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Virginian-pilot. (Norfolk, Va.) 1898-1911, June 02, 1899, Image 4

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(Virginian and pilot publishing
(Consolidated March. 1S3S.)
Entered at ths Postofnca at Norfolk,
,Vn., aj> second-class matter.
norfolk. va.
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inson, Treasurer; Jumis 15. Allen, Sec
re lar*.
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FRIDAY, J(". ! *! I'.'.H.
As a people, wc know the penal code
pretty well, and we are not wholly Ig?
norant of the civil code. Still, we know
neither, as a free and self-governing
people ought to. Hy casual reading
(chiefly In the newspapers), and hear?
ing (in street-talk, social conversation,
public speeches, arguments at the bar,
&c), and by experience (as culprits or
accused, prosecutors nnd litigants,
plaintiffs and defendants, jurors, .to.),
we acquire an incidental acquaintance
with constitutions nnd laws, like that
which, In similar ways, we gain of
medicine, surgery and sanitation In
general. As It Is snld that at forty o
man Is either it fool or a physician, so
nt an earlier age, In a limited sense,
every man ought to be his own law?
We have Interests in law and physic,
In health and order, too important to
every Individual in rsonally for any of
us to remain so ill-informed about
them. Their promotion, protection, re?
storation and reparation demand n
greater familiarity with them on our
part nnd n better understanding of
their legal condition than we can ob?
tain by referring them to special pro?
fessions, which, no matter how able
nnd reliable, can only guide and help
tts when we appeal to, and confide In
them under more or less stress nnd
pressure; whereas. If wo only had that
general knowledge that would tell tts
v hen tr. ?fei; ih.'Trm??T pi oressiona!
experts to prevent an evil or loss, or
secure a gain or benefit, our position
nnd Its possibilities, our health .rtul
happiness, might bo so much Improved.
As it Is, In our ignorance, wroiir steals
upon US like a thief in the night, or we
do not recognize the real significance
of danger Bignnls, or we turn our backs
on fortune, or we delay or wait until
it Is too late, and lawyers and physi?
cians are alike in vain!
The truth is that not only should
anatomy, physlplogy and hygiene bo es?
sential pans of the curriculum of all of
our schools, with special schools or
courses of lectures for the popular ed?
ucation cf our adult population in a
general knowledge of medicine and
surgery, at least to tho point that w.ll
enable any Intelligent person to see that
professional help Is needed In any ease,
and also to do what can or should be
done until it arrive, but the just prin?
ciples of government, law and order
should be Inculcated In our children at
school, with provision of schools and
lectures for men nnd women, so that
ell may "know their rights," and know
how to maintain or obtain them.
There is no prodigious tnsk of time
and labor in this; for herein, ns in all
necessary or beneficial things, the first
step puts difficulty to Hight.
The anti-Cuban critics are difficult to
suit. The Cuban army did not rush In
nt the word of American command, to
give In their rolls and arms, and be
disbanded, and it was said there were
none of them, except a few bandits and
the servants of Gomez and other offi?
cers. At laut, they mustered and made
out their rolls, difficult for a rebel army
in war to keep straight, nnd It^ was
charged that the rolls were forgeries
and ths soldiers frauds -the rush be?
ing to gobble that $3,000,000 whit it Uncle
Bam had sent over to them for free dis?
tribution. But, lo! they will not take
the golA at any price, nor will they
surrender their so-called "emokc-plpes,"
ns If they were conquered subjects.
They retain their arms and their man?
hood, though with empty stomachs und
pockets, In rags and barefoot.
Oh, 'Washington Post, what a noble
task you have undertaken?to lead the
choir of the bomb-proof corps that bo
gallantly fought the Spaniards up and
down Pennsylvania Avenue, day and
night, with the ?ante daring mouths
that now fight, revile, abuse and laugh
at the Cubans, as In 1775-17S3 Hessians,
Tories and half-breeds sang Yankee
Doodle in derision of our fathers, their
rags and bleeding-feet, and "dispersed"
them (at a safe distance) with the
brooms and dusters of their maid-ser?
vants. There were many heroes before
Agamemnon, and there have been pome
since, even outside the defensive bul?
warks of Washington; but none truer,
braver, more self-sacrificing than the
Cuban army which withstood Spain's
might and money so long, with all her
treachery and barbarity, and which
even now knows how to submit to vul?
gar arrogance and base perfidy with
dignity, and to refuse insulting gold
with pride and disdain, though in rags
and hungry.
Hut who at Washington can compre?
hend or believe In a self-respect that is
poor, an honor thnt is barefoot, a
courage that Is etarving, or a noble
manhood In the garb of beggary? Tet
that vindicated man (made in the
Image of God) was developed under
Spain for the special purpose of coun?
tervailing her singular and unique ex
cesses 111 tyranny, cruelty, arrogance,
cupidity, self-assertion and haughty
contempt of others. Yes: he has con?
fronted and withstood Spain In Europa,
America, Asia, Africa and all Oceanlca;
nnd if he has not himself enjoyed the
inspired blessings of liberty and inde?
pendence, he has shown others the
happy way and given despotism a hard
time In all ages and in all quarters of
the globe.
Honor and glory be to these martyrs
and mendicants, yet Paladins, or Lib?
erty!?Siitmre and -ignominy upon the""
menial and mercenary minions who are
too vile to lick the sores of a Lazarus
'f Liberty!
Many of the renegades f.m Chicago
to Indianapolis have already "taken
the Turban" und kissed the Koran Of
faith ami loyalty to Algerine piracy
A few still remain nt Indianapolis,
calling to the G,f>00,000 true men of IS'JtJ
to Join them In 1000. Mahomet, too,
expected to move mountains; and some
centuries ago he commanded a moun?
tain to come to him: but th" mountain
declined to move, and hoard him In
contemptuous silence. Now, if Mahomet
had been fool enough to Insist on
obedience to his command, he might to
this day be standing alone in the same
place?a monument of pigheaded con?
ceit nnd folly; but It is recorded that,
being 11 man of some sense.as themoun
taln would not come to him, he went to
the mountain, under the natural law of
the attraction of gravity. The Indiana
polls light-weights of 1S9C, however, re?
maining there In 1000, will present a
tpcctnclo that will upset the gravity of
the- universe and cause a universal
explosion of laughter, which will be
all the greater that Quid, having sud?
denly risen from a stemmcr to Presi?
dent of a Tobacco Trust, set up a
gorgeous coach, bearing a dazzling
coat-of-arms, for which a wag had
furnished the appropriate Interrogative
motto. "Quid Rides?"?Quid being car?
ried from Chicago to Indianapolis in
this coach, wherein he still alls In all
the exclusive solitude of his own gran?
The decision of the Court of Cassa?
tion In favor of a revision of the trial
In which Captain Dreyfus was convict?
ed nnd sentenced to solitary confine?
ment for life on Devil's Island. Is re?
ceived with general satisfaction in all
civilized countries. The opinion that
the outcome of a new trial will be the
complete vindication of this much In?
jured man is as general. Since h:s con->
dcmnatlon evidence of the employment
of perjured witnesses against him has
been discovered and the world has al
I ready pronounced him Innocent:
The trial of Dreyfus will turn on tho
authorship of the bordereau, which is
almost universally credited to Count
Rsterhnxy. The friends of the con?
demned man do not fear the issue.
They court a searching and com?
plete investigation, confident of his vin?
dication, which, viewed In the light of
truth, will he the triumph of justice
nd the partial righting of a groat
Dreyfus has had and now has many
: rit a 1?, but none so true and self-sacri?
ficing as M. ZolO, the novelist, who has
ib >red In season and out for the exile.
I In Is now in exile himself
In consequence of having wrlt
i -u his famous letter In vin?
dication of Dreyfus, which aroused the
world to work for revision. Should the
new trial result In the acquittal of
Dreyfus, M. Zola will return to Paris
in triumph ns a hero, nnd tho people
who lately reviled and drove him away
will vie with each other in falling at
his feet, and Zola, the exile, will have
been transformed into Zola, the hero.
The biggest lie ever uttered Is now
.nt; and everybody knows from what
r-otireo It comes nnd whom It Is aimed
at, without being told any more about
It. Of course, It is ordy from exclusive
dealers and assiduous experts in false
hood, and who produce nothing else,
having materials for nothing else, that
such a production (a manufacture out
of the whole cloth, of which warp and
woof were lies In the wool) can possi?
bly proceed; and all men know at once
that It Is manufactured by the antl
Democratlc Trust, to injure William
Jennings Bryan, he being the hope of
Democracy as he is the despair of Its
Thus runs the lie: that even the ma?
jority of Southern Democratic newspa?
pers are opposed to Bryan's renomlna
tion next year and to the Chicago plat?
form of 189G! This, like one of Palstaff's
lies. Is "gross as a mountain, open,
palpable," and so discredits Itself that
It could not be put forth by any but
men so far gone In mendacity that they
have forgotten that a lie, to prosper
with other men, must at least bear
some resemblance and possibility of
truth, as this does not.
The reduction In the market value of
some of the trust stocks proves only
that water will seek Its level.
The Delaware farmer who plowed up
four thousand dollars In gold was prob?
ably In somebody's Senatorial garden
patch and didn't know it.
It has been noted that Hanna is not
quoted much, not being addicted to
much talking, and evidently being a
specimen of the "still swine that swill
the slops."
It requires half a day to sing the Na?
tional hymns of China, but In this yea*
of grace the Chinaman has few ex?
cuses for frittering away valuable time
In that way.
The Wisconsin Legislature decided
not to accept any more free passes over
railroads, but reserved the right to at?
tend clrcusses, Just with the children,
you know, free of charge.
Liverpool has established a "School
for Tropical Diseases." Camps Alger,
Tampa, and Montauk Point, and the
hospitals at Siboney and Manila would
nave made excellent "prep" courses if
arrangements had been made In time.
"If Jefferson should come to Vir
.InlP," tho Richmond Times t u ? I: In
Icrrcgalli ?ly. Well, the Times would
denounce him ns an Impostor. "If they
hear not Bryan and the prophets, neith?
er will they be persuaded, though one
rose from the dead."
Nikola Tesla comes forward with the
declaration that years ago he discov?
ered wireless telegraphy, but did not
think It worth mentioning. lie follows
this up with a list of everything likely
to be invented within the next one hun?
dred years, and Is not likely to be
caught in the same, trap again.
The Coxcy family Is working both
ends of the biggest problem in the
country. General Jake Coxey says he
Is In favor of trusts, while Carl Brown,
his son-in-law, says he will organize
another "Commonweal Army" and
move on Congress this winter, and de?
mand that the trusts be driven from
the United States.
Mrs. William J. Bryan, making an
address a few days ago to a graduating
class of girls at Jacksonville, Illinois,
remarked: "The public And the Amer?
ican woman an interesting subject."
Mrs. Bryan might have omitted "Amer?
ican," and simply said: "The public
llnd woman an interesting subject."
Certainly. It Is very difficult, if not
impossible, to find a more interesting
subject, or one near so interesting, in
fact. But it is not only as a subject
that woman Is so interesting: as the
dominant sovereign of thought, feel?
ing, action, purpose, and hope, woman
is still of supreme Interest, subject to
nothing In this temporal sphere.
A writer In the Bichmond Times, who
finds It necessary to call himself "a
Democrat," contributes to that un
Democratlc Journal a contribution
headed, "Is This Democracy or Popu?
lism?" and then answers It In a long
screed which shows not only complete
Ignorance of Jefferson's views and
primitive Democracy, but actually dem?
onstrates that he is unacquainted with
the records, platforms and course of
the Democracy since the war, or even
since 1S73! Man, man, man! how dnre
so ill informed a person attempt to
teach Democracy to a people In whom
It is hereditary. Inherent and Instinc?
tive, ns well as the teachings of Its
founder nnd prophets? Go to! At least
read the Democratic Scriptures since
the war, or the Chicago platform dur?
ing the war.
The Bichmond Times has a queer
way of reaching an agreement as to the
subordination of side and minor Issues
of policy to great principles. The
Democratic party (see its platforms
and history from 1S00 to this moment)
has been for Independence, State-*
rights, human rights and personal lib?
erty, as well ns for a constitutional
currency of gold and silver. In 1S9G a
mere handful of Democrats desired to
end the war for a constitutional cur?
rency of gold nnd silver, and surrender
to monometallism. It Is a mere mat?
ter of money, a question of policy. In
volvlng no principle and no question
of right or liberty. But the almost
unanimous party In 1SD0 decided to con?
tinue the demand for more currency, a
constitutional currency and the resto?
ration of silver, in accordance with the
party record and for the benetlt of the
people: the handful of new-lights?dis
senters?Insisted that silver should be
abandoned. The issue itself is one of
policy, of small moment compared with
rights and liberty; but It does^not be?
come a great party to abandon an his?
torical position to the avarice of a few
(Copyrighted, 1899.)
History?Popular Studies In European History.
Geography?The World's Great Commercial Products.
Governments of the World of To-day.
Literature?Popular Studies '.a Literature. !
Art?Tho World's Great. Artists.
These con mm will continue nntll Jnne SOtb. Examinations conducted
by midi, will bo licld nt Ibelr clone us u bnsin for Hie Kruuilus of 4_>rliUciilos.
PH. D.
But Tolstoi, though a realist. Is by
no means a disinterested narrator; he
understands and sympathizes with
every character of his great drama, ex?
cept, perhaps, with the buzzing water
llles of "high society." lie seems him?
self to share in the actions he nar?
rates, and he uses events, historical or
feigned, as vehicles for the transmis?
sion of his philosophy of life. This Is
Thackeray's method, but where Thack?
eray Is the quiet, and to a. certain ex?
tent conventional, English gentleman.
Tolstoi is the seer, the prophet with the
strong vein of orientalism which marks
the Russian people. His text is that of
the preacher?the vanity of life, the
blindness of human knowledge, the im?
potence of human power. His fierce
denunciations are leveled against the
what Is now recognized ns an authentic
picture of the author himself. Bred up
in tho modern school of thought, a
scientific agnostic. Levin seeks In vain
for happiness in study, in notion, in the
pure and sweet family relations Into
which he enters. Little by little, how?
ever, he conies to recognize that the
religion he has rejected its an anti?
quated superstition is the vital guid?
ing principle of the classes in society
which he most honors, the devoted and
self-sacrificing women and the toiling
peasants. It Is from one of the latter
that he receives the revelation which
alters his whole conception of life.
".Men are not all alike," says the peas?
ant, explaining why one farmer treats
his tenants better than another; "one
man lives for his belly, another for his
soul, for God." "What do you call liv?
ing for his soul, for God?" exclaimed
Levin, eagerly. "What, that's plain
enough," was the answer. "It's living
according lo God, according to truth."
In this slmide statement Levin recog?
nizes the hitherto unseen principle
which had guided him through his
struggle in the past?to live, not for
I folly and wickedness cf war; and he
knows war by experience, not like the
quaker or the member of the Peace so- j
ciety. What he saw in the trenches
and redoubts of Sewastopol he has put
Into his descriptions of Austerlits and
But Tolstoi does not confine himself
to denunciation; out of the shame of
tin French occupation of Moscow and ,
the misery of their retreat rises the j
ideal figure .if Karatayef, whose gentle
meekness, active brotherly kindness i
and unquestioning/Submission to the
will of fjod teach the great lesson that
Tolstoi wishes to convey. The meaning
of life becomes known and life becomes
worth living only when it ceases to be
a Held for individual struggle and be?
comes Clod's theatre, where the actors
take with humility the parts assigned
them by .th" All-Powerful Director and
co-opetute in the effort to embody 11,s
"Anna Karenina" Is Tolstoi's mos;
finished work. Ho is dealing with a doss
ho knows by heart?the tipper circles of
Russian society. lie has taken a smaller
canvas than in "War and Peace," and it
the action is less wide and varied It is
more concentrated and homogeneous.
Moreover, the author has for the most
part [withdrawn himself behind his
creation. He does not preach so per?
sistently as in his former work; he Is
content to let the characters and the
story sieak for themselves. And this
they do with no uncertain voice. The
two stories of Anna Koronlna and Con
stantlne Devin, essentially Independent,
yet Inextricably Interwoven by the art
of the narrator .expounds the theme of
the novel?human happiness and the
means of its attainment. Anna, the wife
of n high official, for whom she has not
a particle of love, is a charming wo?
man, well bred, tender and sympa?
thetic; but her education nnd environ?
ment have loft hor without tin object
in life. She falls passionately in love
with Vr?nsky, the beau-ideal of a Rus?
sian ofllcer, handsome, brave and gal?
lant, In whom the cole of honor has
displaced the ten commandments. In
her efTort to attain happiness through
this love Anna sacrifices everything
her honor, her child, her position in so?
ciety. It Is a sincere passion, but essen?
tially a selfish one. She demands of her
lover more than he can give, nnd the
end?her suicide?Is tho logical and in?
evitable close of her course of conduct.
I In Levin, on the othe?> hand, we have
ono's Pf If, but for God. And In this rec?
ognition ho obtains an answer to the
problem of life. "1 will no longer be a?
the mercy of events, and every minute
of my existence will have a meaning
sure and profound, which it will be in
my power to impress up.m every single
?'!i" of my actions?that of being good."
With these words the book closes, and
they stun up its lesson.
In the religious works which Counl
Tolstoi has written since ists we dud
another step taken. As wo saw Levin
change from a practical atheist with?
out a rule of life to a believer In God
resolved to live In accordance with His
will, so in these works. "My Religion,"
"My Confession," "The Christian
Ti aching," and others, we find Levin's
prototype, the author, passing from a
reverent theism to a peculiar and pro?
foundly mystical form of Christianity.
Peculiar on account of the extremes to
which his rigid logic carries him; mys?
tical because it Is based on the direct
and Intimate communion of the indi?
vidual soul with God, the underlying
basis in all ages of all forms of mysti?
cism, lie finds in the sermon on the
mount the cssenco of Christianity, and
from this discourse he has extracted
live commandments: Live in peace
with all men, abstain from sensuality,
take no oaths, resist not evil, love all
nan. Whatever is contrary to these,
ho says, is of sin. and no ascetic of
?lie dark ages was ever readier than
Tolstoi to detect the trail of the ser?
pent. Not only does be insist on the
higher virtue of celiba ?y- not for the
clergy alone, but for nil men?but he
sees sin In every gratification of the
senses; for example, in eating whon one
is not hungry, in every attempt to
avoid hard work, in every effort to ac?
quire property, in every struggle
against oppression?It is wrong, he
says, to resist even a robber or a mur?
derer?and in every physical excite?
ment, ns In darning, gymnastics or
cycling. This is not n caricature of
Tolstoi's teaching; every statement here
made Is drawn from his work, "The.
Christian Teaching" (recently publish?
ed by Stokes .V.- Co.). That such doc?
trines Involve the overthrow of alt g v
ernment nnd the destruction of society
in its present form is perfectly appar?
ent, and Tolstoi accepts this conclusion
with absolute unconcern. Society, ns It
now exists with kings nnd judges nnd
armies and artists, la contrary to the
teaching of Christ, ana society Is there
fore doomed. Hlg Ideal state. It would
Beem, Is a Christian commune, and to
all the anarchy and unrestrained op?
pression of the best by the worst ele?
ments of society to which the gradual
und partial acceptance of his teaching
would loud ho closes his eyes.
But it would be unfair to take leave
of Tolstoi with such words. However
strango may bo the logical conse?
quences of his teaching, the practical
application of his guiding principle?
"Love Is the fulllllment of the law"?
can bo fruitful of nothing but good.
In the midst of the dreadful tyranny
In church and state which even under
the present gentle and peace-loving
czar disgraces Russia, Tolstoi stands
the aged apostle of love. While sav?
age persecutions are driving thousands
of peaceful laborers to seek an asylum
beyond the borders of their country, ho
r p ats the words of his Master: "Judge
not, that ye be not Judged." Across the
desolating famines that overwhelm
from year to year his beloved peasantry
he cries with nil the earnestness of a
Hebrew prophet: "Let him that hath
give to him that hath not." Rieh by
Inheritance, he lives like tho hardest
working peasant on his estate, refusing
all profit from the sale of his books,
devoting large sums to the relief of suf?
fering, aiding with hand and voice his
fellow-laborers in their dally toil. A
noble figure! worthy of all respect, even
In his excesses, honorable at any period
of the world's history, doubly so in tho
time and place where he stands to?
day, in nineteenth-century Russia,
with her autocrat on the throne and her
nihilists in the shadow, with her per?
secuting priesthood and fanatic sects,
her mighty armies and her crafty
statesmen, a country well typified by
her national emblem, the monstrous
double-headed eagle: shadowing with
his wings Europe and Asia, and, as 14
seems to many a shrewd observer, even
now summoning all his strength for the
approaching struggle with his one re?
maining rival, the Anglo-Saxon race.
Princeton University.
Kl urteil tu Nofoa nu<l Quest Ions.
1. Perhaps the one book that in tho
.?-hortesi possible time will present to
the ordinary reader who knows little
about Tolstoi a good idea of Tolstoi's
life and werk and doctrines is "Recol?
lections of Count Leo Tolstoi," by C. A.
Rehrs?translated from the Russian by
c. H. Turner, and published by Helne
mann, London, In l.son. _ M. Bohrs Is
Count Tolstoi's brother-in-law, tho
count having In lS'lU married his sister.
In his youth he was an enthusiastic
disciple of the count's, and if In ma?
ture age be has become less enthusi?
astic It has been from no lack of affec?
tion or lack of appreciation of the
count's character, but slmly because'ho
has recognized that the great teacher's
later views are not sufficiently practical
to be followed without some modifica?
2. Tolstoi Is a very autobiographical
author, and perhaps the truest picture
of his personality, or, rather, of his
individuality. Is to be obtained from
reading his works. Three of his works
?"Childhood," "Boyhood," "Youth"?
although he calls them "novels," are
in reality "memoirs." As his translator
says, "That they reflect tho man and
his mental and moral youth there can
be no doubt." But Inasmuch as they
do not always strictly conform to tho
facts they cannot be taken as memoirs
except by those who have a sufficient
km -.\le Ige of the facts to discriminate
between what Is real and what is In
lentlonally imaginative. For this reas?
on Isabel P. Hapgood, In her transla?
tion of these memoirs (T. Y. Crowell &
<'o.) prefixes to the translation iL short
but carefully compiled biography.
It. Two later worke, "My Religion"
(T. V. Crowell \- Co.) and "My Confes?
sion" (T. Y. Crowell & Co.), contain
Tolstoi's Inter views?views, it will be
remembered, that differ very materially
from his earlier views (although ho
Would scarcely confess It himself, thoy
no iluubt are a direct and natural de?
velopment from thus-' earlier views).
Tolstoi says In his preface to "My Re?
ligion" (1SB1): "J have not always
been possessed of the religions ideas set
forth In this book. Five years ago
faith cam.- to me and my whole life
underwent a sudden transformation."
1. Tolstoi served nr. n def> nder of?Sri?
ISllStOpol in the ("time.in war. \S nat
was the name of the book, publit lied
just after that war, which first nrougnt
his name forward bet?re his country?
men as an author'.'
2. In 1856 Tolstoi published two parts
of the "Memoirs" mentioned above,
and these made him famous. What two
parts were they?
11. In ISttO appeared that remarkable
series of historical romances which
first began to give Tolstoi a European
reputation. What is the general name
of this series of brilliant romances?
What hero in these romances is gene?
rally considered to be an outobiograph
leal study?
4. Tolstoi says In his "My Religion"
that for thirty-five years he was a
"nihilist." In what sense does he use
the word, when he says this?
f.. "The foundation of Tolstoi's creed
is the gospel law of love to our neigh?
bors, 'm this law his entire system Is
constructed. It is summed up In three
general rules or principles." What are
these three general rules or principles?
What well-known and much-read novel
of his has for Its theme the enforcement
of the third of these principles?
6. In what novel of his has Tolstoi de?
scribed to us, "with minute detail," how
ho sought and obtained the hand of his
own v Ife?
7. Because Of unhappy domestic ex?
periences of husband and wife in "The
Kreutzer Sonata," it has sometimes
hern assorted that Tolstoi's relations
with his own wife have heen* unhappy.
What Is the truth of the matter as to
Tolstoi's domestic Hfe?
8. What well-known Russian nob''? is
a convert to Tolstoi's views and has
practically shown himself to be such?
In what recent philanthropic enterprise
has this nobleman been engaged?
At the end of the term of seventeea
weeks, a series of questions on each
course, prepared by Professor Seymour
Eaton, will be published in the Vlr
Blnlan-Pllot, and blanks containing the
questions will be furnished every sub?
scriber making application fo<- same.
Two weeks will be allowed tifter th*
courses close, for tho receipt of exami?
nation papers containing nnswers.
These papers will be referred to a
Board of Examiners, who will assist
Professor Eaton, and as soon as the
work of eiamlnattcn Is complete, the
result will be reported, and certificates
lamed to the students entitled to them.

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