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Virginian-pilot. (Norfolk, Va.) 1898-1911, May 21, 1899, Image 4

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VIRGINIAN - PILOT.
- ?BT THIS?
[VIRGINIAN AND PILOT PUBLISHING
COUPAKT.
t. , -, . -?
KORFOLK VIRGINIAS AND DAILY PILOT.
_(Consolidated March. 1595.) _
Entered at the Postoffico at Norfolk.
(va.. aa sccond-clasa matter. _
OFFICE: PILOT BUILDING.
? . CITY. HALL AVENUE.
norfolk. va._
OFFICERS:
A. H. Grandy. President; W. S. Wilk?
inson, Treasurer; James E. Allen, Sec
tetary.
BOARD OF DIRECTORS:
'A. H. Grandy. L D. Starke. Jr.. T. W.
Bhelton, R. W. Shultlce, W. S. Wilkinson,
Jiunc K Alleu, D. V. Donovan.
tu it t:t:t:Kx r.h i?i-.h t in'T.
subscription rates:
The VIRGINIAN-PILOT Is ?ellwed t?J
Subscribers by carriers in No/folk an.l
Vicinity, Portsmouth. Berkley. SvitTo.u
(West Norfolk. Newport News, W
cants per week paycblo to tii? eat
By mall, to any place, In the LI u"
tttateo. postage free:
?A11.T, one year - ? - V
rix luonilia
llirre nioutti*
one in.mi ii ?
.1.00
ADVERTISING BATES: Advert.!
Bicnts le.scrtou at the rate of <?> c',ll? "
t?quare. 11, si insertion; each SUbscijiiiiM
Insertion 40 cents, or 60 vents, wnen in?
serted Every Other Hay. Contractors n.o
tlot allowed to exceed their space or roi
vertiae ether th.-.n their leBltlnjsto pu?'
siess. except by paying especially -or me
?arre.
Reading Notfcei invariably to cents per
line lirst insertion. Each subsequent in
sertlon 13 cents.
Nt cmplcve or the VIrglnlan-Fllot 1 ub
llshinn Company Is authorized to contruct
any obligation in the name of Vie: com?
pany, or to make purchase's In the natno
of the same. except upon oidr 1 - [Bill ;:?
the PRES! DENT OF THE COMPANY.
In orfjor tn nvotd ?let.iys. on account <>f
personal absence, leti-rs end all commit,
nlcatiens for The. V1RQINIA N-PILOT
should not b" addressed to m.y Individual
connected with the ofllr" hot simply to
The VIRGINIAN AND I'H-OI Po'lt
L1SH1NG COMl'ANV. _
SIXTEEN PAGES
eUNDAT, MAY 21, 1899.
THE TAINT OF IMPERIALISM.
The Chicago Record prints n letter
from H. H. Van .Meter, of that city, to
President McKinley, in which he shows
by printed extracts from a number of
letters sent by soldiers in Manila to
their friends at home that they are
afraid to write the exact facts ab iut
the situation there. One soldier writes
that "some of the hoys are getting Into
all Kinds of trouble over their letters,
and 1 hope no one will publish any of
onlne."
Several other extracts of a similar
character are quoted indicating n sort
of military censorship, a military in?
quisition over the freedom of speccli
and the mails contrary to the American
principle. It Is a strange nnd a new
thing in this land of liberty, to be
eure, when an American citizen is
threatened with prosecution for treason
because lie has mailed certain public
documents to American citizens in
Man:!;;, and when our soldiers In Manila
arc afraid to write to their friends and
relatives at home concerning condi?
tions there, lest tin y be jerked up by
the thumbs and punished for daring ta
exercise the right of free speech.
Imperialism is a dangerous thing. It
Implies classes of citizens, some with
more privileges then others. It implies
government control over citizens. n?u
unlike th? control < r the Cxar of Rus?
sia over his subjects. Let our govern?
ment get In the way oll gOV< ruin,' colo?
nies, let the administration in Wash?
ington rot a taste of Czurlsm and ac?
quire some of the prerogatives of the
Czar, and there Is no telling to whiit
lengths it will go.?Richmond Times.
And ret the wilier of that, and the
Times, are practically should r to
shoulder with this Imperialism in our
domestic iioiit; s:
How rapidly lite Imperial taint In our
policy toward the Philippines, and
others, lias spread to our treatment of
our own citizens, the vot?ntci r sol?
diers, whose ttnie of enlistment has
expired, but ? ho are yet held to the
meanest of military service, the tyran?
ny of criminal aggression and cru< I
subjugation! Mark, loo, how even
their letters are under censorship, and
nobody outside of the Philippine a refill:
knows what is the true i indltlon of
things there. The telegrams signed
"Otis'* tell us only what the Amerii an
authorities out there desire us to be?
lieve, or hear. Whoso suppresses the
truth. In giving what purports to be
material information, will hlso invent
falsehood^ for the same reason that he
will not tell the whole story.
But the Times is as Imperial as any
?when It comes to the judiciary. If
despotism raises a cry of protest and
resistance In the squad to which th
Times belongs, all thai Is necessary to
make the same thing just and ndces
sarv Is to take it out of the hands of
the military, or th" executive, and put
It In the hands of the Judiciary. Per?
sonal government, to the extreme pout
of the worst possible oppression, with?
out law, aeainst all laws and constitu?
tions, and in obvious indulgence (,f
private spite, becomes not only exact
Justice, but above all restraints of law
and government. How easy it Is to
cover every tyranny with the mantle
of a Judge, who may be the mosl bit?
ter enemy of liberty nnd the people,
and the vilest and most obsi quious to ?1
of absolute power!
Why prate of ri?ht, freedom, law nnd
the people, if the name of Judge, <>v
court, or the judiciary can warrant
anything or everything, and overbear
everybody, until revolution dare pull
the cloak of Justice from any man, or
ofllclal, who dares attack free speech,
whether It be about him, or his opin?
ions, or his dealings with persons or
things? Iffanythlng be unlawful, no
matter by whom done, let the law take
Its prescribed course, whether- you can
iroly on it, o/noL Let no man, except
in immediate self-defence or sclf-nssert
tion. against direct attack, whether he
bo citizen ?r ollicial. take the law in
his ow n 1 Kiids, or niuke the law to suit
himself. He who agrees that any man
may do this, Is an enemy of liberty and
tho peoph?an Imperialist, and a min?
ion of usurpation and tyranny. Leave
any op. n way, or covert way, for
wr?nis, und it will be Bure to find and
use It. No man nor office can be
trusted With despotic powers.
WE DON'T KNOW WHAT WE
SHALL DO I
Why do wo stop at little local ox
Cti Ions to Norfolk and vicinity, when
v o ve so many/things to show that
tm well worth being seen by all the
world? A European excursion to Nor?
folk, or an excursion from Europe to
America via Norfolk, with this city
as the port of arrival and departure, la
a schi me well worthy of our efforts and
energies, and that offers a line field
of action for the most public spirited of
our citbtens and of their highest ex
ecutive ability. It is feasible, too, at
tili.? very moment, when the name of
N( :?:' dk is arousing curiosity among all
tin? wide-awake people.
Here is the natural centre of the do?
mestic trade of all North America and
much of that of 'Central and Sjuth
America; here is the centre, established
by all the laws of nnturc, transporta?
tion and commerce, for all tho ex?
changes, intercourse ami international
Interchanges of the world: and here,
from every standpoint, it, the centre to?
ward which ull material interests tend
as to the gate-way of nations, inward
or outward, tile pott or all navies and
or the fleets of the future, and the
clearing house of all accounts between
the continents tm every score; and here
is the centre of land and water, of
time, climate and temperature, of the
population, labor and capital of the
earth, and of that diversity among men,
races and nations which really makes
possible a cosmopolitan unity In alt
practical things, without regard to in?
cidental and circumstantial differences.
Tills is enthusiasm. So It in; and with
full warrant, in a great cause. The
Chesapeake and Its tributaries; the
Atlantic, and its seas, gulfs, bays and
affluents; these and all that they com?
mand, are servants of Norfolk, and will
yet wait upon her glory. Hut we must
I help. ,
HUSTLE AND BUSTLE.
We fear that as a city, we somehow
lack in that pusli and enterprise where?
by so many inferior cities and towns
got ahead of us In exploiting- and ad?
vertising themselves by grand func?
tions and public demonstrations that
attract visitors and wide attention.
For many years Norfolk lias had strong
claims on the consideration of the
traveling and business portion of the
world, nnd a great deal of curiosity and
expectancy has been excited in her be?
half among all men of Intelligence by
her unique place and possibility in the
development of affairs. Hut all that is
:i it enough to secure her that atten?
tion she deserves In the great competi?
tion between sections and localities, be
twe ii the established and that yet to
come, between vested interests nnd
those that are still speculative, and bc
twecn the sure old ways ami the new
enterprise and progress.
Norfolk possesses .lust that kind of ro
I sources that appeal only to tin: few,
and do not speak for themsolves at all
to the nishiug crowd, who require spe?
cial attractions to command their no?
tice and engage their efforts. It is es?
pecially in tills kitack of making the
mos; of our possessions that we fall
deplorably behind other more noisy
competitors; and. whatever may be said
of noise, brag, and clatter, they arc
indispensable in this bustling .-.nil hust?
ling world, if we would no; be left, or
passed by without being observed.
"Is the South relapsing into barbar?
ism-.'" anxiously Inquires a New York
correspondent of the N. Y. Sun, who
signs himself "Patriot." Wc answer:
"No, sir; tho South is no: relapsing into
barbarism." Wiieti was the South bar?
barous heretofore, that it could now
"r. lapse" to thai condition? Before the
<!:.-.? ivery of America and the peopling
of this country by Europeans, chiefly
I'n; lisli. it Is sometimes carelessly said
that the Indians were barbarous; but
there are evidences now extant in these
Southern States that even the Indians
we:,- not barbarous, but civilized, with
a civilization somewhat different from
what is nowadays called so, but In
some respects better. The Indians, in
war, were sometimes cruel, almost as
cruel as wo in the- Philippines; but that
do, s not prove that Americans are bar?
barous.
j Thai an Indignant community may
take mail vengeance upon a barbarous
savage who first murders a woman's
husband before her eyes, and then de?
liberately makes her the victim of the
jai-i . sosi outrage possible, may be
wrong, sinful, unlawful and even hor
rible; but it Is not barbarism, but the
unrestrainablo Impulse of a. manly peo
ple under the excitement ami resent?
ment caused by the barbarism of the
savage criminal ami outlaw. It Is also
barbarism for distant and indifferent
persons like "Patriot," who do not feel
that their own blood Is any thicker
than water, to malign and abuse people
who are aroused to fury by unspeaka?
ble nnd repealed atrocities on their own
neighbors, friends, kindred, wives and
daughters. ''Patriot" I? barbarous, un?
christian and unmanly; a mean and
cowardly traducer of men who mean to
exterminato a certain foul crime, even
if adso that requires the extermination
of ail Its perpetratosv and their sym?
pathizers.and apologists; for in this
they know there can be no politics nor
sectionalism among- real men,?North
or South: Woman must be safe where
ever true men exist,
Norfolk Is getting: there. Her advant?
ages are telling. Vested Interests and
ancient habits are all against us; but
these are obliged to yield before the ir
resistable forces with which nature has
endowed us, and the demands of the
progress and developments of the age.
Norfolk comes more and more to the
front as the inferiority of other local?
ities in position, capacity, convenience,
climate and in all the essential equip?
ments of a central depot of collection
and distribution for the world's rapidly
expanding commercial and other needs
becomes so evident In comparison with
her surpassing superiority in all de?
tails. Such announcements as these
show how the tide is turning hither
ward:
Two new lines of steamships between
Norfolk and Europe will be In operation
beginning Sept. 15 next. The North
American Transport Company (Simp?
son, Spence & Young), and the Johnson
Blue line (William Johnson & Co., Lim?
ited) will operate the new lines in con?
nection witli the various railways en?
tering Norfolk. The Johnson line will
put on three boats monthly to Liver?
pool and one boat monthly to Rotter?
dam. The North American Transport
Company will put on three boats
monthly to Hamburg, two boats month?
ly to London and one boat monthly to
Rotterdam. A passenger service may
be added later.
In facing Dollar Dinners Colonel Bry?
an must have endured hardships much
greater than have fallen to the lot of
his old regiment. While he may not
recall his military career with any un?
usual degree of satisfaction, nothing
can deprive him of the title of Colonel.
He has acquired a martial flavor at
small expense of time and effort.?N. Y.
Sun.
We can assure our solar contempora?
ry that the Dollar Dinners did not serve
embalmed beef, nor did Col. Bryan
have any hand in supplying the men
who served their country, with the rot?
ten ennned products in excess of the
demand of former years. Nothing can
deprive him or that satisfaction, while
what martial flavor he may have ac?
quired Is untainted, nnd beyond the
reach of any sun whose kiss Is said to
breed carrion. 1
There Is very littlo humor among
millionaires, bosses and politicians, or
long ago a gentleman with shaved
head, striped apparel, and the orna?
mental ball and chain that mark his
eminence In Iiis career, would have pre?
sented his credentials to the U. S. Sen?
ate. That there are Senators already
seated who ought to be so costumed,
by no mean assures a genial reception
for the gentleman coming "in charac?
ter,"?as it Is said that the most shady
side of the Senate is hottest on cartoon
days, when some reckless artist dares
gives "scenes from the life of a Sena?
tor." Unless things mend, the time is
near by when the striped Senator will
arrive.
It is painful to notice from time to
time that Bryan I tee In various parts
of the country fly to the courts for in?
junctions just as if government by In?
junction were not solemnly banned by
the Chicago platform.?The imperialist,.
"Government by injunction," as even
the Infant class ought to know. Is n
new usurpation nnd device of judlcl i!
tyranny to limit civil liberty and op?
press the people, while the ancient rem?
edy of injunctions Is a writ of right
to protect the liberties nnd rights of ill
people. To quibble like that about a
grave matter Is not only to confess tho
crime, but to jest about it.
flov. Roosevelt in his address before
the Independent Club, of Buffalo, on
"Property, it* Abuses and Uses," makes
6i line a picture oj.' the perfect ptibllt
man (himself) that It almost persuad ?.?>
us all, notwithstanding tho -swapicion
that it Is overdrawn, to unite In a pe?
tition for hint to become universal de ?
lator. What a Paradise and .Millen?
nium we should have If all our Covern,
ors and other ofllelalri were Roosi veils,
after tin; Luflalo pattern! Yet h i\v .- I .
If Platt and other wicked partners shall
lead Theodore Into temptation, or forcu
him astray!
Signer Crlspi, ex-Mlnlster of Italy,
contributes an article to a leading Ital?
ian review en the European Pi i e<
ference, _iu. which, substantially, \\t
takes the position that the trust,
combining States and Interests, in?
stead of separating them ami mak
them antagonistic, If introduce d
international politics, will be the
coui.se for tho security of gem ral
peace, with ;ho disarming of nations.
One universal despotism is no: a:, al?
luring outlook; but the trust is d spotic,
or nothing.
The strategist of the N. Y. Sun :s an
"amooslng cuss." The evidence is con.
elusive that he is a diligent and paitiftl
student of Philippine geography; but
how little that helps to make an oflli
prophet, or an able General, is dem n.
titrated daily by the failure of his n
itary forecasts, or probabilities, a ?
na'.do, or l.nwton, MacArthur, or sonii
other fellow, upsets bis predictions us
fast as announced; yet it must be own?
ed that the Sun's expert goes on with
a philosophy and serene patience that
are very admirable, indeed.
Was ii an irreconcilable fool, or was
it merely a careless fool, who deprivi I
the Charleston reunion of its chicl ln<
terrat and significance by keeping Gen.
Wheeler on; of sight when his presence
would have counted most?- N. Y. Sun,
How Qen. Wheeler is loved and re
spec ted in the. South is well proved by
the honor they accord him, in spite ot
his evil associations and the praises of
the wicked. I
The world knows that this nation Is
Incapable of oppressing any people.
Sustained by the rectitude of our mo?
tives, with a firm purpose to act Justly
towurd all the millions of those almost
numberless Islands, we ought to go for?
ward as unitedly as we entered upon
the war which lias led to existing con?
ditions and duties.?Washington Post.
So said the Tories In 1776, and the
Post and Its nftlllatod press should
study the Tory literature of that day,
and especially Dr. Sam Johnson's "Tax?
ation No Tyranny." The old Tory ar?
gument and the imperial doctrine run
on all-fours In double-harness, like
twin kittens._
The imperialists now all swear by Mr.
Lala, an ex-Filipino, now of New York,
where he has lived long enough to be
naturalised, and of course knows no?
thing of Agulnaldo and the present
Filipino sentiment or situation. But
the government employs him as a good
enough white-washer, sind he is evi?
dently kin to Lala Itoohk.
The Baltimore Sun bus just com?
pleted its 62d year, and enters upon Its
63d still hale and hearty, and full of
warmth and light for all within Its or?
bit. Wo congratulate our contemporary
with all the respect and reverence due
to it from the youth of THE VIKGIN
[AN-PIIaOT to a journal whose exam?
ple as a newspaper Is worthy of all
honorable imitation and emulation.
The Democrats are hunting Issues
Imperialist Paper.
You are mistaken. There is no hunt?
ing when the game crowds you.?as is
now the rase with the Democrats, who
are burdened with a superfluity of is?
sues, furnished by the fore-domed
llunnaites, who seem to think that in
the multitude of their pins Is safety.
General Lee, bereft of his military
command (as far as troops are con?
cerned) lo now in command, or mili?
tary Governor, of the departments of
Il.tbana and Pinar del Bio, consoli?
dated. But ho may be home in time
to accept a nomination to the U. S.
Senate.
Tho rumor of ex-Presldcnt Cleve?
land's sudden death last Sunday, while
on a fishing expedition in Lake Erie,
did not cause much grief or excitement
that was visible to the naked eye, or
audible to any listening ear.
i he v. n. i. CadriN at Sicww Market Va.
Monday, the 15th Instant, was the
anniversary of the battle of New Mar?
ket, In which the cadets of the Virginia
.Military Institute ?o greatly distin?
guished themselves. We copy the fol?
lowing verses from the Ashevllle, N. C.,
Citizen. They were written by a well
known lawyer of that city:
(See "The Baby Corps" in the Century
for October, 1S97.)
THE 'LUV: COUPS" AT NEWMAIt
l K ET,
(By John P. Arthur, Class '71.)
The cadets of the Virginia Milltarv
Institute took part in the engagement
between the Federals under Gen. Sigel
and the'Confederates under General
Brcckenrldge, at New Market. Va., on
the 15th of May. 1864. (nit of 257 the
cadets lost 50 killed and wounded.
They were younger than Mcthuseleh,
but not so meek as Moses.
While Samson had mure muscle far,
boi'uio he lubt Ins hair;
And the bearded lady in the "show"
could make them blush like roses
By asking leave to stroke their chins,
Which s ill were smooth and fair.
The Old Guard of Napoleon's day and
Washington's Defenders
Knew rather more of bivouacs, of
mat chlug o nil of gore;
But the Hoy Corps of Lexington proved
they were no pretenders
i By tackling doughty Sig-'l in the
spring of sixty-four.
They talked of War, but thought of
Home, the night before the battle.
Anil the lovely girls at Staunton who
had kissed them on the way;
But bowed their youthful heads in awe
and hushed their boyish prattle
When Stonewall Jackson's one-armed
friend, Prank Preston, rose to
pray.
' Though Ihey had read a dozen times of
Balnklava's glory,
A fly was in the ointment, for had
some hoi struggled back?
? But, Ihey, they liked Thermopylae,
with one lo lell the story;
And i v, n he had better died upon the
battle-rack!
So, wb. ii the fateful day had dawned
O'er Mtissanutten mountain,
T v. re no siek. n ine would stand
gun (I, the ranks were full and
dressed;
Eil hi : !. me like a paladin's; while
? nlm as ei ystal fountain
The Shennndoah gliding fair a peace
' i ml?i??p? hlpasetl. _
i Tw i hundred and <-ixty ragged hoys?
h .. ? ig?r, yet how steady?
On centre dressed, with guides ad
' ill d, art if oil dress parade?
i They charged across the tender wheat,
; ir i atli or glory ready;
Bui bi hind them red bouquets,
n ?: ? if . xotics made!
j They'd started In the second line, be?
hind the old campaigners.
But Woodbrldge* and their cream
white flag soon led e'en Eorly's
Vein:
Who. tru :^'!tig sturdily behind, passed
by some norve-arraigners
In children's faces stark amid the
crimsoned violets!
: Kre ycl Ihey reached the guns they
paused?Just paused, no need to
rally?
Then met :he red-hot hall of hell that
scorched Ihclr bloody track!
They won! And though all were not
killed, till Slgol left the Valley.
No lad of that intrepid Corps thought
once of turning back!
They'd called Ihem "Bye-o-Baby Boys"
?they, they the young Crusaders,
Wi:h Richard Coeur de l.eon hearts,
lit for the battle's van;
But when they'd won the victory the
Veterans turned "evaders"
And on such gruel "owned" that each
might yel become a Man!
?Sergeant Major Woodbridge, nt tho
command "Forward, Guide Centre,"
placed himself 4i> paces in front .if the
colons, a*1 directing guide, and led the
charge till ordered hack. The Hag was
cream-white silk with coat of arms of
Virginia in gold in the centre.
__VlRGINmN-PIUOT'S___
HOME STUDY 6IR6LE
(Copyrighted, 1S99.)
DIRliCTUD BY PROF. SEYMOUR EATON.
SUBJECTS OF STUDY IN THE ORDER IN WHICH THEY
WILL BE PUBLISHED.
EVERY SUNDAY?
History?Popular Slud&S In European History.
EVERY TUESDAY?
Geography?The World's Great Commercial Producta.
EVERY WEDNESDAY?
Governments ot tlic World of To-day.
EVERY THURSDAY AND FRIDAY?
Literature?Popular Studies :n Literature.
EVERY SATURDAY?
Art?The World's Great Artiste.
1lic*e onnrnfli will eoiiitiiuo until JnilO SOIil. Kxninliiolloiii ronclnrletl
t?.> ninll' will ?><' iicici ui tlivlr rluxe mm a bn?l? far tlic ki-uuiihk Qf CorilfttcMtea.
POPULAR STUDIES IN EUROPEAN HISTORY.
X.-HUGUENOTS.
BY JOHN EBENEZER UltYANT,
M. A.
"Never has any land been so sinned
against as France." This judgment, so
frequently expressed, so true of France
in all her history, is especially true with
respect to the treatment she was made
to give the Huguenots. The revocation
of tho edict of Nantes, in lt>Sj. was,
when all its circumstances are taken
into account, one 6f the greatest crimes
recorded In history. I lilt Its criminality
was surpassed by Its folly. in the
opinion of the world of to-day it stands
tho most stupendously foolish blunder
that the government of a. civilized
country has ever been known to com?
mit.
This date. 1685, and the egregious act
of criminality and folly, the "revoca?
tion," as it is usually called, are the
central points in our story. The history
of the Huguenots Is too intricate anil
diversified to be even sketched here.
All that we can do is (1) to indicate in
a general way the course <>r events that
led up to the revocation; til) to describe
as best we can what the revocation was
and what Its immediate consequences
were; and (.") to Indicate briefly the
history of the Huguenots In France af?
ter the promulgation of the- revoca?
tion.
France has suffered as much as any
country in behalf of religious liberty?
more, indeed, than any other country
unless it be the Low Countries. Hut
notwithstanding this, n-tong the great
mass of the French people, religious
interest has always been subordinate
to political IntereE't. Tin- great con?
flicts that have raped in France and
have been called religious wars have
been religious wars only in name. The
actuating motives in these wars did
JlOt li-i Lfl < h/.lr m i in nrlgiQ '" religious
conviction, but In considerations of
party and the personal ambitions of
great party Kaders. In the history of
France neither tho sentiment for re?
ligion nor the passion for freedom has
ever played a pr'i nlnent part in the
political development of the country.
Nor until the revolution of a hundred
years ago can there be said to have
ever been much political development
in the country. France early became,
and for centuries remained, an abso?
lute monarchy. The king th< oreticnlly,
and in the main practically, was the
sole legislative and executive power in
the nation. The civil wars that took
place were entered upon lit t to settle
constl.'.uti-iiial -eaJiu.ipi. ?in::_<|o s- i,ms
of great family interest or of succes?
sion. The so-called r- li?ious wars were
to the same in.en;.
Hut though the above is true as n
general statement,,the statement re?
quires some modifications France, like
every other country in Europe, felt
the quickening Influences of the refor?
mation. The principles ndvocnted by
Luther were at first warmly received.
Hut the excesses of the indiscreet and
Ignorant among the converts to Luth?
er's doctrines soon led to a rcvulsl m
of feeling and the progress of Luther
anlsm in Frame ceased. Hut when the
doctrines of Calvin came to be under?
stood there was a different result. Cal?
vinism led no; merely to Hie spiritual
regeneration of those who embraced it.
but also to the recognition of prin?
ciples of social organization quite dif?
ferent from those Implied in absolut..'
monarchy. The nobles of France, nfl
they came under the Influence of the
new religion, found themselves unwill?
ing acceptors of the do,-trine of the di?
vine right of kings to absolute author?
ity. The only absolute atlth >ritv they
thought should be recognized was that
of Cod. This sentiment in favor <". the
non-recognition of kingly Absolutism
frequently chimed in with party feel?
ing, and the result wits thai Calvinism
spread rapidly among the Fron? h no?
bility. We are told that at one tithe
one-third of the noblemen and gentle?
men of France w ere Huguenots. (Note:
The word "Huguenots" was nt first
only a nickname. Its original meaning
is not definitely known, although pro?
bably the meaning was "confeder?
ates." its use as denoting those who
accepted the "new religion" In France
is very ancient.)
We must not, however, attach too
much Importance to the apparent wlde
HENRY IV.
spread prevalence of the new doctrines.
The noblemen und gentlemen who ac?
cepted Calvinism accepted it In the sc
cluslon and privacy of their retired
homes in the country. When they
went to court, when, they came under
the influence of the old order or things,
when they-saw how strongly embedded
in the constitution of the kingdom the
old religion was, especially when they
realized the strength and opposing
force of the hierarchy, they not seldom
were reconverted. And such reconver?
sion u's was no! effected by ordinary
and gentle means was oftentimes ef
fected by party discipline or by kingly
edict. For it must be remembered that
royalty in Prance was always strongly
Catholic. At the first there had baen
some little wavering on the part of the
court in regard to the new doctrines,
lint it was only for a moment. Francis
I. was not less bit tor against the new
religion than his son and grandsons.
Yet there were many staunch ad?
herents of the new religion. One of
these was Jeanne d'Albret, queen of
Navarre, mother of Henry of Navarre,
afterward Henry IV. of France, one of
the noblest women of h?r age, or, in?
deed, of any age. Another was Conde,
the prince of Conde, as lie was called.
ADMUtAL, ClASrAUD DE COLICNY.
by virtue of his abilities scarcely less
titan by his rank the leader of the
Huguenots in the great struggle of hi*
day. A third was Collgny?Admiral
Collgny, Condo's great assistant and
successor in the Huguenot leadership,
the ablest man of the time in France,
and one of the very ablest men in Eu?
rope. Collgny, like Jeanne d'Albret,
and like Conde also, was a Huguenot
by conviction ami conversion, but he
w'as less swayed by ambition and by
personal Interests than they. The part
he look in the conflicts of his day was
one. that not altogether commended it?
self to his Judgment. ' Nor did it com?
mend itself to his personal feeling, for
in rtriTmsition as Well as in prlne.pl ? he
was a man of peace. But the exigen?
cies of party interest*;, with which
honor and principle nlso seemed to be
bound, were too strong lor him, and be
entered the fray only to be the object
of the bitterest hatred of his oppo?
nents, and finally, as we shall see, to
meet from them a dreadful death.
We have said that the Bentiinent for
religion was not strong among the
French people, ami in the main this is
true. But w hen the 111 w religious ideas
of Calvin entered France these ideas
found in the hearts of tt portion of the
French people a soil peculiarly adapt?
ed to their growth and fructifying. In
the south ami southeast of France, In
toe provlnei s known rrsr-Languedne. and
Provence and Dnuphlhy, were many
Waldenses of old, dissentients from
Rome. In Iho B?uthwest of France
were many descendants of those other
sturdy dissentients from Rome, tile Al
blgenses, who. under the stern admin?
istration of Pope Innocent Iii., were
supposed to have been wholly exter?
minated. In southern France, there?
fore, th'- principles of Calvin took firm
root?not. as often elsewhere, been use
men saw in them a means of combat?
ing kingly or priestly power, but be?
cause they were believed to be the very
word and teaching of God. In a very
short time .all southern France became
strongly Huguenot. This was espe?
cially so in the hill or mountain coun?
try, known as the Cevennes, and in a
district to the south of this, extending
from the mountains to the sea. called
by Its Inhabitants the "desert." Other
strongholds of the new faith were the
dis'fr t about Orleans in tho center of
France, parts of tho provinces of
Guinne and Poitoti between the Ga?
ronne ami the Loire, and parts of Nor?
mandy and Burgundy.
Tito period 1515 to l?.'iO (that is. the
ri Igns of Francis I. and Henry II.) may
be taken as the period during which the
new fnltli took root in France. It was
a period marked by much bitter and
cruel persecution and many attempts
at extirpation, but it was also a period
that may bo described as the most glo?
rious in ?11 Huguenot history', for in it
they suffered for their faith alone. The
new religion had not yet become a fac?
tor In the party ratttions ? t the time.
The period from 1650 to 1508 (that is,
tho reigns of the three brothers, Fran?
cis II.. Chat los IX. und Henry III.,
and the first nine years of Henry IV.)
was the period o? the civil wars and
so-called religious wars- That relift*
ous conviction was tho main impelling
motive in the prosecution ct^hese wars
may well be doubted. Nevertheless, it
Is to be noted that throughout them
all the Huguenots and the hierarchy}
were always opposed. The Huguenots
were constantly endeavoring to secure
for their religion acknowledged toler*
atlon and for themselves the full en?
joyment of the political privileges ot
tho time. The hierarchy and their
friends were as constantly seeking to
destroy tho new religion, root and
branch, and to make the profession of
It, whether in public or in private, ut?
terly Impossible. Tho wars, however,
were between great families and their
adherents, rather than between bodies
of the people, although tho people fre->
ejuently were engaged In them, too.
One Incident in this period has an
Immortality of infamy, although it did
louis Dis iiot'uiiox, rniNCB obi
CON DE.
not differ In quality of wickedness
from hundreds of other Incidents, only
In degree. In 1C72, When Charles IX.
was king, there was a lull in the gener?
ally prevailing conflict. There was
even a peace, and plans for reconcilia?
tion were being devised. The king was
favorable to reconciliation. Henry of
Navarre, a Huguenot, who was after?
ward to be Henry IV., had Just been
married to the king's sister. Collgny,
the Huguenot chief, 'was the king's
most trusted counselor. Reconciliation,
with religious toleration, was Just in
sight. Suddenly. Sunday morning,
August 24th tst. Bartholomew's day),
Collgny, and every Huguenot that
could ho found in Paris (the city was
full of them because "f the royal wed?
ding) were murdered. The king, who,
though well-lnlcntloned, wna weak, hud
given his consent to the massacre. The
queen-mother, Catherine do Medici,
and the l;iuc,"s brother, the duke of
Anjoii, afterward Henry III., under the
Inspiration of the hierarchy, and of the
Guises, nobles devotedly attached to
the hierarchy, by their solicitations
had forced him to do So Similar mas?
sacres took pine.- throughout all
Prance, wherever Huguenots were to
be found. A thing that seems Incredi?
ble In tho present uge, these massa?
cres received what may I.ailed tho
unanimous approval ot catholic Chris?
tendom. It is to be noted, however,
that tin- wretched monarch who was
the llnal <-au:;o of them within two
years died of remorse because of them.
The number nut to death in the mas?
sacres Is estimated at from 20,000 to
100.000.
Henry of Navarre . leaped the fate of
Collgny and the other victims of St.
Bartholomew only by a recantation of
hit; faith. Hut it was not long before he
got away from Paris and was back
among bis friends and to his old faith
again. Thenceforward, in the fierce
Conflicts of the Iliile. he was the leader
of the Huguenot party. At the death
(1589) of Henry III., the last of the
I house of Valols, although ho was only
a distant cousin of Henry he became
the legal heir to the throne, and he as?
sumed the title of Henry IV. Hut his
Huguenot faith was an Insurmountable
obstacle. The whole force of the hier?
archy was against him. Many of the
I nobility, conscientious believers in tin:
?id faith, were against him. Many, too,
from parly motives, or because of am?
bitions of their own, were against him.
It was a time ..f great uncertainty. The
Jesuits, still all-powerful, to suit their
own ends were preaching the doctrine
that with the people lay the choice of
a ruler, and the kingly throne seem d
to be within the possible reach of sev?
eral claimants. Hut Henry of Navarre
was personally the most popular man
of his day. He was the most chival?
rous fooman, the most daring lighter,
the ablest leader, ami, as events proved,
the shrewdest and ablest statesman of
his day. The Huguenots stood firmly
behind him. Many of tho other faith
also joined his banners. He fought and
won some-glorious battles, notably that
of ivry (l.v.iii). *o celebrated in our day
because of Macaulay'.-; glowing VCrsei
"Now. Cod be praised, the day Is oura!
Mayonne hath tinned his rein,
D'Aumalo hath cried for quarter, tho
Flemish count Is slain;
Their ranks are breaking llko thin
clouds before a llisc.i.y gale;
The field is heaped with bleeding steeds,
anil Hags, and cloven mail.
And then wo thought on vengeance, and
all along our van,
'Remember St. Bartholomew" was pass?
ed from man to man.
Mut. ..in spake gallant Henry, 'No
Frenchman Is my foe;
Down, down witli every foreigner, but
let your brethren go."
Oh! was there ever such a knight in
friendship or in war.
As our sovereign lord, King Henry, the
soldier of Navarre!"'
And it was this chivalrous spirit that
dually won tip. throne for him. No
Frenchman ever lost his lifo because of
the resent mi ni of Henry of Navarre.
He conciliated, he forgave, he forgot.
And in tho end he was crowned Kins
(Feb. ?7. ir.04). and Paris opened her
gates to him and lie was king indeed.
Note.?This paper will be concluded
Sunday, May 20.
EXAMINATIONS AND CERTIFI?
CATES.
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weeks O series of questions on each
course prepared by Professor Seymour
Eaton will be published In the Vir?
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questions Will bo furnished every sub
ncrlber making application for same.
Two weeks will bo allowed after the
courses close, for the receipt of exami?
nation" papers containing answers.
These rapers will be referred to u
Board of Examiners, who will assist
Profcsso- Eaton, and as soon as tho
work "of examination is complete, the
result will be reported, and rertttlcates
issued to the n'udorts entitled lo them.
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