evi? dently kin to Lala Itoohk. The Baltimore Sun bus just com? pleted its 62d year, and enters upon Its 63d still hale and hearty, and full of warmth and light for all within Its or? bit. Wo congratulate our contemporary with all the respect and reverence due to it from the youth of THE VIKGIN [AN-PIIaOT to a journal whose exam? ple as a newspaper Is worthy of all honorable imitation and emulation. The Democrats are hunting Issues Imperialist Paper. You are mistaken. There is no hunt? ing when the game crowds you.?as is now the rase with the Democrats, who are burdened with a superfluity of is? sues, furnished by the fore-domed llunnaites, who seem to think that in the multitude of their pins Is safety. General Lee, bereft of his military command (as far as troops are con? cerned) lo now in command, or mili? tary Governor, of the departments of Il.tbana and Pinar del Bio, consoli? dated. But ho may be home in time to accept a nomination to the U. S. Senate. Tho rumor of ex-Presldcnt Cleve? land's sudden death last Sunday, while on a fishing expedition in Lake Erie, did not cause much grief or excitement that was visible to the naked eye, or audible to any listening ear. i he v. n. i. CadriN at Sicww Market Va. Monday, the 15th Instant, was the anniversary of the battle of New Mar? ket, In which the cadets of the Virginia .Military Institute ?o greatly distin? guished themselves. We copy the fol? lowing verses from the Ashevllle, N. C., Citizen. They were written by a well known lawyer of that city: (See "The Baby Corps" in the Century for October, 1S97.) THE 'LUV: COUPS" AT NEWMAIt l K ET, (By John P. Arthur, Class '71.) The cadets of the Virginia Milltarv Institute took part in the engagement between the Federals under Gen. Sigel and the'Confederates under General Brcckenrldge, at New Market. Va., on the 15th of May. 1864. (nit of 257 the cadets lost 50 killed and wounded. They were younger than Mcthuseleh, but not so meek as Moses. While Samson had mure muscle far, boi'uio he lubt Ins hair; And the bearded lady in the "show" could make them blush like roses By asking leave to stroke their chins, Which s ill were smooth and fair. The Old Guard of Napoleon's day and Washington's Defenders Knew rather more of bivouacs, of mat chlug o nil of gore; But the Hoy Corps of Lexington proved they were no pretenders i By tackling doughty Sig-'l in the spring of sixty-four. They talked of War, but thought of Home, the night before the battle. Anil the lovely girls at Staunton who had kissed them on the way; But bowed their youthful heads in awe and hushed their boyish prattle When Stonewall Jackson's one-armed friend, Prank Preston, rose to pray. ' Though Ihey had read a dozen times of Balnklava's glory, A fly was in the ointment, for had some hoi struggled back? ? But, Ihey, they liked Thermopylae, with one lo lell the story; And i v, n he had better died upon the battle-rack! So, wb. ii the fateful day had dawned O'er Mtissanutten mountain, T v. re no siek. n ine would stand gun (I, the ranks were full and dressed; Eil hi : !. me like a paladin's; while ? nlm as ei ystal fountain The Shennndoah gliding fair a peace ' i ml?i??p? hlpasetl. _ i Tw i hundred and <-ixty ragged hoys? h .. ? ig?r, yet how steady? On centre dressed, with guides ad ' ill d, art if oil dress parade? i They charged across the tender wheat, ; ir i atli or glory ready; Bui bi hind them red bouquets, n ?: ? if . xotics made! j They'd started In the second line, be? hind the old campaigners. But Woodbrldge* and their cream white flag soon led e'en Eorly's Vein: Who. tru :^'!tig sturdily behind, passed by some norve-arraigners In children's faces stark amid the crimsoned violets! : Kre ycl Ihey reached the guns they paused?Just paused, no need to rally? Then met :he red-hot hall of hell that scorched Ihclr bloody track! They won! And though all were not killed, till Slgol left the Valley. No lad of that intrepid Corps thought once of turning back! They'd called Ihem "Bye-o-Baby Boys" ?they, they the young Crusaders, Wi:h Richard Coeur de l.eon hearts, lit for the battle's van; But when they'd won the victory the Veterans turned "evaders" And on such gruel "owned" that each might yel become a Man! ?Sergeant Major Woodbridge, nt tho command "Forward, Guide Centre," placed himself 4i> paces in front .if the colons, a*1 directing guide, and led the charge till ordered hack. The Hag was cream-white silk with coat of arms of Virginia in gold in the centre. __VlRGINmN-PIUOT'S___ HOME STUDY 6IR6LE (Copyrighted, 1S99.) DIRliCTUD BY PROF. SEYMOUR EATON. SUBJECTS OF STUDY IN THE ORDER IN WHICH THEY WILL BE PUBLISHED. EVERY SUNDAY? History?Popular Slud&S In European History. EVERY TUESDAY? Geography?The World's Great Commercial Producta. EVERY WEDNESDAY? Governments ot tlic World of To-day. EVERY THURSDAY AND FRIDAY? Literature?Popular Studies :n Literature. EVERY SATURDAY? Art?The World's Great Artiste. 1lic*e onnrnfli will eoiiitiiuo until JnilO SOIil. Kxninliiolloiii ronclnrletl t?.> ninll' will ?><' iicici ui tlivlr rluxe mm a bn?l? far tlic ki-uuiihk Qf CorilfttcMtea. POPULAR STUDIES IN EUROPEAN HISTORY. X.-HUGUENOTS. BY JOHN EBENEZER UltYANT, M. A. "Never has any land been so sinned against as France." This judgment, so frequently expressed, so true of France in all her history, is especially true with respect to the treatment she was made to give the Huguenots. The revocation of tho edict of Nantes, in lt>Sj. was, when all its circumstances are taken into account, one 6f the greatest crimes recorded In history. I lilt Its criminality was surpassed by Its folly. in the opinion of the world of to-day it stands tho most stupendously foolish blunder that the government of a. civilized country has ever been known to com? mit. This date. 1685, and the egregious act of criminality and folly, the "revoca? tion," as it is usually called, are the central points in our story. The history of the Huguenots Is too intricate anil diversified to be even sketched here. All that we can do is (1) to indicate in a general way the course <>r events that led up to the revocation; til) to describe as best we can what the revocation was and what Its immediate consequences were; and (.") to Indicate briefly the history of the Huguenots In France af? ter the promulgation of the- revoca? tion. France has suffered as much as any country in behalf of religious liberty? more, indeed, than any other country unless it be the Low Countries. Hut notwithstanding this, n-tong the great mass of the French people, religious interest has always been subordinate to political IntereE't. Tin- great con? flicts that have raped in France and have been called religious wars have been religious wars only in name. The actuating motives in these wars did JlOt li-i Lfl < h/.lr m i in nrlgiQ '" religious conviction, but In considerations of party and the personal ambitions of great party Kaders. In the history of France neither tho sentiment for re? ligion nor the passion for freedom has ever played a pr'i nlnent part in the political development of the country. Nor until the revolution of a hundred years ago can there be said to have ever been much political development in the country. France early became, and for centuries remained, an abso? lute monarchy. The king th< oreticnlly, and in the main practically, was the sole legislative and executive power in the nation. The civil wars that took place were entered upon lit t to settle constl.'.uti-iiial -eaJiu.ipi. ?in::_<|o s- i,ms of great family interest or of succes? sion. The so-called r- li?ious wars were to the same in.en;. Hut though the above is true as n general statement,,the statement re? quires some modifications France, like every other country in Europe, felt the quickening Influences of the refor? mation. The principles ndvocnted by Luther were at first warmly received. Hut the excesses of the indiscreet and Ignorant among the converts to Luth? er's doctrines soon led to a rcvulsl m of feeling and the progress of Luther anlsm in Frame ceased. Hut when the doctrines of Calvin came to be under? stood there was a different result. Cal? vinism led no; merely to Hie spiritual regeneration of those who embraced it. but also to the recognition of prin? ciples of social organization quite dif? ferent from those Implied in absolut..' monarchy. The nobles of France, nfl they came under the Influence of the new religion, found themselves unwill? ing acceptors of the do,-trine of the di? vine right of kings to absolute author? ity. The only absolute atlth >ritv they thought should be recognized was that of Cod. This sentiment in favor <". the non-recognition of kingly Absolutism frequently chimed in with party feel? ing, and the result wits thai Calvinism spread rapidly among the Fron? h no? bility. We are told that at one tithe one-third of the noblemen and gentle? men of France w ere Huguenots. (Note: The word "Huguenots" was nt first only a nickname. Its original meaning is not definitely known, although pro? bably the meaning was "confeder? ates." its use as denoting those who accepted the "new religion" In France is very ancient.) We must not, however, attach too much Importance to the apparent wlde HENRY IV. spread prevalence of the new doctrines. The noblemen und gentlemen who ac? cepted Calvinism accepted it In the sc cluslon and privacy of their retired homes in the country. When they went to court, when, they came under the influence of the old order or things, when they-saw how strongly embedded in the constitution of the kingdom the old religion was, especially when they realized the strength and opposing force of the hierarchy, they not seldom were reconverted. And such reconver? sion u's was no! effected by ordinary and gentle means was oftentimes ef fected by party discipline or by kingly edict. For it must be remembered that royalty in Prance was always strongly Catholic. At the first there had baen some little wavering on the part of the court in regard to the new doctrines, lint it was only for a moment. Francis I. was not less bit tor against the new religion than his son and grandsons. Yet there were many staunch ad? herents of the new religion. One of these was Jeanne d'Albret, queen of Navarre, mother of Henry of Navarre, afterward Henry IV. of France, one of the noblest women of h?r age, or, in? deed, of any age. Another was Conde, the prince of Conde, as lie was called. ADMUtAL, ClASrAUD DE COLICNY. by virtue of his abilities scarcely less titan by his rank the leader of the Huguenots in the great struggle of hi* day. A third was Collgny?Admiral Collgny, Condo's great assistant and successor in the Huguenot leadership, the ablest man of the time in France, and one of the very ablest men in Eu? rope. Collgny, like Jeanne d'Albret, and like Conde also, was a Huguenot by conviction ami conversion, but he w'as less swayed by ambition and by personal Interests than they. The part he look in the conflicts of his day was one. that not altogether commended it? self to his Judgment. ' Nor did it com? mend itself to his personal feeling, for in rtriTmsition as Well as in prlne.pl ? he was a man of peace. But the exigen? cies of party interest*;, with which honor and principle nlso seemed to be bound, were too strong lor him, and be entered the fray only to be the object of the bitterest hatred of his oppo? nents, and finally, as we shall see, to meet from them a dreadful death. We have said that the Bentiinent for religion was not strong among the French people, ami in the main this is true. But w hen the 111 w religious ideas of Calvin entered France these ideas found in the hearts of tt portion of the French people a soil peculiarly adapt? ed to their growth and fructifying. In the south ami southeast of France, In toe provlnei s known rrsr-Languedne. and Provence and Dnuphlhy, were many Waldenses of old, dissentients from Rome. In Iho B?uthwest of France were many descendants of those other sturdy dissentients from Rome, tile Al blgenses, who. under the stern admin? istration of Pope Innocent Iii., were supposed to have been wholly exter? minated. In southern France, there? fore, th'- principles of Calvin took firm root?not. as often elsewhere, been use men saw in them a means of combat? ing kingly or priestly power, but be? cause they were believed to be the very word and teaching of God. In a very short time .all southern France became strongly Huguenot. This was espe? cially so in the hill or mountain coun? try, known as the Cevennes, and in a district to the south of this, extending from the mountains to the sea. called by Its Inhabitants the "desert." Other strongholds of the new faith were the dis'fr t about Orleans in tho center of France, parts of tho provinces of Guinne and Poitoti between the Ga? ronne ami the Loire, and parts of Nor? mandy and Burgundy. Tito period 1515 to l?.'iO (that is. the ri Igns of Francis I. and Henry II.) may be taken as the period during which the new fnltli took root in France. It was a period marked by much bitter and cruel persecution and many attempts at extirpation, but it was also a period that may bo described as the most glo? rious in ?11 Huguenot history', for in it they suffered for their faith alone. The new religion had not yet become a fac? tor In the party ratttions ? t the time. The period from 1650 to 1508 (that is, tho reigns of the three brothers, Fran? cis II.. Chat los IX. und Henry III., and the first nine years of Henry IV.) was the period o? the civil wars and so-called religious wars- That relift* ous conviction was tho main impelling motive in the prosecution ct^hese wars may well be doubted. Nevertheless, it Is to be noted that throughout them all the Huguenots and the hierarchy} were always opposed. The Huguenots were constantly endeavoring to secure for their religion acknowledged toler* atlon and for themselves the full en? joyment of the political privileges ot tho time. The hierarchy and their friends were as constantly seeking to destroy tho new religion, root and branch, and to make the profession of It, whether in public or in private, ut? terly Impossible. Tho wars, however, were between great families and their adherents, rather than between bodies of the people, although tho people fre-> ejuently were engaged In them, too. One Incident in this period has an Immortality of infamy, although it did louis Dis iiot'uiiox, rniNCB obi CON DE. not differ In quality of wickedness from hundreds of other Incidents, only In degree. In 1C72, When Charles IX. was king, there was a lull in the gener? ally prevailing conflict. There was even a peace, and plans for reconcilia? tion were being devised. The king was favorable to reconciliation. Henry of Navarre, a Huguenot, who was after? ward to be Henry IV., had Just been married to the king's sister. Collgny, the Huguenot chief, 'was the king's most trusted counselor. Reconciliation, with religious toleration, was Just in sight. Suddenly. Sunday morning, August 24th tst. Bartholomew's day), Collgny, and every Huguenot that could ho found in Paris (the city was full of them because "f the royal wed? ding) were murdered. The king, who, though well-lnlcntloned, wna weak, hud given his consent to the massacre. The queen-mother, Catherine do Medici, and the l;iuc,"s brother, the duke of Anjoii, afterward Henry III., under the Inspiration of the hierarchy, and of the Guises, nobles devotedly attached to the hierarchy, by their solicitations had forced him to do So Similar mas? sacres took pine.- throughout all Prance, wherever Huguenots were to be found. A thing that seems Incredi? ble In tho present uge, these massa? cres received what may I.ailed tho unanimous approval ot catholic Chris? tendom. It is to be noted, however, that tin- wretched monarch who was the llnal <-au:;o of them within two years died of remorse because of them. The number nut to death in the mas? sacres Is estimated at from 20,000 to 100.000. Henry of Navarre . leaped the fate of Collgny and the other victims of St. Bartholomew only by a recantation of hit; faith. Hut it was not long before he got away from Paris and was back among bis friends and to his old faith again. Thenceforward, in the fierce Conflicts of the Iliile. he was the leader of the Huguenot party. At the death (1589) of Henry III., the last of the I house of Valols, although ho was only a distant cousin of Henry he became the legal heir to the throne, and he as? sumed the title of Henry IV. Hut his Huguenot faith was an Insurmountable obstacle. The whole force of the hier? archy was against him. Many of the I nobility, conscientious believers in tin: ?id faith, were against him. Many, too, from parly motives, or because of am? bitions of their own, were against him. It was a time ..f great uncertainty. The Jesuits, still all-powerful, to suit their own ends were preaching the doctrine that with the people lay the choice of a ruler, and the kingly throne seem d to be within the possible reach of sev? eral claimants. Hut Henry of Navarre was personally the most popular man of his day. He was the most chival? rous fooman, the most daring lighter, the ablest leader, ami, as events proved, the shrewdest and ablest statesman of his day. The Huguenots stood firmly behind him. Many of tho other faith also joined his banners. He fought and won some-glorious battles, notably that of ivry (l.v.iii). *o celebrated in our day because of Macaulay'.-; glowing VCrsei "Now. Cod be praised, the day Is oura! Mayonne hath tinned his rein, D'Aumalo hath cried for quarter, tho Flemish count Is slain; Their ranks are breaking llko thin clouds before a llisc.i.y gale; The field is heaped with bleeding steeds, anil Hags, and cloven mail. And then wo thought on vengeance, and all along our van, 'Remember St. Bartholomew" was pass? ed from man to man. Mut. ..in spake gallant Henry, 'No Frenchman Is my foe; Down, down witli every foreigner, but let your brethren go." Oh! was there ever such a knight in friendship or in war. As our sovereign lord, King Henry, the soldier of Navarre!"' And it was this chivalrous spirit that dually won tip. throne for him. No Frenchman ever lost his lifo because of the resent mi ni of Henry of Navarre. He conciliated, he forgave, he forgot. And in tho end he was crowned Kins (Feb. ?7. ir.04). and Paris opened her gates to him and lie was king indeed. Note.?This paper will be concluded Sunday, May 20. EXAMINATIONS AND CERTIFI? CATES. At the end of the term of seventeen weeks O series of questions on each course prepared by Professor Seymour Eaton will be published In the Vir? ginian-Pilot, and blanks containing the questions Will bo furnished every sub ncrlber making application for same. Two weeks will bo allowed after the courses close, for the receipt of exami? nation" papers containing answers. These rapers will be referred to u Board of Examiners, who will assist Profcsso- Eaton, and as soon as tho work "of examination is complete, the result will be reported, and rertttlcates issued to the n'udorts entitled lo them. STENCIL CUiT&RS, K..l.'.er and SI?! Stamps, Rnilrond Hold. UaR^rC ?e ,1 i;'i Checks. Seals, nadires Stencil niuismmf ,.. i . raters, etc, , PHfENlX Job Print*'*, Cm.NWIiob ?nd Church Stq