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VIRGINIAN - PILOT.
?BT THE? (vTRGLNJAN AND I'I LOT PUBLISHING COMPANY. LCKFOLK VIRGINIAS M DAILY PHOT. (Consolidated Match. liUS.) Entere-d at tho Postoflleo at Norfolk, (Vu^ aa second-class iuattcr. PFFICE: riIX)T BUILDING. ['. CITY HALL. AVENUE, norfolk. va. OFFICERS: A. H. Gramiy. President; W. B. Wilk? inson, Treasurer; Janus E. Alien. Sec? retary. BOARD OF DIRECTORS: A. H. Grandy, L. n Starke Jr.. T. W. Bhelton, it. W. Shultu-e W. S. Wilklnsi n, ilumui E. Allen, V. h\ Eutiovan. TllKKG fiixrs pint oorr, subscription rates: Tho VI ItQ IN IAN-PI LOT Is delivered to subscribers bv .carriers in No, folk t.nJ vicinity, Pcri'sniuuth, Berkley. Suit West Norfolk, Newport News, tor 10 cents per week payable to the rattler. 2ty mall, to any place, lu t'?o Dulled Suites, postage free: one ji>iir - - - ft.VOO j six tuoiilli? ... a.OO I I: ret. IIIOIItill - - 1.3? " ?in- inoi;III - ?? ? ."'0 ADVERTISING BATES: AflA 'rtl Incuts iostrlco at the rale ot "il n Kqimre. iljnt Insertion; euch aubs< Insertion tu cent-., or to cents, when In oertcd Kvcry other I'ay. Contractors nro not allowed to exceed ihetr space or ad Vcrlfoc ether than their legitimate busl ners, except by paying especially 'ot she Sarra. Bending Notices Invariably 20 cents per Bne first Insertion Each subsequent In? sertion 13 cents. Ke employe of the VlrgJlllan-Pllot Pil!>. fishing Company Is auth iriited to conti I nny obligation la the name ot tho com? pany, or to make pure lutes In the name of the same, exept open .od'i- signed by (bo PRESIDENT OK THE COMPANY. In order to nvotrt delays, on nrco'i-u or personal absence, letters e.nd nil commu? nications for The VIKQINIAN-PILOT should not he addressed to any Individual connected with this ofslre. but rtinply to Tho VI KG IN I AX AND PH.U'I I CD LlSHINO COMPANY. TWELVE PAGES WEDNESDAY, MAY 24, IS09. DEVELOP THE WHOLE MAN. There la no respectable employmi nl that does not require a "good charac? ter." From shoveling dirt to chopping wood, from commanding armies and ruling empires to selling ribbon, "g< id character" ifi very desirable In the man, and helps him mlghtly. This character Is established by good temper and good conduct, and the lack ot either, or b ?th, Greatly detracts from the "character," no matter In what vocation. Many men forget this, or are not In? telligent enough to see It and api r il ate It; but a little research into titelt^ careers, great or little, public or | rl vate, will reveal that, fo- the greater portion of their difficulties, misfortunes and sorrown came from some failure or defect in temper or conduct. Im? portant as "good character" la to all it Is Invaluable to the young and to all dependents Just entering on life and Keeking a calling. Who desires any dealing with a quar? relsome, or hot-tempered, or Ill-condi? tioned person? Who will seek, or ac? cept, the service;! Of anyone, In any po? sition, high or low, whose conduct re- i quires watching, or incites suspicion, or fear, or doubt? Who will expend mom 5 to secure euch persons nenr them, un? reliable in every thin:,- they are put at? Does it ever occur to special friends 01 the negro, North or South, In America or abroad, white or black, that a lit? tle direct and oopvkm.-'.l c"' i: t?mooo- i the colored people of the Southern j State? to fit them for their station In life and their relations with the whites, will do a great deal of good? u |<j ?n astonishing fact that philanthropy It? self, honestly and earnestly, has ex? hausted its energies and means toward unfitting th<re people for the sph rc of life In which they were born and where, for bettor or worse, th y mtist stay. Discontent, aspiration, nmbl Ion, and tho yearning for something better among men, no doubt, are spurs to ad? vancement, progress, development and elevation. If they nie not perverted to foment hate toward those who are on a higher and better plane ilousy o: race, color, class and wealth, and a bitter feeling that finds gratlfl atlon In the vilest passions and t ... ts that can bring Injury, sorrow nnd shame up? on the envied or superior persoi -. Ile llgion, education ami all thai tei Is to a higher life and appeals to our higher nature, where there la homogeneity and no marked distinctions b< Hi n tho people of a natural or long-fixed kind, are easily misapplied to arouse and stimulate all that Is lowest and n st wicked where there is an inferiority, as well as a wide distinction .:. race, dition, position, association nnd ha and the utmost care nnd assiduity tiro necessary. In such Instances, to avoid the promotion of tho most Iniquitous inclinations where the alms are the most righteous or commendable. It is tliis and similar consldcratl that have raised ihe serious Inqulrj as to whether or not any man, of any" race or color, should be educated or accustomed to anything differ, nl fr >m, or above, what his condition and 1 poets afford or reasonably prom so, l< It not actually cruel, unjust and wicked In mothers and fathers, no matte: through what aff< . n . flee It Is done, to, reat ir fatnill in Idleness, ease and luxury, when, unless by some lucky accident It all be avert? ed, the laws of life dedicate them to ptrnsrly, labor, privation and economy, &V?a it persons ao uatrainod can obtain employment at all. except In the lowest avoe.it: -an. for the least pay? Uut THE VIRGINIAN-PILOT does not intend to be frightened or deluded Into surrendering the right of every hu? man being to tho very best In sight, by any parade of scare-crows, bus-bears, bug-a-bo 's and "rawheads and bloody boil .'' No! It lei a foul wrong to plead neglect of one duty as a Justlft-; cation for the neglect of all duties! Every human being id entitled to the very highest and fullest development lie can attain to by his own means and effort i and the aid of others. But this implies that the development must be healthy, found and entire; and not a false or partial development that will .', grade, or distort, or cripple the man or boy In any task to which lie may be i alii I. Development Is a duty that Im? plies all necessary or feasible atten? tion to the physical, moral and mental man at once; and it is thus that he can enter on the full enjoyment and use of bis whole Inheritance. THE k VIL?WHERE'S THE REMEDY The Ignorant and venal voter, -white or black, Is a growing and multiplying evil and peril to our liberties and all \ eminent. He ought to be rlg I liy < liminated, if possible, though he i trong backers, and it is difficult to n tc him from the honest voters of tlic people, so as to deal with him sep? arably. He ought to go, however, and must go, or we Invite the gravest dangers and difficulties. Yet a worse, if md so dangerous factor, is the venal den!< r In votes: the briber and corrupt or, who takes Job lots of purchasable material wherever he can get it and use It, without regard lo parties, poli t;' .-, race, color, or condition. From the l'. S. Senator to the town Councilman, or humblest voter, he is out to buy; nnd you may be sure that ho knows where? of he speaks, when he tells you that It Is not a safe thing to Insure anybody against selling out. The lobbyist 'Is not i nl>- experienced and expert, but ho is up to every trick to persuade, delude, or entrap a man, directly or indirectly, or even without the knowledge or suspicion of how he is sold. But, really, the expert and exper ?:? n ? ?! lobbyist soon learns to be close and economical, as he linds that as soen as it trots about that he wants votes, more offer than he has any need for, and a keen competition follows be tween tho victims of corruption and bribery; and so it happens that some? times n deal that it was feared would cost hundreds of thousands of dollars to put through In time, goes nil the way with a rush, with no delay any? where, for a few thousands down. Money Is scarce, you nee, and honor, honesty, conscience and all that kind of thing are not only flooding the mar? ket on any terms, but are airy nothings, in fact, unquoted and unquotable where men mean serious business. It Is said that the rule is that even the most innocent and tender-footed of the new r.tcn in any position of power and trust, are the most eager for the bribing and corruption to begin. This, of course. Is to be taken with some grains of salt, seeing from what sources Ii comes, but tho naked truth remains that even the most hardened of Inter vo tiers, promoters, agents, &c? are in zed beyond measure by the facility . (; cheapness with which men of re R| liability nnd standing betray their trusts and sell then- honor, tinder the supposed safe guard of a common crim? inality that binds till to secrecy nnd a len ??>. n is disgusting and alarming; i but what Is the remedy? A MATTER OF FORM. j Among the coming events that are ii .. . a - -.lng theh ....,?!?.as b< fore .a tin I following: "John Poo and Sarah Roe, who have ii living together for n y< nr or more a.- hut band .and wife, undi r the name of Mr. and Mrs. 1?.?-. lake great pleasure in announcing to their mutual friends and the public, that, after having had a v ry agreeable association, they have nml ably tig reed to part before the con iii tlon may begin t? fall on i ither. and ? both are in their prime of vigor . lid attraction. They mutually Com i n : each other lo all Who arc seeking or contemplating the matrimonial state, permanently or ;? mporarily; and In ? no or the other the hi ist fastidious lady or gentleman, who may suit, will !.i i :i most e\. m hi companion. Neither has found ;ny fault with the other, and It is onl> in reciprocal re gai : for the privileges or change and variety In each other t lint I hey now part, and hereby IiiviI ; gals) over? tures, or visit and conf rem ,?<, that ; .< to now donw.-ti i : t.-onal con ? No children or ? : r nmbranccs." THE ORIGIN OF OUR MONEY. Artamurus, the Bril t, d -irin.T , bread for his army, rem his Commls- i Bitry to Gristcomh for ' What ! shall I give them In i < change or bar? ter," asked the It mh i till. It was in great fury that / irua droiv an arrow from his quivj mi chnt It nl tho c?rrirni?sary": .e them that!" n tired the chief. "> hi ? ! came. But that was not the ist of the ar? row. Grlsteomb ni I I i Cj but Ar? tamurus nod taken ail the wheat they had to spare to give In exchange for . 4fj but Steerforih had great droves of cattle, and the M iy ir and town council decided to send there for the meat they needed. "Offi r Ihem the ar? row of Artamurus," said lb Mayor lo the head of the expedltl i .. This w; done, "This means heel or war!" said tho elders of Btecrfortb, an they accept? ed the arrow and si:,: the :. And thus the arrow.-, or Artamurus gra iually became cttrxcnl as a med,urn of exchange in all that region. As bus? iness grow, Artamurus extended his manufacture and issue of arrows; and later, other chiefs added their arrow* to the volume of the medium of circu? lation and exchange. Finally, the mon? ey-lenders and money-changers fixed the value of an arrow at so much beef, each; and so It came to pass that the lawyers and clergy, as Latin became the language of law and theology, call? ed this circulating medium pecunla, or money, from pecus, a word signify? ing cattle. Accordingly, >ihe more beef, the more money, and the people waxed fat. This nil happened, of course, be? fore the days of canning and embalm? ing, and before contractors contracted liberty, tho currency, &c. It scorns that to differ with IIanna and his McKinley administration on expansion. Imperialism, subjugation, and war for plunder, or anything, for that matter, is treason, "lese majesty," blasphemy, sacrilege, sedition and all the crimes of which disloyallty is capa? ble. This is held as against white citi? zens- On the other hand, these same white citizens are barbarlous, lawless Thugs, murderers without benefit of; clergy, &c, because they resent nnd avenge murder of the foullest kind, tape that dumbfoundcrs language, and threats that make a reign of terror In ? v. ry household?the offenders in these cases being privileged wild beasts of African descent. For a difference of opinion with the Republican party and Hanno, public meetings are hold and "<!. A. R." encampments meet to charge high crimes and misdemeanors on these difforers and to denounce the severest penalties ? on them, accom-. panted by Hie most fearful abuse and threats. No denunciation of the crimes and criminals that invade our peaceful households and perpetrate every enor? mity that can curdle Ihe blood is spoken,?they only who seek to inflict swift Justice on tho fiends of the nether? most nnd blackest pits of Shcol being at all blame-worthy. F.ooks are good, bad and indifferent; libraries are not indispensable, though a happy resource for the Idle and for all who have time for reading and study; but bread Is indispensable, and books and libraries can wait on neces? sity. i THE VIRGINIAN-PILOT does not underrate the value to a community I of a well chosen public library; but the voice of the book-agent should bi still amidst famin?; and literature It? self should sacrifice its books for bread to allay hunger and bush the cries of want. Mr. Carnegie has recently been contributing in aid of public libraries already established, and he has said j within a few days past, In reference I to a suggestion that he should give of some of his abundance to Virginia libraries, that he would willingly do so where the people had taken so much Interest in the matter already as to share their own slender means with science and its hand-maidens Norfolk, among Virginia cities, can stand this test, for she has had a pub lie library for years that has done n vast deal of good here, in all classes of our people, and is now, In equipment and management, an honor to the city and the public-spirited citizens who have done so much to make the library what it is. The library liore, though not remark? able for Its size, has a goodly show of volumes, well selected and up to date; but it is unique in tho number and value of rare works, editions, &c, that make It a mine of delight to the biblio? phile. The chief need is a library build? ing; and if Mr. Carnegie's attention were to bo directed hltherward, he will be glad to find our library so worthy -rrf-hia inter-sf,- - The little minority that agrees with the Richmond Times Is animated by a respectable but feeble conservatism. The ninety-nine hundredths of the De? mocracy are not going to seek harmony with the one-hundredth. The mcmb srs of thi? minority can get harmony by accepting the Chicago platform, but, as Mr. Bryan says, "if they want to come back Into the Democratic house it shall not be for the purpose of throwing out those who are in the bouse."?N. Y. Sun, ultra imperialist. The Sun has a bad heart, but a good head: the Times, a. bad head, but a good heart. The latter means well, per? haps, but doesn't Know how; tho for? mer undoubtedly means evil, ami does know how. If the Times bad the sense of the Sun lit would not be so noisy abusing the obstinacy of the other Democratic jurymen; m r, if it had the Iniquity of the Sun. would it be In a little side? show as !;:?? Bearded-Woman.* or tho Doublc-llcaded Calf, or the White Haven of polities. The chief 'liillcnlty with the Times, hotvcverl notwithstanding its diminu? tive size, Is tilt t it is a new and en? larged edition of space & Eternity. Competition in any Intelligent com? munity either betters the quality of its commodities or lowers their price. That Is self-evident. But what assurance is there of c . i r, if competition be elimi? nated by j collusion of individuals, or by th-> t ?v er i :' a combination of cor? porate i s, or trusts There is none at all. The only escape, then, if govern? ments and people be brought to that pass, is in socialism or the commune in all, of all, for all. That is sure and that is regrettable. The trusl anacohdh is rapidly Infold? ing all the great material interests and: I enterprises of Virgin.a In its mighty The most recent victims are our j Southwestern iron, steel and railroad lerests, capitalized at ?16,000,000. Tho I I power of a trust is immense and fright? ful, nnd If one man contrive to get it in his hands, he can wield it against his partners as well as others. MEN ONLY BY SEX. _viRGiNiflfi-riuors_, HOME STUDY GIRGLE (Copyrighted, isoo.) DIRliCTUD UV PROF. SEYMOUR EATON. SUBJECTS OF STUDY IN THE ORDER IN WHICH THEY WILL BE PUBLISHED. EVERT SUNDAY? History?Popular Stud.?s in European History. EVERY TUESDAY? Geography?The World's Great Commercial Products. EVERY WEDNESDAY? j Governments of the World of To day. EVERY THURSDAY AND FRIDAY? Literature?Popular Studies in Literature. EVERY SATURDAY? Art?Tho World's Great Artists. ilieno ennrai? will con t tune until June 3n<h, F.xnnituslloni rnnrtneted hy until, will he bold nt Ittclr dune ns a biiol* <?? I lie e*?mlua vt I nrllttenles. GOVERNMENTS OF THE WORLD OI: TO-DAY. VIII.?ITALY. I UY FREDERIC W. SPEIRS, PH. D. l.urlv History. As a geographical division upon the map Italy is one of the oldest countries of Europe; as a unified nation it is one ? >f the now <t. The present kingdom of Italy, which now figures as one of the great powers of Europe, Is Ifss tliati a generation old. At the beginning of the Christian era Italy was the political center of Hie world. From the Eternal city radiated the power which ruled civilization. IiUt hut no attempt was m.-.de by these cl t. . to weld the Italian i.pies Into a ; .. ii nation. Through the Ion? cen? turies et mediaeval history down to the i rlod of the French revolution the Italians, divided into petty states, had no conception of a united Italy. UNIFICATION OK ITALY. Then came Napoleon with his grand Imperial dream. His vtctoilous?armies overrun old boundaries and uprooted ancient landmarks. (hi lihi recon? structed map of Europe he' wrote "Kingdom of Italy" In bold characters It i OSS the peninsula. At .Milan In IS0&, he assumed the iron crown of the an UlfM'BE-lVr IV., KINO OK 1TAI/V. Bomo fell before the attacks of Ihc bar-1 barlans in 47? A. l>.. and Italy was pre? sently divided into petty principality In 100 A. P. Charlemagne arid the pope attempted to revive tin; Imperial glo? ries of ancient Komb oy establishing n holy Unman empire, emiit acini;- the largest part of western ICtirnp i, In Ii l ing Italy, r.nt the tthie h I nol come for a unified government on such a gram! scale, and when the mighty per? sonality of Charlemagne vanished Ihc empire feil to pieces. In S43 the em? pire of Charlemagne was divided Into three parts, and Italy, v>i:h a par: of olent Lombard line and took the title of king of Italy. Bui this partial uni? fication of the peninsula was shortlived, for when the congress of Vienna met in IS15 undo the work of the- de? feated emperor the overturned Italian thrones were sot up agnln mid the old divisions were re-established. But the brief taste of comparative freedom and of partial unification .boh the Italians had enjoyed had at-..as. d a de-ore for national Indepcn 0 nee and unity which was destined to work out Slowly and painfully an Ital? ian nation. About the middle of our what is now Franco and Germany. wan; century ihe one liberal and statesman given to one of hU grandsons. This | like mor.arcli m n ,|y was Victor Em king and his sac, - .s maintained on- j manua l II.. king of Snrdina. His great |y a shadow authority over Italy.1 minister, Counl Cnvour, was a most nr nrtd soon tho peninsula was In the dent bellet >r In Italian unification, and hands of a host if princes, who ruled the liberal king with Iiis wise minister small areas under the feudal system, net to work to realize th.- dream of The great religious movements .of the Italian ? atrl t ? Inspired by the eleventh, t? If th anil thirteenth cen .;- knightly (Jitribnldi nnd by Cavotir, Vic rles the crusadcfj. opened up trad,- tor hntin nil ; ,1 France in a suc routio which ma le Italy the comm.f ccssfttl war v i:i. Austria for the lib'era dial center ot Europe and create.l the lion bf hoi the n Italy, ami then began powerful city republics "'* v< :: ' ' ' ?:!* Ihe kingdom of Sardinia, in Genoa. Plan, Florence*. As Individual 1SC1 Victor Emmanuel assumed the states these rich and cultured commit- title of king of Italy. During the de nltles became of considerable Im- Cade from I860 to 1ST0 province after portance in the diplomacy of Europe, | province united with the new kingdom Of Italy, and finally. In 1870, after a ' sharp struggle with the pope, support? ed by France- Victor Emmanuel an? nexed the pupal Btates, entered the city of the Caesars In triumph and from this new capital began to rule a united Italy. The d room of nationality was realized. THE ITALIAN CONSTITUTION. The little kingdom of Sardania ex? panded Into the present kingdom of Italy without chaglng materially Its form of government. During the memo? rable year of 1848, when a revolutionary movement swept all Kurope, forcing the monarchy to make liberal conces? sions In order to stem the rising tide of democracy, the father of Victor Emmanuel had granted his people a constitution called the statuto. This document remains the constitution of united Italy "to-day. It has never been amended formally, but the government conducted under it has changed In spirit and adapted to new conditions in the same way that our American con? stitution hns been modified?that is, by more liberal Interpretation. Moreover, since the written constitution is very general In Its terms the Italian gov? ernment has found opportunity to de? velop much as the English parliamen? tary system has developed by legal cus? tom. As in England, precedent governs in tlie absence of written provisions In the constitution of minutely prescrib? ing the organization and the power of the various governing bodies. KINO AND CABINET. The chief executive of Italy Is the king. The kingly office Is hereditary, desi ending in the male line of the royal family. Hy the terms of the statuto the king has very large power, but custom has narroWed his authority. For In? stance, bis assent Is theoretically nec? tary for legislation; practically he never refuses approval of laws passed by i he chn mbcrs. Through custom, which hna the forca of law. the real executive of Italy Is a ministry responsible to the' popular branch of the national legislature. Thus the parliamentary system of cabinet government, originating In England and adopted with mollifications by France, Is also the governmental sys? tem of Italy. The cabinet consists of eleven ministers, each one presiding over a great department of state. In theory the king chooses these minis? ters. In practice he selects as prime minister a man who commands a ma? jority in the chamber of deputies, and this premier constructs a cabinet. Whea the cabinet loses the conlidencc of the eh tmbcr of dj putles the king accepts the resignations of the members and calls upon the leader of the victorious opposition to form a new cabinet. ThU9 Italy has free government through a responsible ministrv. THE SENATE. The Italian parliament Is composed of two houses, the senate and the chamber of deputies. The senate is aristocratic In theory. it represents rank, wealth and scientific attainment. It is made up of the princes of the royal house and of members chosen by the king from certain specified classes. These classes are bishops, high officials of the military and civil service, men who have had at least six years' ser? vice in the chamber of deputies, those who pay a minimum annual tnx of about ?t:"> and men who are distin? guished for unusual scientific attain? ment or exceptional service to the state. The senate is permitted to Judge whether a person nominated by the king properly belongs to one of the specified classes, and thus it controls its own membership. It is a large body, at present consisting of 372 members. The appointment of members is for life. In addition to Its legislative duties the senate has certain Judicial func? tions, lake the United States senate, the Italian senate tries impeachment cases. It also alts as a court in cases oi high treason and has the curious privilege of trying all accusations against members of its own body, who aie thus exempt from ordinary process. The popular body, the chamber of deputies, is elected by a district sys? tem similar to that of the United ' States, The franehl.se is more limited than ours, however. The limitation Im j posed is a very reasonable one which I many students of politics would be glad to s ? applied in our own country. Ed I neat ion. service to the state or pro? perty holding are made the teats of flt ness for the franchise, with the ex? ception.of the classes enumerated here? after all those who apply for the voting privilege nrc required to show ability to read a..d write ami are compelled to pass an examination in the element , ary subjects covered by the compul? sory education course. However, thorie who can show a meda_[ received for mll Itary or civil .service or who pay a di? rect tax of about $4 annually or rents to a certain specified amount are ex? empt from examination. In Italy, wlore illiteracy Is very prevalent, the educational qualification excludes from the franchise a large percentage of the population. The present number of the deputies is SOS. The maximum term Is five ye.us. hut1 dissolution of parliament :-? a tally cuts this short, and the aver age term of a deputy is about three years. The chamber of deputies en? joys the same special privilege accord od to the II n I ted States house of rep resentatives and British nouse of com moms in that revenue bills must origi? nate in tin- body of the representatives of the people. SUPREMACY OF THE DEPUTIES. Tin- i hamber of deputies of Italy pre? sents many points of similarity to the French body of the same name and to tlie British house of commons. Dike the h< use of commons it is the real cov? et nlng body of the nation. The ministry Is responsible to it and must resign when a majority refuses to support a government measure. The relations of the chamber of deputies and the senate rue quite similar to those existing be? tween the houFC of commons and the house of lords, in theory both branches of the legislature are of equal authority in legislation. In practice the chamber of deputies can control the senate and l>i :i i it to the will of the representatives of the people whenever serious conflict nrb ? . just as the house of commons can overrule the house of lords. The ., . ihod of control is the same in both countries. The ministry always repre? sents the majority party in the cham hcr of deputies, anil the ministry has the power through the king to appoint a sufficient number of new members of the upper house t i give the desired ma? im it.v to any measure upon which the popular body has determined. This has been threatened 'n England; It has been done in Italy. The Italian senate Is & more influential body than the British house of lords, but its power Is quits narrow neverlhelfss. PARTY (iKC.ANIZATION. In party organization the Italian leg* Islalure resembles the French national nsseml ly rath >r thi n the British par llamcnt In the house of commons there arc I wo great parties; In the Italian, a In the Kreuch chamber of deputies, there arc a large number of pnr v groups In Italy, as in Francs, cabinets must thus be sustained by coalitions of parties rather than by tns .(Continued on Fifth Page.). ,uJ