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-BY THE-*. (P1RGIN1AN AN!) 1*1 LOT PUBLISHING COM BAN Y. lORfOlK VIRGIKU? UND DAILY PILOT. (Consolidated Mnrch. 1?3S.) Entered at the T. <"JL>tl1co at Norfolk. (Va;, ?-?> second-class matter. OFFICE: PILOT BU1LDINO. C1TV HALL AVENUE. norfolk, va. OFFICERS: A. IL Grandy. Prcstttiniti W. S. Wilk? inson, Treasurer; Junics E. Allen, Sec? retary. BOARD OF DIRECTORS: A. H. Grandy. L. D. Starke .lr.. T W. Bheiton. H YV\ Shultlcfe. W. 8. Wilkinson, James E. Alien, D. F. Donovan. Til KRIS ? ?'?> r.H l>EII COPY. subscription rates: The VIRGINIAN-PILOT Is detlverea la Subscribers bj: carrier In No/folk an.i vicinity Portsmouth. Berkley, Suttolk. .West Norfolk. Newport News, tor 10 cents per week payublo to tho carrier. By mail, to nay place lu tho Unlt?U fctutts. postage tree: DAILY, one ycur - $8.Oil ?? ?Ii iiimidK ... ::.uo " lUrrc.iitu - ? 1.311 " <i :m? moilt it . ; ? - .no ADVERTISING RATES: Advcrtlsi ?r.cnts li'sertco at Hie rate of Vi cents o Uquare, first Insertion; euch subsequent Insertion 4\) cents, or 50 '.cnts. whin In ?erteil Every Cither Day. Contractors are riot nllowc-il to e-xeced their space or e l vortlse ether than vlielr legitimate bi.^ ? tirss, except by paying especially for the ?atre. Reading Notices Invnr'abiy 10 cents per line first insertion. Each subsequent In? sertion IS cents. No employee of tho Vlrglnlan-PIlot Pub? lishing Company is authorized to contract tiny obl'Kntb u In the name of tb.ni pany. or to make purchases In the name of the some, except upon orders signe I by tho PRESIDENT OF THE COMPANY. In order to nvotd delays, on nccomir er personal absence, ietters ntid nil commit Ulcall-ns for The, VIRGIN IAN-PI LOT Should not be addressed to ?r.y Individual connected with tho office but simply to The VIRGINIAN AND IMLOl PUB? LISHING COMPANY. EIGHTEEN PAGES SUNDAY, MAY 2S, IFf.'.'. THEIR TRUST. r~ - All authorities agree that the Na? tional Republican platform next y ar will cry as loudly and fiercely as against the trusts: "Stop Thief! Stop Thief! Stop Thief!" We were about to say that of course It will; but we i fess that we do not see the "of com, ?"? so clearly. The Hanna-Republlcan party cannot hope to deceive anyone by thlB cry; the mutual relations of the ?*t!l >\S\ ? +P. and tJt?-IaatstA,ac^ itao, well known. Why, then, cry "Stop Thief?" Will the Democrats agree that this cry will prove that the G. O. P. is Innocent, and that It Is not, meanwhile, in close alliance and active collusion with t he trusts? Not a little bit! They will prove and expose the alliance and col? lusion with all their accumulated evi? dence; they will show the peril, public and private, which this nefarious con Junction threatens; and they will dwell with fervid denunciation upon a bot? tomless depravity that makes a p ri le of hating and houneling what It Is de? voted to, body and soul. Nevertheless, if Hannaism be what some of Its own exponents and di voices have boasted it to be, evil is i:.s g iod, and It will rush through all Iniquity for the love of it,?as the sodden di unk ard will swill whiskey, though he knows it will bring him to shame, ruin and death. There is no baseness that criminals will not revel and riot ovei in ghoulish glee, if It promises succi ss; and even a momentary victory makes them boast of their most secret and Infamous tricks and devices. In Satan they trust! M'KINLEY'S RELIANCE IS FRAUD ONLY. Mr. Bciloy, of Texas, was right when he declared that he was obliged to be? lieve that the Democracy would win next year, and Mr. Bryan be el< next President of the United States, because he believed in the sense, tic honesty and patriotism of the people. He could not conceive it possible that since the developments under the reign of this Hanna-Alger Republicanism? the revelations of Its designs and the turpitude of all It hnd don.- |10 coul i not believe the American peopl ? so i :tu pld, or so wicked, as to elect Ha nun and his McKinley, again; or to tolerate longer a plutocratic rule that bad al? ready entered upon an imperial career of violence and plunder. Nor are the people of a mind to en? dure being cheated again, as In IS9G, bj Hanna and his gang, who "gave the Verdict" of that year, so boasted of by the beneficiaries of that national r cality. Shall wo in 1000 permit the same Hanna!tes of 181h> to perpetrate Upon us the same wrongs of Hint year? ?If the election-laws be not so ri id before November of next year, it is pretty certain that a manly people will discover and use adequate means, on |tr,e spot, to protect the polls their fccliots, and to secure a true return, it Is very true that the electoral vote of U State enn hardly be stolen, or fate sCs&t, without the connivance of the Cute authorities, or those bavin, charge of the polls and returns, ex if. eases; of a very close vote b< ?M:? contending parties, or candid u fcut In any ilngrant case of stealing the Sectoral vote of a State, it dare no: done, or undertaken, unless preliml hhi v iniquities be dona as a basis for It i>?- tho poli-holder* Ken? the people have primary and fundamental rights; ami if law and government leave them to their own devices and resources they must bctnke themselves t<> primary means of self-defence. A trust or combine consists of the same fellows who have K'>t all the rail? roads of the land In their hands and now by a similar deal arc trying to own everything else, with sole control. A capital or $100,000,000 Is created on paper; the existing factories, &c, are purchased to the extent of $50,000,000 and paid for in shares to that amount, the other $50,000,000 of the capital be? ing divided among the promoters in "fully paid up" of "preferred" shares on w hich not ii dollar has been paid by said promoters. Then the stock und business of the concern arc boomed at the expense of there w'oo have con? tributed their factories, Sc., until the prompters can sell their shares at a premium ami get out.-- leaving the real Investors in the scheme whatever may remain us assets ,:nd which they usually have to sell, a; anything they can get. to another booming set of pro? moters, or another all engrossing trust. Sheer and unmitigated robbery, against which shore is no law, because those arc the fellows that have charge of the Hanno administration and are running our government. In fact, they are the government?a government of the "Money Trust." "Homo competition has heretofore been the answer to the objection raised against tariff protection, that it exclud? ed foreign competition from our mar? kets; but what Is the answer when certain trusts and combines are rapid? ly destroying home competition? There is none, except the cry of "see how cheap everything Is?" But everything is not only as high as ever, but high? er, if quality falls with the price, and wages and values, oxi opt the value of money, decrease with price, while mon? ey is more than doubly harder to get than formerly, not only because of Its Increased value, in comparison with all other things, but because of the mul? tiplied difficulty to get money on any terms in many places. If both home and j foreign competition are to be excluded from our enterprise and markets, and production, flnnnce, trade and com? merce deprived of all freedom and put uhdi r tlie restraint ami monopoly or i private greed (for It Is rank stupidity to speak of corporate benevolence or phllanthrophy, or of any observance of the laws of trade and finance by trusts, except to take advantage of them), we shall see adamantine hard times, in comparison with which the present are ns soft ns beds of down. The ditlleulty with the Richmond Times Is that which all find In dealing with the nglle lien: it will not stay long enough In one place. See this, now, for instance: "As we said yesterday, the thing to do Is to regulate these trusts by law, to make them the .servants of the peo? ple, to prevent them from injuring the people or trespassing upon anybody's personal tights, to force them to do the work of ti good und efllcient ser? vant." Vet on last Saturday (.May 20th) the Times says llatly: VPor our tmrt wo do not believe that Taws will bo necessary to make the trusts behave themselves." We cannot believe in the regulation of trusts. In laws to make them .<- ?? vants of the people, to prevent them from injuring the people, or trespassing ? ?ii -anyone's rights, and to force them to do the work of a good and efllcient I servant, where the regulation and laws nre or will bo favored by an organ and its supporters that "do not believe that laws will be necessary to make the trusts behave themselves." After reducing employment and wagi for labor 60 per cent, on an aver? age; that Is, to half-work and half-pay: the generous masters here and there nre making n live or ten per cent. In? crease In a comparatively few men's pay and extending the work-time. But even if the increase in wages be a general and clean increase of ten per cent, for 15 years past (or whatever the period Is), what a mockery is that, when the level of the old rate of wages is still far off, and there la no pretence ev< h for recompense of what has been lost by low wage? and reduced work. It is like telling a man who has been starving for yea,-.- by reason <?f con? tracted currency, contracted employ? ment and contracted wages, that he has lost nothing and suffered nothing, and is a blessed word of n wise p ?Hey and a grand principle, because his , wife's grandmother died last week and left him enough money, possibly, to bury him and his wife without appeal? ing to charity. Gen. James 10. Clarke's resignation as President and General Manager of tin Mobile and Ohio Railroad looks very much like a deal, or n family exchange of one old ofllccr for three hew ones all Ciarkes. The ofllce of general man? ager and presldi nt is discontinued, and that of Gerieral Superintendent created: Charles S. Clarke, a son <>r (he General, takes the now olllce; J. D. Clarke Is made superintendent ? ;' the Jackson di? vision and II. W. Clarke superintendent of the St. Louis division. It is a very clever division?for the Ciarkes, and quite a family affair. No cards. One of the plthlcst remarks ever made was that on the charge of the Light Brigade in the battle of Bnlak lava, during the Crimean War: "H was glorious; but it was not war." The same thought can P.- applied to many tilings besides war, when and where "somebody blunders." ye; in a way to compel admiration: As in religion, poll ties, or any business. The ni : or scheme may be very meritorious, or even glorious; but It Is not "business." Sometimes these incongruous or unbus? inesslike transactions or ventures suc? ceed; yet It Is still true that they were out of the proper scope of "business," and should not have been entered upon. Under the fear of losing the lasi hope of a good cigar, which lingers In connection with Cuba, the Washington i'ost not only "views with alarm" the projected Cuban Cigar Trust, but ex? hibits a real anguish, under which It tells the whole truth about trusts. Hear its wall: The formation in Cuba of a "trust" is had enough, it sounds the knell of com? petition and of individual responsibili? ty. It means that such manufacturers as Vuelan. Vlllar y Villar, and others of the same kind, will disappear, and thai a Btupid monopoly and a sinister'' gradation will absorb the poetry of smoking. We feel much Inclined to raise our voice and join the Post in weeping over the last of the real cigars that could "lap one in Elysium" and waft him to the seventh heaven of delight; but why can the I'ost speak so well and truly against trusts when they imperil the ci? gar, and yet apologize for and defend them when the cigar is not endangered, but only right anil liberty? Pal men and men who do no thinking are at a premium In Washington. Caesar .McKinley says to Mark Hanna: "Let mo have men about me that are fat: I Sleek headed men .and such as sleep o' nights: V ii Senator has a lean and hungry look; lie thinks too much: such men are dangerous." Mark Hanna.?"Pear him not. Hilly; he's not dangerous. He Is a noble Senator und well given." i'aesar-McKinley.?"Given! Ay, well said, Or 1 would have purchased him long ago. Would ho were fatter!" Statesmen are now riuoted at so much a pound, and lean thinkers are not rated at the exchange. The Baltimore Sun thinks that the Northern people could stop lynching by bestowing their sympathy upon the wo? men and other victims of the wild beasts of Africa, and helping the law abiding people to annihilate the out? rages and the outragers. It is a good Idea, If fully carried out, whether liter? ally or otherwise. Meanwhile, let the colored people outlaw their wild beasts arid their horrible atrocities; let them put up no plea for the beast, and no howl over his "martyrdom." We want peace and safety, especially for our homes, mothers, wives, sisters and daughters, and we will freely wade | to the eyes In blood but what we have that safety. It is intolerable to wait. The Spanish scare that so demoral? ized Boston during the recent war thai all are not yet aceountcd-for, that then disappeared,?many still supposed to be "under the bed." where they then took refuge,?seems to linger yet in that heroic city. We see It stated that. Sec? retary Long has just assured Governor Walcott: "that one of the bronze can? non captured in the Spanish war will be sent to Hosten for the purpose of placing it In the new park at Dorches ler Heights, from which point the Americans drove the P.rltlsh out of Bos? ton In 1TT0." How graceful those timid Bostonese ought to be to the Americnns who still protect them with all the gallantry due (0 the weaker sex! Tt si ins that Mr. Gear, of Iowa, has some opposition ns his own successor In the 1'. S. Senate. This is said by his friends to be real mean, as Iowa needs no new harness and her present Gear kits her to the very meeting of every buckle and tongue. This is no time, it Is urged, for kicking over the traces, or getting hot In the collar. Mr. Gear's breeching Is cert 1 lied to he good for six years more, and It Is well known that old leather is better than any pro du :ed by the new rapid-tanning pro s. Let the old Gear alone. A lit? tle oil is all that is needed, or a little black varnish. The Prince and Princess of Monaco are said to be deeply grieved that Queen Victoria and her family Ignored them <.iple:ely during the Inttcrs no i urn in Nice. The Queen refuses to have anything to do with a family which lives on the profits from gamb? ling.?News Item. That is n very nice distinction which draws the line against small fish, like the Monacos, and overlooks the big fish, like Wales. The latter Prince, cld csl .? ?ii of Victoria, was once involved in an ugly baccarat story, you know. Hut a 'scapegoat is all right, some times, for black sheep._ We used to think Burke was insolent when he called ihe majority "the swin? ish multitude," hut since then Cnrlyle, another high British authority, has cor rohorated Burke by declaring that the p. '| lc of England are "mostly fools." As wo p.re of English origin, for the im st p.h i. what Burke ami Carlyle agree in saying, explains our popular submission to llahnn, who has taken charge of the public crib. But how about (he "hotter people"? Instead o. confronting Hanna. they are uchinT him, eagerly accepting what he ,,an'jg them. Tin-: vin<;iNiA\'-PiLOT, considering all things, has achieved a phenomena? success; but by ways and means that its managers adjudged, in advance, to be best adapted to that end. and that have been approved fully by experi? ence. All Its policy has been honesty, with the diligence, courage and libe? rality it demands,?with no narrownrss In Interests, sympathies or convictions. It may have erred in many things; but It has always been invariably for light and truth, as It understood them; and right and truth' have been for H so signally, that even wrong and false? hood dare attack It covertly and b; in? direction only. The way to success, whether in ^ur. nalism, or any other branch of et,er. prise or ambition, is strewn wrecks. There arc always plenty toR(> count for them, and explain how t^y came to grief. But after all. In an>. matter whatever, it is more laughiblo than Impressive for the survivor ff a wreck to assume to teach people V fe navigation. It is they who attain iL cess, who know best the way and 1 , to "get there." Yet, don't be so crue|,is to laugh when a failure solemnly L. veals to you the secret of the pathUQ success. t / How gratifying It Is to be inform^ that our National Park has just beif enriched by two t?etoes from Sou/ America- It is actually too too-too. t Many men,?perhaps millions?wn voted In 1S96 for William McKinley, Jrl didn't know then that they voted al:^ for Hanna. Algor, Sampson. & Co., wlt^ their embalmed beef, forcible annex?_ tion, criminal aggression. Imperial si^_ jugation, suppression of free "P^Un' even through the mails, standing ariTy &c. They know now. """"Id savings for yeari but that put yot ow, within a year| The pick-pocket Is a sorely abuse, benefactor of mankind, lie relieve you last year of your savings for yea" amounting to $G00; but on your mettle, and now you are $S00 ahead! What have you' lost? $?00? O, no! You are $200 bet-( ter off thin when tho pick-pocket! touched you, and you should divide that sum with him, or give it all to him Inj gratitude. Calamity is so nice! Mr. Edward Atkinson's circulars are beginning to bear fruit. There was a crank at the White House yesterday demanding peace.?Washington Post. One need not go with Mr. Atkinson to the Philippines, nor with his cranks to the White House, to join In the demand for peace. The Pest's "voice Is for war," as was another's when Paradise was lost. Henri Watterson Is seeking to have his son commissioned by McKinley in the Stnnding Army, and on the princi? ple of "I'll tickle you. it you'll tickle me,' ho is at Old Point prophesying evil things for the Democracy and good things for the Hanna-McKlnley abom? ination, with all the zeal and fervor of a new convert. Of course. Scratch a hilly bynumlte and-lind a Hannalte. "God made tho country, and man made the town," says Cowper. As soon as Edison, Tesla and the French savants show us how all agricultural productions can he better, more easily and more cheaply made by machinery and artificial processes, we shall all move to town, close the country and have some fun. Proposals for supplying our troops in in Porto Rico and Cuba, with beef amounting to more than D.OfiO.OOO pounds, for the year beginning July 1, ISM, have just been submitted by Chi? cago packers. This beef will not \ie em? balmed, and will be investigated before? hand. The Mataafans of Samoa vindicate their title to civilization, enlightenment and self-government by their shootlivg and their general skill in tho art ol war. as already shown In their ooiUesi with two of the leading powers of the world: tho United States nnd Greal Britain. As we understand It, after hearing and reading a great deal of Republi? can discussion of the subject, and seeing much of Republican practice, the Re? publican party and this administration is strenuously for the merit system In civil service reform, with all the merit left out. , _ The wire manufacturers and dealers are not enthusiastic over wire-less tel? egraphy. They insist, too, that the car? riage of a telegram by the electricity of the earth and air gives the govern? ment or the public a just claim for the carriage, or transmission. Tt seems to be overlooked by tho abus ers of the Cubans, that an army (only 12,000) of them can be mustered to re? ceive money. This appears to contradict the marvelous Increase of Cuban he? roes since the chink of back-pay has been heard In the island ,as heretofore reported. Mr. Carnegie having announced an nnte-mprtem distribution of his estate, as If seeking proposals, or Inviting competitors, It Is bad manners and worse taste for him to nnd fault with applicants or their number. Senator ICean Republican) brass that his Stn!e? \'i>w ejrscy, has been sold to the trusts for S?uo.OOO a year. Perhaps the Senator can tell us the price ?ne Senate ig to receive a year. Eh? Republic.-^,, discords are so numerous lhn*. ihey do mutually choke their ut? '. rH'anfe,"?as In a working Jug of beer, where the contending forces, ev. n though the cork be drawn, cause an ex. plosion._ The "outrages on the Treasury Build? ing," complained of by a Washington contemporary, are trifling matters c >m pared with the outrages In that build? ing. _ I "President Bryan" sounds well, and /will soon be as "familiar as house-hold (words" to our lips and cars, as now to vur prophetic senses and sensibilities. _VIRGmiflN-nLOT'S__ HOME STUDY 6IR6LE (Copyrighted, 1399) DIRECTED BV PROF. SEYMOUR EATON. SUBJECTS OF STUDY IN THE ORDER IN WHICH THEY WILL BE PUBLISHED. EVEUY SUNDAY? History?ropu'.ar Studies In European History. EVERY TUESDAY? Geography?The World's Great Commercial Products. ; EVERY WEDNESDAY? Governments of the World of To-day. . . EVERY THURSDAY AND FRIDAY? '. " Literature? Popular Studie? :u Lltcraturo. 1 ( EVERY SATURDAY? Art?The World's Great. Artists. ?Il?c?? eonrae* will continue nwlll Jnne 301b. F.xnmlnn?loii? roiutiicleil hy muH. will bolieKI ut ilivlr rloae n% u. basis lor lUe Kraut lue ?'f Ccrllflcnles. POPULAR STUDIES IN EUROPEAN HISTORY. X.-THE HUGUENOTS. Henry IV. wns not crowned king, nor <li<l lit- enter Paria as a Huguenot. The power of the hierarchy, the strength of th<> bid religion among thoBe who held it, hod been too much tor hlin. lie hud abjured his former faith and become a catholic. There are those who btr.mc liini tor this; who believe it would have been better for him and for France it Ik- had remained a Huguenot, even If in doing so he had kept France In contin? ual war, or had been forced to give up the throne. They point to the fact that being all-powerful as king. both par? ities accepting him, he secured for the throne an absolutism that made the rrowth of constitutional freedom In a nee impossible for almost two cou? ntries; an absolutism, too, that in tii-? aid accomplished with horrible cruelty he ruin of that religious party by /hose aid In- had won the throne, and /hose best ends he thought he was fur? thering when he consented to nbjura lon. lie this as it may. it is neverthe? less true that Henry IN', proved to be jinnee's wisest and greatest king: that 'ranee made more progress under his *lle than she has done during any lual period in her whole history; and ' J though he was ah absolute mou rriuj he was a just and bencflcient one. .'"main hurl he did to France lay in ' 'Vnnsty he founded. '5ry had won the throne because . support of the Huguenots, ami he pt forget them when he became . yerful. in 169S he promulgated a lav'' \lled the "Edict of Nantes,' of t)V did all-pV (.so 4. aSJFi^p p?. ICH ELI KU. e.alled bccaustlt was signed at Nan? ces), which gat to his old co-rellglon / tets civil andVellglous liberty, that f is to say, right and privileges in the main the samcas those enjoyed by their fellow coin.rymen who were ad? herents of the ol religion. At the aim time, as it guarnty of tie- possession of these rights ail prlvll ge?. the gov? ernment <?!' a ceitln number of forti? fied towns was pt Into their hands. It was a measure of religious tolera? tion, the like of Mich was not to be seen elsewhere in Curope. And y i it was not given in tb> spirit of Justice, but of prudence nndnollcy. it was giv? en to secure peace. >f^ one bul an abso? lute monarch could \ave set in force such a law, for it WO) opposed by the whole might of the hierarchy, and was contrary to the feelint of the majority of the nation. w hich Indeed was still strongly catholic. Wore than nil, it was no; a simple measure of religious tole? ration, but the recogntlon of the Hu? guenot polity as a dlitlnct and Inde? pendent civic organisation in tne king dom, an "Imperium In Ifrlperlo," a state within :i state. The HujUenOt*. In fact, became "a people Wilhla si P?dple"/' Wnere ribadtute monirtehy prevails there can be no logical principle In con? stitutional s ttlements. The "Edict of Nantes'' was Henry's personal gift to his late fellow-rellgiorilsU, and if it con? tained provisions which afterward were objected to by other absolute ruler.* of the country, the Huguenots themselves, nt the time Ihey were enacted, coul I neither have Itctpetl nor hindered them. When. therefore, thirty years later, Ulchelleu, at that time the chief pow? er in France, took awajr from the Huguenots their civic independence, he did what was a. very natural thing to do. The Huguenots had declared war against France, they had sought and made an alliance with England and In others w.lys while contending for lib? erty of conscience had also contended for the retention of p iw,-rs which should belong only to the .supreme state. Hut liberty conscience Is a precious treasure. Wherever it Is possessed and religion as a vital force prevails there all > s ?brlety, Industry, thrift and every other moral and economic virtu - pre? vails. For sixty years, under the toler? ation enjoyed by the Edict of Nantes, the Huguenots prospered as no otiter Inhabitants in France prospered. Car? dinal Ulchelleu, and after him Cardinal Maxnrln, each the absolute riiier .of France in his day. both saw the value ;.i the kingdom of such citizens as the Huguenots were and protected them in all their vights tinder the edict, except those 'hat conflicted with the supreme authority of the state. From a com? munion of about 1,000,000 members they be tame a communion of 2,000,000 mem? bers, in Languedoc and the Cevennca and in Beam, once the home of Henry of Navarre, their lauds were covered with grain and vines, and their hill? sides with sheep. In other parts they devoted themselves to manufactures. In Lyons and Tours they produced the finest velvets, the handsomest ribbons, tie- richest brocades to bo found in Eu? rope. In Normandy they produced lin? en of equal repute, in Auvergne they 111 m1 paper, and had 600 paper mills that one province alone. In Nantes; in Bordeaux, In Rochelle, In Rouen, the whole foreign commerce of the country fell into their hands. In a word they constituted the Industrial and commercial hone and sinew of the country. in 1601 Cardinal Mazarln died and Louis XIV. (son of Louis XIII. and grandson of Henry IV.), already nom? inal king for eighteen years, look upon himself that rule of absolute authori? ty which for so many years he was to maintain to the apparent glory, but in reality to the Irreparable hurt, of Iiis kingdom. Ills passion for absolute power soon fell foul of the Huguenots. Such Independence as they possessed in ' their colloquies'' and synods and othl r church courts was at or.ee Crushed out., They were forbidden to assemble for business purposes of any sort. The;; | church organizations were attacked, i Their pastors were bribed to give up their charges or else were subjected to unbearable petty persecutions, ity one means or another Too churches were de? stroyed. Worship in accordance \v.lth the reformed faith became impossible except in Inaccessible places in the. mountains. Thousands lied the coun- i try. As the king fell under the In flu- ; once of Mme. de Main tenon the ardor! of his desire for the "conversll n" of the ' Huguenots Increased, hut unfortunately to a people as sturdy in their faith ns ' tile Huguenots were, conversions by such methods as Louis proposed ?moanl extirpation. Finally, thinking, t:> '?0U honestly enough, that he had ah iady . pretty well crushed tho 'V*?ormet.l rc LOUI3 XIV. Ilglon," the king gave what he suppos? ed was tiio finishing blow. Oh Oct. 17. 1CS5, he promulgated tin.- "Revocation of tie- Edict of Nantes." Tlie "ievocation" was severe enough in Its intent, hut it was a thousand times worse in the spirit in which 11 was carried out. It prohibited all Hu? guenot worship under penalty of loss of goods anil banishment or death'. it provided for the Immediate destruction of all remaining Huguenot places of worship, l; gave Huguenot ministers fifteen days in which to leave the king do h; should ... y remain the penalty was death. Huguenot education. Hu? guenot baptism, Huguenot marriage, were all forbidden. On the other hand Huguenot emigration was strictly pro? hibited. If any attempted it the pen? alty was- for men the galleys for life; for women Imprisonment for life-. It is perhaps but simple Justice to say that the primary object of the king was, not persecution ot?even punish* ment, hut "conversion." The "king's religion" was to be the religion of the realm, without any exception. Hut the king's will was peremptory and there was to he no avoiding it. It thus fell out that unnumbered cruelties took ? place in the enforcement or the revoca i tlon that were not contemplated at the beginning. It was found that the ad I hercnts of the reformed religion still ! remaining, notwithstanding all pre? vious "conversion," were far more nu? merous than had been supposed. It was also found that their faith was far stronger, their convictions far deep? er, than had been reckoned upon. "< '.'aversion" was.very slow. Then be? gan a series of attempts at enforced conversion, the like of which has never been seen in the history of religion out? side of Mohammedanism. Troops were sent Into the Huguenot districts with strict ordors to compel obedience to the revocation, at the point of the pike, at the edge of the sword, by dint of p'stol and musket. The soldiers were Quartered in Huguenot houses and per mltted every license. It was a reign of violence. The system was called the "dragonnade." It swept through the land and covered It like a pestilence. Kvery jail was full. The rack, the wheel, the gibbet, tne executioner's block were in constant use. On every road were to bo seen chnlngangs iii dreary march to the ser.ports where the galleys were. Hut worse than all was the unrestrained brutality of the sol? diery. A father or husband could en? dure all but the invasion of the sancti? ty of his home and the despoiling of its honor. Toaave these he succumbed. Anil yet behind all this Violence was the warrant of the king. "The king wills it," "the king wills it," was the dragon's warcry. The Huguenots who fled from Prance because of Louis' cruel administration numbered perhaps a million. How they escaped is marvelous. Kvery means that the most powerful govern? ment in the -world could take to pre? vent their escaping was taken- The dragonnndo was fruitless. It gained only a temporary spoil. For fifty years the emigration went on. and those mag ? nlflcent Industrie:; that Huguenot en? terprise had built up. despite all th< efforts that Louis xiv. and Louis XV made to have it otherwise, sank lnt( paralysis nnd ruin. And France, beau? tiful France, a land destined by natun to be the home of as prosperous a peo? ple as the whole earth can show, be? came poorer and more wretched and, more callous to the Instincts of human-, lty and more Indifferent to the prin? ciples of justice and freedom year by year until in the "revolution" her wholes political and social structure fell In utter and inevitable collapse. An essential element of tho true Huguenot faith is non-resistance. It had not always been acted upon. In* deed. In tho earlier history of the faith, the Huguenots were as belligerent In the defense of their rights as any other members of tho commonwealth. But amidst all the cruelty of the years, of the dragonnade and the dispersion the doctrine of non-reslstanco was steadily adhered to. There was. how? ever, one notablo exception. In VTOt, seventeen years after tho revocation, there began in tho hill country of tho Cevennes and In tho "Desert" what proved to be one of the most remarka? ble resistances to oppression that tha world has known. The story is too full of wonderful interest, too full of brav? ery, daring, courage, heroism, to ba even attempted here. Our reader* should look it up and read it for them? selves. Sufllcc it to say that for three years the rude, untutored Inhabitants of these districts, numbering in nil only a few hundred, maintained In face of what would naturalis seem to be an overwhelming superiority of force, a force with all the might of military France behind it, a resistance that Inflicted many severe repulses upon their enemies and scarcely knew a defeat. And the marvel of it all is that the chief leader In this resistance was a boy who at the beginning of it was only IS. But It was not In this "Rebellion of the i'amisa i ds," as it was called, glor lously heroic as that fruitless enterprise was. that In these later years the chief heroism of ihc Huguenots was display? ed, it was rather in the efforts they afterward made, efforts in the main crowned with success, toward resusci? tation and reorganization. The chief mover in this enterprise also was a youth. In the year 1715. thirty years ufter the revocation, Antolne Court, then only 10 years of age, held the llrst meeting for worship that the Hugue ni t.: hud 1.n able to take part in since tho days of the Camlsnrds. The danger was as great as ever. The whole power of the throne, the whole Influence of the hierarchy, the whole machinery of magistracy, justiciary, police and army, were as likely to be aroused ng inst the reorganised church as they had been agniusl the church that had I.n destroyed. But the work of resus? citation nnd reorganization went ,iu ly on. In coves and fores: depths nnd secluded nooks In valleys the "re? formed religion" once more sprung Into life. But It was only to Buffer again the old oppression. Banishment, eonflccu. tlon, the galleys for I I -. imprisonment for life, breaking on the \vho< 1. the w' lows, the executi mcr'a block, till once more had their part. Until the very BUf : fell or ih.. thing hclpi -1 to bring it to an end. Public opinion, to., helped to bring it to an end; not. let it bo understood, the public opinion of France, but the public opinion of Kurope, Impelled by ibe denunciations t f Voltaire. Prance became ashamed ? r hers If. In i'*'- took place the last Huguenot executions. About the same time took place the last condemnation of Hug h im ... to the gal? leys. Finally, in IVS7, l y hrs after they wen- deprived of it. t': ? Huguenots received back their legal status us cit? izens. Bui it was to the revolution it d to Napoleon?strange bei efnetors?that the Huguenots owed the restoration of their full religious l hi rty. STUDENTS' >-'< >TKS. fl) For the history ? f the Huguenots for English readers the one main au? thority Is Balrd, His "Kis-o of tho Hu? guenots in Prance,file Huguenots and Henry of Navarre" rail "The Hu? guenots and the llevocdtli :t of the Edict of Nantes" constitute a histori? cal scries which can lb '1 worthy pnr ' allel only In such standard productions ) as those of Bancroft, Motley and Park man. The writing of this history of the I Huguenots. Mr. Balrd tells us, was a ' work of thirty years. Bvery known j authority was examined. Every state? ment made is based on documentary or other authentic evidence. t?f eourso I whore there Is such opportunity for the expression of opinion a man of Baird's ] Intensity of conviction cannot write a colorless history. And Mr. Baird's his I toTy is not colorless. No one can read lit. however, without being impressed I by the care which is taken to get at the facts which should always lie behind opinion. It Is a great, a monumental ' work. For those who may not know it. It perhaps will be proper to state thai Mr. Balrd is a professor In the University of the City of New York. (New York: Rcriblier's Sons; G vols.) (2) For a popular account of the 11 usjagnots one of the best w.u'...- is that I by I)r Samuel Smiles (author of "Self Help") entitled "The Huguenots in France." Dr. Smiles has also written another work entitled "The Huguenots;, Their Settlements, etc., in England,' I Ireland and Americ a." (New Y'ork: Harpers.) It must be remembered, however, thn.t these works deal with the subject only after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. CD For an account of Collgny, the greatest of the Huguenots, the best work available Is that by Sir Walter Besant entitled "Collgny and the Fail? ure of the French Reformation." (I) For a scholarly account of the "dispersion" of the Huguenots the stu? dent Is referred to a little work by Reg? inald Lane Poo]., entitled "The Hugue? nots of the Dispersion." (London: Mnemillan & Co.) EXAMINATIONS AND CERTIFI? CATES. At the end of the term of seventeen weeks, a reries of questions on each course, prepared by Professor Seymour Eaton, will he published In the Vir? ginian-Pilot, and blanks containing the questions will be furnished every sub? scriber making application for same. Two weeks will be allowed after the courses close, for the receipt of exami? nation papers containing answers. ' Th-se papers will be referred to a Board of Examiners, who will assist I Professor Katon, and ns soon as the work of examination Is complete, tho i result will be reported, and certificates issued to the students entitled to them. RE F 8 fG E R AT ORSl I have the CHALLENGE RF.FRIGER ATOHS nnd It has the right name, as It : will challenge any good hardwood refrig? erator on the market. If In need, call and examine stock nnd got prices. All sea* sonable goods at low prices. P. J. MALBON, I Both Phones No. 401;_ J. H.COFER ?SHIPPER OF? : Hay and Grain, > ?Sie Citizens' Baak Bullding. Quick shipment and satisfaction guar i antccd. _ __,_ . '?.