Newspaper Page Text
VIRGINIAN - PILOT.
(Virginian and pilot publishing COMPANY. lORfOLK VIRGINIAN AND DAILY PILOT. (Consolidated March. 1S3S.) Entered at ths Postofnca at Norfolk, ,Vn., aj> second-class matter. (OFFICE: PILOT BUILDING. CITY HALL AVLNUE. norfolk. va. OFFICERS: A. H. Grandy. President; W. S. Wilk? inson, Treasurer; Jumis 15. Allen, Sec re lar*. BOARD OF DIRECTORS: A. H. Grandy, L. D Starke Jr.. T* W. Bhelton, It. \V. Shultleo W. S. Wilkinson, dames 10. Allen, U. F, Donovan. TilKKK CENTS) 1?KH COPT. subscription rates: The VIRGINIAN-PILOT la delivered to subscribers by onrrlers In No/folk and vicinity Portsmouth. Berkley, tjufloik. .West Norfolk. Newport News, for ID cents per week paynblo to tho carrier. By mail. t? any placo lu tho Lnlted klatce. poslagt- free: W.tlt.V.oiic yiur - t:: im " k i -i in >>ii t tin - _ , 3.0V ? Hirer motitlt* - . 1.30 " Olio mould m m m ..*tO ADVERTISING BATES: Advertise? ments Inserted at the rate or 75 cents a J>qt.ars. nisi insertion; each ?iibsc?|uent Insertion 40 cents, or 50 cents, when in? serted Every Other Lav Contractors uro not allowed to exceed their space or ad? vertise other than iluir legitimate busi? ness, except by paying especially for the Same. Reading Notices Invariably 20 cents per lino first insertion. Each subsequent In? sertion 15 cents. No employee; of the VIrglntnn-Pllot Pub? lishing Company Is authorized to contract nny obligation In the mime ot the com? pany, or to make purchases In the name of the same, except upon order:; siKiie.l by tho PRESIDENT OF THE COMPANY. In or<T?r to nvold delays, on account of persona! absence, letters r.nd all comma, rilcatl-ms for The VIRGIN IAN-PI LOT Bhould not be addressed to nr.y Individual connected with the of brer-bnt? atmply?to The VIRGIN I AN AND "PILOT PtJIl L1SH1NG COMPANY. -^VVi^iVE PAGES FRIDAY, J(". ! *! I'.'.H. KNOWLEDGE OF THE LAW. As a people, wc know the penal code pretty well, and we are not wholly Ig? norant of the civil code. Still, we know neither, as a free and self-governing people ought to. Hy casual reading (chiefly In the newspapers), and hear? ing (in street-talk, social conversation, public speeches, arguments at the bar, &c), and by experience (as culprits or accused, prosecutors nnd litigants, plaintiffs and defendants, jurors, .to.), we acquire an incidental acquaintance with constitutions nnd laws, like that which, In similar ways, we gain of medicine, surgery and sanitation In general. As It Is snld that at forty o man Is either it fool or a physician, so nt an earlier age, In a limited sense, every man ought to be his own law? yer. We have Interests in law and physic, In health and order, too important to every Individual in rsonally for any of us to remain so ill-informed about them. Their promotion, protection, re? storation and reparation demand n greater familiarity with them on our part nnd n better understanding of their legal condition than we can ob? tain by referring them to special pro? fessions, which, no matter how able nnd reliable, can only guide and help tts when we appeal to, and confide In them under more or less stress nnd pressure; whereas. If wo only had that general knowledge that would tell tts v hen tr. ?fei; ih.'Trm??T pi oressiona! experts to prevent an evil or loss, or secure a gain or benefit, our position nnd Its possibilities, our health .rtul happiness, might bo so much Improved. As it Is, In our ignorance, wroiir steals upon US like a thief in the night, or we do not recognize the real significance of danger Bignnls, or we turn our backs on fortune, or we delay or wait until it Is too late, and lawyers and physi? cians are alike in vain! The truth is that not only should anatomy, physlplogy and hygiene bo es? sential pans of the curriculum of all of our schools, with special schools or courses of lectures for the popular ed? ucation cf our adult population in a general knowledge of medicine and surgery, at least to tho point that w.ll enable any Intelligent person to see that professional help Is needed In any ease, and also to do what can or should be done until it arrive, but the just prin? ciples of government, law and order should be Inculcated In our children at school, with provision of schools and lectures for men nnd women, so that ell may "know their rights," and know how to maintain or obtain them. There is no prodigious tnsk of time and labor in this; for herein, ns in all necessary or beneficial things, the first step puts difficulty to Hight. THE HOGS AND THEIR WALLOW The anti-Cuban critics are difficult to suit. The Cuban army did not rush In nt the word of American command, to give In their rolls and arms, and be disbanded, and it was said there were none of them, except a few bandits and the servants of Gomez and other offi? cers. At laut, they mustered and made out their rolls, difficult for a rebel army in war to keep straight, nnd It^ was charged that the rolls were forgeries and ths soldiers frauds -the rush be? ing to gobble that $3,000,000 whit it Uncle Bam had sent over to them for free dis? tribution. But, lo! they will not take the golA at any price, nor will they surrender their so-called "emokc-plpes," ns If they were conquered subjects. They retain their arms and their man? hood, though with empty stomachs und pockets, In rags and barefoot. Oh, 'Washington Post, what a noble task you have undertaken?to lead the choir of the bomb-proof corps that bo gallantly fought the Spaniards up and down Pennsylvania Avenue, day and night, with the ?ante daring mouths that now fight, revile, abuse and laugh at the Cubans, as In 1775-17S3 Hessians, Tories and half-breeds sang Yankee Doodle in derision of our fathers, their rags and bleeding-feet, and "dispersed" them (at a safe distance) with the brooms and dusters of their maid-ser? vants. There were many heroes before Agamemnon, and there have been pome since, even outside the defensive bul? warks of Washington; but none truer, braver, more self-sacrificing than the Cuban army which withstood Spain's might and money so long, with all her treachery and barbarity, and which even now knows how to submit to vul? gar arrogance and base perfidy with dignity, and to refuse insulting gold with pride and disdain, though in rags and hungry. Hut who at Washington can compre? hend or believe In a self-respect that is poor, an honor thnt is barefoot, a courage that Is etarving, or a noble manhood In the garb of beggary? Tet that vindicated man (made in the Image of God) was developed under Spain for the special purpose of coun? tervailing her singular and unique ex cesses 111 tyranny, cruelty, arrogance, cupidity, self-assertion and haughty contempt of others. Yes: he has con? fronted and withstood Spain In Europa, America, Asia, Africa and all Oceanlca; nnd if he has not himself enjoyed the inspired blessings of liberty and inde? pendence, he has shown others the happy way and given despotism a hard time In all ages and in all quarters of the globe. Honor and glory be to these martyrs and mendicants, yet Paladins, or Lib? erty!?Siitmre and -ignominy upon the"" menial and mercenary minions who are too vile to lick the sores of a Lazarus 'f Liberty! QUID RIDES ? Many of the renegades f.m Chicago to Indianapolis have already "taken the Turban" und kissed the Koran Of faith ami loyalty to Algerine piracy A few still remain nt Indianapolis, calling to the G,f>00,000 true men of IS'JtJ to Join them In 1000. Mahomet, too, expected to move mountains; and some centuries ago he commanded a moun? tain to come to him: but th" mountain declined to move, and hoard him In contemptuous silence. Now, if Mahomet had been fool enough to Insist on obedience to his command, he might to this day be standing alone in the same place?a monument of pigheaded con? ceit nnd folly; but It is recorded that, being 11 man of some sense.as themoun taln would not come to him, he went to the mountain, under the natural law of the attraction of gravity. The Indiana polls light-weights of 1S9C, however, re? maining there In 1000, will present a tpcctnclo that will upset the gravity of the- universe and cause a universal explosion of laughter, which will be all the greater that Quid, having sud? denly risen from a stemmcr to Presi? dent of a Tobacco Trust, set up a gorgeous coach, bearing a dazzling coat-of-arms, for which a wag had furnished the appropriate Interrogative motto. "Quid Rides?"?Quid being car? ried from Chicago to Indianapolis in this coach, wherein he still alls In all the exclusive solitude of his own gran? deur. ZOLA, THE EXILE. The decision of the Court of Cassa? tion In favor of a revision of the trial In which Captain Dreyfus was convict? ed nnd sentenced to solitary confine? ment for life on Devil's Island. Is re? ceived with general satisfaction in all civilized countries. The opinion that the outcome of a new trial will be the complete vindication of this much In? jured man is as general. Since h:s con-> dcmnatlon evidence of the employment of perjured witnesses against him has been discovered and the world has al I ready pronounced him Innocent: The trial of Dreyfus will turn on tho authorship of the bordereau, which is almost universally credited to Count Rsterhnxy. The friends of the con? demned man do not fear the issue. They court a searching and com? plete investigation, confident of his vin? dication, which, viewed In the light of truth, will he the triumph of justice nd the partial righting of a groat wrong. Dreyfus has had and now has many : rit a 1?, but none so true and self-sacri? ficing as M. ZolO, the novelist, who has ib >red In season and out for the exile. I In Is now in exile himself In consequence of having wrlt i -u his famous letter In vin? dication of Dreyfus, which aroused the world to work for revision. Should the new trial result In the acquittal of Dreyfus, M. Zola will return to Paris in triumph ns a hero, nnd tho people who lately reviled and drove him away will vie with each other in falling at his feet, and Zola, the exile, will have been transformed into Zola, the hero. GROSS, OPEN, PALPABLE. The biggest lie ever uttered Is now .nt; and everybody knows from what r-otireo It comes nnd whom It Is aimed at, without being told any more about It. Of course, It is ordy from exclusive dealers and assiduous experts in false hood, and who produce nothing else, having materials for nothing else, that such a production (a manufacture out of the whole cloth, of which warp and woof were lies In the wool) can possi? bly proceed; and all men know at once that It Is manufactured by the antl Democratlc Trust, to injure William Jennings Bryan, he being the hope of Democracy as he is the despair of Its foes. Thus runs the lie: that even the ma? jority of Southern Democratic newspa? pers are opposed to Bryan's renomlna tion next year and to the Chicago plat? form of 189G! This, like one of Palstaff's lies. Is "gross as a mountain, open, palpable," and so discredits Itself that It could not be put forth by any but men so far gone In mendacity that they have forgotten that a lie, to prosper with other men, must at least bear some resemblance and possibility of truth, as this does not. The reduction In the market value of some of the trust stocks proves only that water will seek Its level. The Delaware farmer who plowed up four thousand dollars In gold was prob? ably In somebody's Senatorial garden patch and didn't know it. It has been noted that Hanna is not quoted much, not being addicted to much talking, and evidently being a specimen of the "still swine that swill the slops." It requires half a day to sing the Na? tional hymns of China, but In this yea* of grace the Chinaman has few ex? cuses for frittering away valuable time In that way. The Wisconsin Legislature decided not to accept any more free passes over railroads, but reserved the right to at? tend clrcusses, Just with the children, you know, free of charge. Liverpool has established a "School for Tropical Diseases." Camps Alger, Tampa, and Montauk Point, and the hospitals at Siboney and Manila would nave made excellent "prep" courses if arrangements had been made In time. "If Jefferson should come to Vir .InlP," tho Richmond Times t u ? I: In Icrrcgalli ?ly. Well, the Times would denounce him ns an Impostor. "If they hear not Bryan and the prophets, neith? er will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead." Nikola Tesla comes forward with the declaration that years ago he discov? ered wireless telegraphy, but did not think It worth mentioning. lie follows this up with a list of everything likely to be invented within the next one hun? dred years, and Is not likely to be caught in the same, trap again. The Coxcy family Is working both ends of the biggest problem in the country. General Jake Coxey says he Is In favor of trusts, while Carl Brown, his son-in-law, says he will organize another "Commonweal Army" and move on Congress this winter, and de? mand that the trusts be driven from the United States. Mrs. William J. Bryan, making an address a few days ago to a graduating class of girls at Jacksonville, Illinois, remarked: "The public And the Amer? ican woman an interesting subject." Mrs. Bryan might have omitted "Amer? ican," and simply said: "The public llnd woman an interesting subject." Certainly. It Is very difficult, if not impossible, to find a more interesting subject, or one near so interesting, in fact. But it is not only as a subject that woman Is so interesting: as the dominant sovereign of thought, feel? ing, action, purpose, and hope, woman is still of supreme Interest, subject to nothing In this temporal sphere. A writer In the Bichmond Times, who finds It necessary to call himself "a Democrat," contributes to that un Democratlc Journal a contribution headed, "Is This Democracy or Popu? lism?" and then answers It In a long screed which shows not only complete Ignorance of Jefferson's views and primitive Democracy, but actually dem? onstrates that he is unacquainted with the records, platforms and course of the Democracy since the war, or even since 1S73! Man, man, man! how dnre so ill informed a person attempt to teach Democracy to a people In whom It is hereditary. Inherent and Instinc? tive, ns well as the teachings of Its founder nnd prophets? Go to! At least read the Democratic Scriptures since the war, or the Chicago platform dur? ing the war. The Bichmond Times has a queer way of reaching an agreement as to the subordination of side and minor Issues of policy to great principles. The Democratic party (see its platforms and history from 1S00 to this moment) has been for Independence, State-* rights, human rights and personal lib? erty, as well ns for a constitutional currency of gold and silver. In 1S9G a mere handful of Democrats desired to end the war for a constitutional cur? rency of gold nnd silver, and surrender to monometallism. It Is a mere mat? ter of money, a question of policy. In volvlng no principle and no question of right or liberty. But the almost unanimous party In 1SD0 decided to con? tinue the demand for more currency, a constitutional currency and the resto? ration of silver, in accordance with the party record and for the benetlt of the people: the handful of new-lights?dis senters?Insisted that silver should be abandoned. The issue itself is one of policy, of small moment compared with rights and liberty; but It does^not be? come a great party to abandon an his? torical position to the avarice of a few broker*. _VlRGINlftlH-riUOTS_1 HOME STUDY CIRCLE. (Copyrighted, 1899.) DIRECTED UY PROF. SEYMOUR EATON. SUBJECTS OF STUDY IN THE ORDER IN WHICH THEY WILL BE PUBLISHED. EVERT SUNDAY? History?Popular Studies In European History. EVERY TUESDAY? Geography?The World's Great Commercial Products. EVERY WEDNESDAY? Governments of the World of To-day. EVERY THURSDAY AND FRIDAY? Literature?Popular Studies '.a Literature. ! EVERY SATURDAY? Art?Tho World's Great. Artists. These con mm will continue nntll Jnne SOtb. Examinations conducted by midi, will bo licld nt Ibelr clone us u bnsin for Hie Kruuilus of 4_>rliUciilos. POPULAR STUDIES IN LITERATURE. XIV.-TOLSTOI. REVIEW OF RlbSIAN LITliRATURE. (Continued.) BY THOMAS MARC PARROTT, PH. D. But Tolstoi, though a realist. Is by no means a disinterested narrator; he understands and sympathizes with every character of his great drama, ex? cept, perhaps, with the buzzing water llles of "high society." lie seems him? self to share in the actions he nar? rates, and he uses events, historical or feigned, as vehicles for the transmis? sion of his philosophy of life. This Is Thackeray's method, but where Thack? eray Is the quiet, and to a. certain ex? tent conventional, English gentleman. Tolstoi is the seer, the prophet with the strong vein of orientalism which marks the Russian people. His text is that of the preacher?the vanity of life, the blindness of human knowledge, the im? potence of human power. His fierce denunciations are leveled against the what Is now recognized ns an authentic picture of the author himself. Bred up in tho modern school of thought, a scientific agnostic. Levin seeks In vain for happiness in study, in notion, in the pure and sweet family relations Into which he enters. Little by little, how? ever, he conies to recognize that the religion he has rejected its an anti? quated superstition is the vital guid? ing principle of the classes in society which he most honors, the devoted and self-sacrificing women and the toiling peasants. It Is from one of the latter that he receives the revelation which alters his whole conception of life. ".Men are not all alike," says the peas? ant, explaining why one farmer treats his tenants better than another; "one man lives for his belly, another for his soul, for God." "What do you call liv? ing for his soul, for God?" exclaimed Levin, eagerly. "What, that's plain enough," was the answer. "It's living according lo God, according to truth." In this slmide statement Levin recog? nizes the hitherto unseen principle which had guided him through his struggle in the past?to live, not for COUNT AND CO UNTKS3 TOLSTOI. I folly and wickedness cf war; and he knows war by experience, not like the quaker or the member of the Peace so- j ciety. What he saw in the trenches and redoubts of Sewastopol he has put Into his descriptions of Austerlits and Borodino, But Tolstoi does not confine himself to denunciation; out of the shame of tin French occupation of Moscow and , the misery of their retreat rises the j ideal figure .if Karatayef, whose gentle meekness, active brotherly kindness i and unquestioning/Submission to the will of fjod teach the great lesson that Tolstoi wishes to convey. The meaning of life becomes known and life becomes worth living only when it ceases to be a Held for individual struggle and be? comes Clod's theatre, where the actors take with humility the parts assigned them by .th" All-Powerful Director and co-opetute in the effort to embody 11,s ideas. "Anna Karenina" Is Tolstoi's mos; finished work. Ho is dealing with a doss ho knows by heart?the tipper circles of Russian society. lie has taken a smaller canvas than in "War and Peace," and it the action is less wide and varied It is more concentrated and homogeneous. Moreover, the author has for the most part [withdrawn himself behind his creation. He does not preach so per? sistently as in his former work; he Is content to let the characters and the story sieak for themselves. And this they do with no uncertain voice. The two stories of Anna Koronlna and Con stantlne Devin, essentially Independent, yet Inextricably Interwoven by the art of the narrator .expounds the theme of the novel?human happiness and the means of its attainment. Anna, the wife of n high official, for whom she has not a particle of love, is a charming wo? man, well bred, tender and sympa? thetic; but her education nnd environ? ment have loft hor without tin object in life. She falls passionately in love with Vr?nsky, the beau-ideal of a Rus? sian ofllcer, handsome, brave and gal? lant, In whom the cole of honor has displaced the ten commandments. In her efTort to attain happiness through this love Anna sacrifices everything her honor, her child, her position in so? ciety. It Is a sincere passion, but essen? tially a selfish one. She demands of her lover more than he can give, nnd the end?her suicide?Is tho logical and in? evitable close of her course of conduct. I In Levin, on the othe?> hand, we have ono's Pf If, but for God. And In this rec? ognition ho obtains an answer to the problem of life. "1 will no longer be a? the mercy of events, and every minute of my existence will have a meaning sure and profound, which it will be in my power to impress up.m every single ?'!i" of my actions?that of being good." With these words the book closes, and they stun up its lesson. In the religious works which Counl Tolstoi has written since ists we dud another step taken. As wo saw Levin change from a practical atheist with? out a rule of life to a believer In God resolved to live In accordance with His will, so in these works. "My Religion," "My Confession," "The Christian Ti aching," and others, we find Levin's prototype, the author, passing from a reverent theism to a peculiar and pro? foundly mystical form of Christianity. Peculiar on account of the extremes to which his rigid logic carries him; mys? tical because it Is based on the direct and Intimate communion of the indi? vidual soul with God, the underlying basis in all ages of all forms of mysti? cism, lie finds in the sermon on the mount the cssenco of Christianity, and from this discourse he has extracted live commandments: Live in peace with all men, abstain from sensuality, take no oaths, resist not evil, love all nan. Whatever is contrary to these, ho says, is of sin. and no ascetic of ?lie dark ages was ever readier than Tolstoi to detect the trail of the ser? pent. Not only does be insist on the higher virtue of celiba ?y- not for the clergy alone, but for nil men?but he sees sin In every gratification of the senses; for example, in eating whon one is not hungry, in every attempt to avoid hard work, in every effort to ac? quire property, in every struggle against oppression?It is wrong, he says, to resist even a robber or a mur? derer?and in every physical excite? ment, ns In darning, gymnastics or cycling. This is not n caricature of Tolstoi's teaching; every statement here made Is drawn from his work, "The. Christian Teaching" (recently publish? ed by Stokes .V.- Co.). That such doc? trines Involve the overthrow of alt g v ernment nnd the destruction of society in its present form is perfectly appar? ent, and Tolstoi accepts this conclusion with absolute unconcern. Society, ns It now exists with kings nnd judges nnd armies and artists, la contrary to the teaching of Christ, ana society Is there fore doomed. Hlg Ideal state. It would Beem, Is a Christian commune, and to all the anarchy and unrestrained op? pression of the best by the worst ele? ments of society to which the gradual und partial acceptance of his teaching would loud ho closes his eyes. But it would be unfair to take leave of Tolstoi with such words. However strango may bo the logical conse? quences of his teaching, the practical application of his guiding principle? "Love Is the fulllllment of the law"? can bo fruitful of nothing but good. In the midst of the dreadful tyranny In church and state which even under the present gentle and peace-loving czar disgraces Russia, Tolstoi stands the aged apostle of love. While sav? age persecutions are driving thousands of peaceful laborers to seek an asylum beyond the borders of their country, ho r p ats the words of his Master: "Judge not, that ye be not Judged." Across the desolating famines that overwhelm from year to year his beloved peasantry he cries with nil the earnestness of a Hebrew prophet: "Let him that hath give to him that hath not." Rieh by Inheritance, he lives like tho hardest working peasant on his estate, refusing all profit from the sale of his books, devoting large sums to the relief of suf? fering, aiding with hand and voice his fellow-laborers in their dally toil. A noble figure! worthy of all respect, even In his excesses, honorable at any period of the world's history, doubly so in tho time and place where he stands to? day, in nineteenth-century Russia, with her autocrat on the throne and her nihilists in the shadow, with her per? secuting priesthood and fanatic sects, her mighty armies and her crafty statesmen, a country well typified by her national emblem, the monstrous double-headed eagle: shadowing with his wings Europe and Asia, and, as 14 seems to many a shrewd observer, even now summoning all his strength for the approaching struggle with his one re? maining rival, the Anglo-Saxon race. Princeton University. Kl urteil tu Nofoa nu<l Quest Ions. 1. Perhaps the one book that in tho .?-hortesi possible time will present to the ordinary reader who knows little about Tolstoi a good idea of Tolstoi's life and werk and doctrines is "Recol? lections of Count Leo Tolstoi," by C. A. Rehrs?translated from the Russian by c. H. Turner, and published by Helne mann, London, In l.son. _ M. Bohrs Is Count Tolstoi's brother-in-law, tho count having In lS'lU married his sister. In his youth he was an enthusiastic disciple of the count's, and if In ma? ture age be has become less enthusi? astic It has been from no lack of affec? tion or lack of appreciation of the count's character, but slmly because'ho has recognized that the great teacher's later views are not sufficiently practical to be followed without some modifica? tion. 2. Tolstoi Is a very autobiographical author, and perhaps the truest picture of his personality, or, rather, of his individuality. Is to be obtained from reading his works. Three of his works ?"Childhood," "Boyhood," "Youth"? although he calls them "novels," are in reality "memoirs." As his translator says, "That they reflect tho man and his mental and moral youth there can be no doubt." But Inasmuch as they do not always strictly conform to tho facts they cannot be taken as memoirs except by those who have a sufficient km -.\le Ige of the facts to discriminate between what Is real and what is In lentlonally imaginative. For this reas? on Isabel P. Hapgood, In her transla? tion of these memoirs (T. Y. Crowell & <'o.) prefixes to the translation iL short but carefully compiled biography. It. Two later worke, "My Religion" (T. V. Crowell \- Co.) and "My Confes? sion" (T. Y. Crowell & Co.), contain Tolstoi's Inter views?views, it will be remembered, that differ very materially from his earlier views (although ho Would scarcely confess It himself, thoy no iluubt are a direct and natural de? velopment from thus-' earlier views). Tolstoi says In his preface to "My Re? ligion" (1SB1): "J have not always been possessed of the religions ideas set forth In this book. Five years ago faith cam.- to me and my whole life underwent a sudden transformation." QUESTIONS. 1. Tolstoi served nr. n def> nder of?Sri? ISllStOpol in the ("time.in war. \S nat was the name of the book, publit lied just after that war, which first nrougnt his name forward bet?re his country? men as an author'.' 2. In 1856 Tolstoi published two parts of the "Memoirs" mentioned above, and these made him famous. What two parts were they? 11. In ISttO appeared that remarkable series of historical romances which first began to give Tolstoi a European reputation. What is the general name of this series of brilliant romances? What hero in these romances is gene? rally considered to be an outobiograph leal study? 4. Tolstoi says In his "My Religion" that for thirty-five years he was a "nihilist." In what sense does he use the word, when he says this? f.. "The foundation of Tolstoi's creed is the gospel law of love to our neigh? bors, 'm this law his entire system Is constructed. It is summed up In three general rules or principles." What are these three general rules or principles? What well-known and much-read novel of his has for Its theme the enforcement of the third of these principles? 6. In what novel of his has Tolstoi de? scribed to us, "with minute detail," how ho sought and obtained the hand of his own v Ife? 7. Because Of unhappy domestic ex? periences of husband and wife in "The Kreutzer Sonata," it has sometimes hern assorted that Tolstoi's relations with his own wife have heen* unhappy. What Is the truth of the matter as to Tolstoi's domestic Hfe? 8. What well-known Russian nob''? is a convert to Tolstoi's views and has practically shown himself to be such? In what recent philanthropic enterprise has this nobleman been engaged? EXAMINATIONS AND CERTIFI? CATES. At the end of the term of seventeea weeks, a series of questions on each course, prepared by Professor Seymour Eaton, will be published in the Vlr Blnlan-Pllot, and blanks containing the questions will be furnished every sub? scriber making application fo<- same. Two weeks will be allowed tifter th* courses close, for tho receipt of exami? nation papers containing nnswers. These papers will be referred to a Board of Examiners, who will assist Professor Eaton, and as soon as the work of eiamlnattcn Is complete, the result will be reported, and certificates lamed to the students entitled to them.