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VIRGINIAN - PILOT.
?BT THE? (VIRGINIAN AND IM LOT PUBLISHING COUP ANY. NORFOLK VIRGINIAN AND DAILY PILOT. (Consolidated March, lws.) Entered at the Fostofnca at Norfolk, ,Va., ?jt second-class nutter. OFFICE: PILOT BUILDING, C1TX HALL AVEKUB, norfolk. va. OFFICERS: A. H. Grandy. President; W. 8. Wilk? inson, Treasurer; James 13. Allen, Sec? retary. BOARD OF DIRECTORS: A. H. Grandy, I* D. Starke, Jr.. T. W. Shelton, R. W. Shultlcc. W. S. Wilkinson, James E. Allen. D. F, Donovan. Til HKK ?EST.1 PICK COI'T. subscription rates: The VJRGINIAN-PILOT Is delivered to subscribers by carriers in Norfolk and vicinity Portsmouth, Berkley. ? bufTo.u. Wot Norfolk. Newport News, for 1U cents per week payable to tho carrier. P-y mall, to any place la the United States, postage free; DAHT.on? jmr - f.l.oo ?* ?I * IllonUls ... 3.00 M Ibrcet moutliB - - ' J..10 " ouii uiontli - ? ? ??'JO ADVERTISING HATES: Advertise? ments lnsenea at the rate of 7? cents a b'quaro, ihsl Insertion; each oubiu-iiueni Insertion 40 cents or 50 e:enls. when In? serted Every Other Day Contractors uro not allowed to exceed their space or ad? vertise ether than ihelr leslllmntc bus ness, except by puylug especially .or too k?me. Reading Notices lnvarianty 20 cents rer lln? first insertion. Each subsequent in? sertion 15 cents. No employee of the Vlrglnian-Pllot Pub? lishing Company is authorized to contract any oblation In the name of the com? pany or to mako purchases in tho name, of the same, except upon orders signed by tho PRESIDENT OF THE COMPANY. In order t-? nvold delays, on account, ot personal absence; letters nnd all conimti hic?tl?ns for Th? VIRGIN I AN-Pi LOT ?hould not bo addressed to any Individual connected with tho office, but simply to The VIRGINIAN AND PILOT PUB? LISHING COMPANY. TWELVE PAGES FRIDAY. JUNE 9, 1S95. HONOR TO WHOM HONOR. r - The press degrades itself and abuses Its freedom when it violates the canoi)3 of respect due ell respectable people, and forgets Its own self-respect In tak? ing advantage of its power to be inso? lent to any class of servants, public or private. In a mean and demagogic spirit, the Chicago Tribune lays aside its own dignity to berate certain postal employes for daring, like Oliver Twist, to ask for "more;" and it even descends to the pettiness of calling the attention of official Bumbles to this insolence to ask lor more from a generous govern? ment and points out how the Parisian postal authorities deal peremptorily and promptly with employes who want the (bread more liberally buttered. The employes which the Chicago Tri? bune singles out for its attentions are not the "letter-carriers," as it calls them, by way of lofty depreciation, but the postal clerks who embrace the best cla-ss of young men in the United Slates ?youths nnd men ot good family and good standing, ?well bred, educated, en? terprising and Intelligent, holding la? borious and important positions of trust that require constant study and atten? tion, with very small pay, when com? pared with other clerks who receive larger pay, under a much less rigid rule end less -work, with no responsibility. A portion of the gentlemen coming un? der the Impertinent animadversions of tlie Chicago sheet, are railway postal clerks, whose duties endanger their Jives day and night on railroads, nnd In the delivery nnd receipt of mails at every depot, and upon whose capacity, diligence and fidelity the whole corre? spondence and other mail matter of tho ?whole United States depend for safe and prompt distribution and delivery. Yet these honored nnd honorable men ere compared with tho common letter, carriers of Paris, whose position nnd function are about as low as they can be not to be classed as menial. These postal clerks, whether 1 ? it I In city offices, or engaged in the railway postal service, are the most Ill-paid em? ployes in the Federal service when the grade and importance of their work are considered; and yet the Chicago Tr ? ibune would deny them the poor privi? lege of pleading for better pay, under penalty of dismissal, or reprimand from their superiors, who ought to rec&gn y.o their merits nnd deserts without driving them to the lobby,?If that, indeed, be their recourse in the last resort. Of course there are plenty of others eager ty take their plates eveji for leas pay. end tho Tribune has the littleness of soul to Insinuate the fact, so well known. But these clerks are entitled to much more respect than that from the Tribune; they are entitled to more pay because of the duties nnd responsibili? ties of their offices; and still greater Is their claim on (ho government, the press and the public by reason of long service, ripe experience, diligent atten? tion to duly and incorruptible honesty. "We do not know how the postal de? ficits come,?whether through postal frauds or mismanagement, but we do know that these postal clerks ought to fee paid more fairly and liberally, even (though the aggregate postal deficit be Increased thereby. The government and people get the service and should pay Ufor It, not by stinting and defrauding I ftUthful end dillgont employes. IS THE REPULIC SAFE, Politicians may t>e insincere nnd may become corrupt, but they must always have a reckoning' with their constituen? cy. The people sometimes go wrong, ?but in time they \\i!l get right, nnd wo see no possible grounds for fear that the republic will fall. It is, In our opin? ion, stronger to-day than ever before, anil we believe that there never was a time 'when liberty was more precious and whan the men of this country were more thoroughly In the enjoyment thereof.?Richmond Times. The Times says the Republic is safe; but the Times Is not the best authority on a subject that is all to the people, nnd little or nothing to capital and cap? italists. When we look to Washington, its standing army, its militarism in State as -well as Federal affairs, Its territorial policy. Its expansion by aggression, its indifference to the people, its contempt of public opinion, i.s power in parties, political campaign:- and elections, as well as in the legislative and judiciary departments, and t i all this nnd more of the same sort, add what lias been done and is doing there and in Cuba, Samoa and elsewhere the outlook seems very gloomy and uncertain. Worst of all, the general demoralization and per? fidy to principle, n >twithstanding the integrity of the main body of the peo? ple who are nobly standing with the lirmness of o. stone-wall, bodes ill for tlie future. The present seems too bad for safety. Trusts menace personal liberty, labor and property In a truculent manner and in truth n.ll these great Interests arc damaged and trammelled by the combi? nations of wealth and power that must speedily end in a ri tieral wreck, or in the sacrifice ot the many to the few? the general welfare to special welfare. Gentlemen exempt by fortune or posi? tion from the common law which em? braces a community, or the masses too readily find all right because they nrc all right; but this too usual mistake does not affect the facts; and, alas, even amidst the shouts of jubilation from the fortunate row, the unfut lunate many are suffering in silence?hoping that they may one day find that pros? perity which seems so partial to the favored few and select classes. Our liberty consists in voting; but who nominates? who counts? The par? ty machines and the lobbies control the government, and direct all affairs that uffect material interests. Aggregated capital nnd trusts dominate nil enter? prise, nil business, all labor, property, production, material, price and ?wages. Competition, the last recourse of free labor, production and business, is rnp idly disappearing before the monopoly of capital and its combines, nnd with competition gone nothing but the empty simulacrum of liberty in any? thing, if that can remain. God save the Republic from Mammon. BORAX AS A FOOD. The Pure Food Committee of Con? gress has been sitting in Chicago for nearly two months, and with the aid of learned doctors SUCCi eded in immortal? izing itsolf. The doctors, in their tes? timony Wednesday, informed the Con? gressional Solons that borax, the plain commercial article, is one of the health? iest things known to man, and the com? mittee Immediately reached the same learned, if somewhat far fetched, con? clusion. It is announced that borax acts as a disinfectant to the blood, causes cessation of germ life, aids di? gestion nnd Is in general worth any? body's eating. It really seems a pity, with borax so low in price and abundant in quantity, that its value as tin article of food was not known earlier. Borax a la mode with potato pancakes, roast borax with onions, fjoTBX rrtcrrssed with green peas, borax pie, and borax various other things will no doubt become high? ly essential additions to every res? taurant bill of fare. No banquet will be complete Without a magnificent joint of juicy borax smoking in the center of the table, and the manipulator of the punch bowl will find it an Indispensa? ble ingredient. Vei ly, we live to learn. Whether we shall learn to live by mak? ing borax a part ?>:' our food is yet to be I established, the d ictors and Pure Food J Committee to the contrary notwith? standing;. WHO NEED THE MONEY ? The difficulty with the Richmond i Times, and the dlffi rence between It and THE VIRGINIAN-PILOT consists entirely In its wearing a blind-bridle? which it has worn f r lo! these many ; years?and which pn vents it from see 1 Ing the real parties to exchange?the j producers and eon tumors?ami confines j its short and narrow vision to mlddle i men only, the large dealers, speculators I and transporters. \\h . THE VIRGIN? IAN-PILOT, wearing no bridle at all, blind or other, bc< a all the parties con? cern.-!. .It is these middlemen who deal In large aggregates which some times require large bnlaii is in gold, or make adjustments in mutual credits, which the Times mistakes f ir product.Vtn, commodities, &c Tli real producers and consumers, m an while, numerous as they are, do the tual exchanging, without gold or credit (as they havo" neither), and In currency, cash, with? out exchanging checks, drafts or bills of exchange., All the production and consumption thus k,^ ne "CASHED" TWICE "nd though the actual opera? tions are small, they require all the money that can possibly be produced, and for lack of m >ncy many produc? ers and consumers perish or suffer every day. Tho middlemen only have plenty of money. CURRENT MONEY; NOT BANK DEPOSITS Every faithful Democratic paper con? curs with Mr. Bryan and. the people as to the eager suggestion of Hannalsm that the Democracy of 1900 repudiate the platform of 1896, and light trusts: except the money trust, that Is, throw away your powder and ball, break yout bayonet and fight the enemy with an empty gun. That ingenious suggestion is thus curtly answered by a journal high in Democratic councils: "The Democratic National Conven? tion of 1900 will commit no such blun? der. It will point out tho specific rem? edy for trusts, viz: "Bimetallism at the ratio as it ex? isted prior to 1873. "The abolition of national banks of issue. "A modification of the tariff so as to totally eliminate special privileges. "This Is the platform of 1S96 over again. There will be no meaningless campaign against trusts." No. Not by Democrats. The Repub? lican campaign against trusts will be either "meaningless1," or after the fash Ion of the accomplices who Join in the cry of "stop thief," after a flying rogue. The Democratic campaign against trusts, however, will be real and effec? tive, by direct and persistent assault upon tlie very centre of the trust en? trenchments?the act of 1S73. Our bat? tle-cry will be: "Down with the money trust Cold and silver against mono? metallism and monopoly! Greenbacks and Treasury notes against bank-note subsidies to banks, or other private cor? porations. Oom Paul only desires to be let nlone, so that he can drink his beer in peace. But the Jameson raid gave the British a taste of Oom Paul's tipple; and and though, they swore, and are still swearing, that they condemn the raid and had nothing to do with it, they in? sist that Oom Paul shall put his own particular tap at the free indulgence of British thirst. This is very Bocring to Chamberlain and--other beer-bum? mers, who demand that the Transvaal shall open its kegs to all English lov? ers of malt-liquors, without Sunday re? strictions and licenses of high figure. Oom Paul, however, keeps on smoking and drinking, as If he felt that he had a right to enjoy his silence under his own hop-vine without listening to tire? some talk from Eondon. Boer, in fact, is the TranBvaal word for the native Dutchman and his drink; and they mean to stand by each other, until at least Oom Paul gets through with his last pipe and his last mug. It is a case of "Ins" nnd "outs," as with the fel? lows at Washington, where the "outs" have just been favored by Hanna-Mc Kirley by placing 4,000 "ins" at the mer? cy of the hungry and thirsty "outs." At Washington the 4.000 are said to be carefully selected Democrats, doomed to slaughter; In the Transvaal, the English are the "outs," the Dutch the "ins;" and if the latter can only get a nose or finger In their whole body will have to follow to protect "British rights by British wrongs." The Rev. C. H. Currens. a Presbyte? rian minister of Chicago, thus expresses his attitude toward the State: "1 never vote; such matters do not Interest us. Our ettizenshlo is in Heaven: we are aliens and foreigners here. I have no more business to take a voice in affairs lu re titan I would have to go to Eng? land and attempt to participate in their government. Heaven is my home." So, "the man without a country" seems to reside in Chicago, where all sorts of freaks have their head-quar? ters. It will be hard on 31 r. Currens If Iiis naturalization-papers are not all right when he Is challenged by St. Peter. Tramps and vagrants are not admitted ns a matter of course, and is said to put applicants through a strict examination. Mr. McKinley has, ns a matter of fact, strengthened tho civil service in? stitution by divesting it of its most odious anil offensive features.?Wash? ington Post. Undoubtedly. For what can be more "odious and offensive" than civil ser? vice examinations and the civil service rules that keep an "in" In and an "out" out? The "ins," perhaps, take a differ? ent view, but they are in a very small minority, and besides have had their "whack." One of the articles being discussed at the Czar's Peace Conference provides that defenceless places nre not to be attacked during time of war. If that plan is adopted the New England coast towns that conjured up visions of a Spanish lloet during the late war will doubtless seek trnno,uillty in dumping their guns overboard. An Ohio grocer has invented nnd pat? ented a scale that will tell the price of anything weighed on It. Now if he will give his ingenuity a little additional ex? ercise nnd Invent an attachment that will pay the bills lie will add much to the happiness o;' the human family. Another crisis la threatening some of the South American republics. The present administrations are probably enforcing the laws. The only thing that can be said In favor of'Mormonlsm Is that it doesn't throw the entire burden of supporting a husband upon one woman. The firmness with which Admiral Dewey declines social distinctions is likely to eventuate in his exclusion from the Inner circle of New York's "400." What has become of Don Carlos and his agitators. The cable hasn't told us a thing about them for a w?ek? .VlRGINIflN-FILOT'S HOME STUDY CIRCLE (Copyrighted, 1899.) DIRECTED ?Y PROF. SEYMOUR EATON. SUBJECTS OF STUDY IN THE ORDER IN WHICH THEY WILL BE PUBLISHED. SVERY SUNDAY? History?Popular Studies in Eu lopcan History. % EVERY TUESDAY? Geography?Tho World's Great Commercial Products. EVERY WEDNESDAY? Governments of the World of To-day. EVERY THURSDAY AND FRIDAY? Literature?Popular Studies tt? Literature. < EVERY SATURDAY? Art?Tho World'a Great. Artists. 1 Jieio conr*r? ?III contlnno miill Jiiuo SOU). F.snmlnnllun* concluded l?y >nwill bit lu lu Hi iliolr cloae nt a basis for the S'ruutluu; of Cortlllciilas. POPULAR STUDIES IN LITERATURE. XV.-IBSEN. A REVIEW OF SCANDINAVIAN LITERATURE. (Continued) BY JULIUS KM1L OLSON, B. L Xnrirrglnu I.llornliirp, The separation of Norway and Den? mark came in LSI4, the result of politi? cal machinations during the Napo? leonic wars. Under the circumstances it was but naturnl that Norway should develop along political, social and liter? ary lines Independent of Denmark. The first few years after lite separation Norwegian tioets sang of tlieir new? found liberty -with the bombastic exub? erance of youth. Then from 1R30 to I?40 followed a period of fierce literary controversy between two Intellectual jriants, Wergelnnd and Welhaven. the former standing for Norwegian literary independence und the latter urging the necessity of keeping up the intellectual ties with Denmark. Wergelnnd, like IB.lornson, was an ardent patriot, a poet of the people, and a thoroughly demo? cratic spirit, while Welhaven, like lb sen, was a keen, and scathing critic, a born aristocrat In spirit. But the clash Norway. Here he remained five year.-, during which time lie won some local fame as a writer of verse, and produced lils first drama, "Catlllnn," bused en Iiis studies In Latin, hut inspired by the revolutionary events ^f 1848. In 1850, at the age of 22, lie went to Chrlstlanla to Study, where he immediately b( same Infected with the prevailing romantic spirit. While preparing for the univer? sity examinations lie wrote a drama of the Oehlcnechlaeger type, which was accepted by the Christiania theater, in 1852 he,was called to the city of Bergen as artistic director of Ole Bull's Na? tional theater. During the live years that he remained here he wrote live dramas, for which he found materials in the romantic sources to which re? ference hafl been made. They are a se? ries of dramatic 'Studies in conventional romantic style. But even here there are traces of latent Ibsenian satire. Hia Independent nature found it difficult to conform to romantic requirements. In IS.'iS, after his return to ChrUstlanln to take charge of the theater, he wrote a historical drama called ?'The Warriors of Helgeland," an excellent piece of dramatic composition, Indicative <>f the serious literary work he had done while In Heilten. The language is direr t nil,; pithy as that of an old Norse saga. BJORNSTJERN 10 BJORNSOX. between the two tendencies that they represented did muc h to clear the air and pave the way for the new llti ra turo that was to come. Wergeland died In 1844, at the early age of 157, but he was, nevertheless, one of the most pro lilii. ? t Hers theJacondlnavian north has ever produced, and withal a genius of monumental proporli ms. NATIONAL ROMANTICISM IN NOR? WAY. When the Intellectual combat of the "SOs, surcharged more or less with po? litical ideas and aspirations, was wan? ing, a new literary movement set in, known as national romanticism. Some scholars had found that the Norwegian peasantry was in possession of a seem? ingly Inexhaustable fund of popular ballads and folklore stories. Competent literary men devoted themselves to gar? nering these rich treasures. The liar vest was gathered none too soon. An? other generation miKht have been too late, for the railroad and telegraph are not promoters of such things. Here, then, it was seen, were national themes for modern poet and artist. This was, moreover, a continuation of the Scandinavian romantic movement begun in Denmark, with this distinc? tion: In Denmark this movement was characterized by literary enthusiasm for the antiquities of Scandinavia, while the movement In Norway started with an enthusiastic study of the ballads and folklore stories still found on tin lips of peasants. In connection with this came an intense interest in Norwe? gian scenery and popular life on the part of both poets and artists. This movement continued until 1ST0 (which date marks the advent of modern real Ism), and found Its best literary ex? pression In Bjornson's peasant stories. But both BJornson and Ibsen worked In the Held of Scandinavian'romanticism Urst opened by Ochlenschlneger, as well as in the Norwegian field. Both wrote historical dramas based on old Norse life. and. indeed, with such success that they superseded Oehlenschlaeger In popular favor. IBSEN'S EARLY WORKS. The preceding summary will In? dicate that Henrik Ibsen inherited the literary traditions of his day, and at first became a worker in current move? ments. But these wer.? not adapted to his original bent of mind. In one sense his restless genius merely tested Its strength in them. At the age of 16 Ibsen left his home to shift for himself. Ilia father had once been a prosperous merchant, but adverse^ came when the son was 8 years of age. It was yonng Ibsen's am? bition to be a painter, but stern neces? sity landed him in an apothecary's shop In a> small seaport town 1? southern The tone of tho drama Is true to the Old Norse spirit, and I? a better repre? sentation of that rough but manly ag< than anything Oehlenschlaeger had produced. It was a practical exempli? fication of the possibility of reproducing in modern literature the rugged ana virile strength of tho saga style. ft was a valuable lesson 10 lite Norwe? gians in simplicity and naturalness of expression, as against the declamatory rhetoric of most preceding writers, whose Danish and German models were foreign to the taciturn Norse tempera? ment. Bjornson had impressed the same valuable lesson in his peasant stories. The public was, however, ill prepared for an appreciation of such a dramatic masterpiece as Ibsen's "The "Warriors of Helgeland." Bjorns?lt's peasant studies were more to its liking. Although a younger man, Bjornson was the first to win the public's favor, and he Immediately achieved distinct ar? tistic success. Ibsen, however, had hoi yet struck the characteristic, note of his lyre. That note came with full di? apason in 1 siIJ in n dramatic poeta called "Love's Comedy," in which he applied the stinging lash of Iiis lambent wit to the conventional ideas of love I ami marriage. It aroused a storm or I wrath so vehement that the masterly style, limpid verse and penetrating wit of the drama received scarcely a word of commendation. The author's all pervading idealism was beyond the public's conception. It did not under? stand, us It does now, that it was in love's own holy name that the author raged. on account of this drama Ibsen's prospects seemed dark Indet d. To earn a livelihood by means of literary work seemed out of the question. He had a wife and child to support and his few friends sought a position for him in the customs department. Cut. fortu? nately, he was not to f dl. w in the fatal footsteps of Burns. At:'.iiis were des? perate, but not without u ray ol hope. Like the falcon. Ibsen has always needed adversity in <>i<!' r to soar high. He felt, however, that he must get away from Norway, no as not to be dis? tracted by the petty Interests of a pro? vincial city, as Christianin then was. Conscious of his own artistic powers, he applied to the government for n traveling stipend. Alte: much opposi? tion, especially from the university, tills was finally granted. But while hailstones of abuse were pelting hint a serpent of doubt seemed to be gnawing at bis heart- In the face of galling denunciation he seems momentarily to have distrusted his calling na a poet To rid his mind of this suspicion and to solve his own fate, at it were, he tried conclusions with blrr?eK in a dra'ua, <xh? Pretenders," This Is his best historical drama and was coroposed In the Incredibly short perjod of six weeks. It deals with a most Interesting epoch of Nerweglan history (the thirteenth century), but the plot centers about a doubter llko himself. The final outcome of the drama Is dire defeat to the doubter, and when It Is finished the author starts out into the world with a faith In himself that nothing has been able to shake. As early as 1873, long be? fore Jbsen had won fit me abroad. ESd niund tiosse, the English critic, said of this drama: 'The dramatic power dis? played in this work gives it a claim to be judged at a European tribunal." Upon the publication of "The Pretend? orr," Ibsen sought the classic fields of Homo to Und repose to feed his fancy ami to broaden his views with new Im? pressions of life. "BRAND" AND "PEER CYNT." The natural bent of Ibsen's mind Is satirical. This characteristic was not acquired as a result of bitterness duo to his unpleasant experience in his na? tive html. Jt was bred in the bone. A proof <>f this I:; the revolutionary tono of his first drama. "Cutilitm," written at the age pf 21, as an apothecary's ap? prentice, wiu-u lie presumably could have hud no very deep-seated grudge against the world. The romantic move? ment, with Its airy and flowery view of life, biased bis muse for a time, but It found true expression before he left Norway in "Love's Comedy" and in some minor poems. And now in a for? eign hind, unhampered by a disturbing environment, be yields himself fully and wholly to bis own inner prompt? ings, ami sends home <is(;.->) a satirical drama of Norwegian life, which, despite its stern and uncompromising idealism, set- the whole Scandinavian world of letters agog, and wrung recognition from his sternest critics. This was his dramatic poem, "Brand," the tragedy of the Idealist. It electrified the Scan? dinavian north and the effect on Ibsen himself seems to have been Intoxica? tion, lor in less than a year he hud pro? duced a most marvelous companion piece, the dramatic poem 'Peer Qynt," the trngl-comcdy of the egoist, a work which a. majority of Ibsen's fellow countrymen still regard as his master? piece. In these two works Ibsen had, ns Rosse says, ''turned the artillery of his delicate rhymes ami flowing epi gratnmatlc verse against the follies, narrowness and weaknesses of local Norwegian society ? * ?. In verso of a kind so rapid, brief und profuse and so absolutely uitfluggcd thai not Goethe himself has bequeathed to the world a dramatic tour de fore.- more amazing." When "Urand" appeared the public, read with zeal bis earlier works and marveled at their artistic excellence. Ibsen'? position as an author was now secure. His worka were sold in large editions. He might rest, on his laurels and not attempt anything In a now vein to endanger his newly bought reputa? tion. Hut this is not characteristic of Ibsen. Ilia dramas hitherto had been in the tradition of literature, and his genius would not rest until it had found Its own natural form of expression. This proved to be the modern social drama, which, as Been in Ibsen's last work, is a new form of drama. SOCIAL DRAMAS. The first of [bsch'il modern social (Irinas was "The Young Men's League," written in 1869. It is a satire on Nor? wegian local politics and Is too locally Norwegian to bo appreciated outside of Scandinavia. Its chief interest lies in Hi., fact that here for the first time in Scandinavian literature the language of tlie drama 1? the natural dialogue of average men, artistically concen? trated, it is tine, but Individualised and realistically expressive of the charac? ters. Seemingly In doubt as to whether he had found an adequate form of ex? pression. In- halted and hesitated, and did not produce another drama of this typo until ]>.77. In the Interval he pub? lished a ponderous double drama, "Em? peror .iml Galilean," tin- Lhcme of which had been on his mind since ills llrst days in Home. It Is the struggle be? tween heathendom and Christianity in the days of Julian the Apostate. Ib? sen Is said to consider this his master? piece, probably for the reason that in it be has presented more fully than elsewhere bis thoughts on human his? tory ami Hie philosopny of life. Kar as this work seems removed from the "living present," Ibsen's mind was, in fact, much occupied with probema of inod.-rii society, and since 1S77 he has at regular Intervals of about two years published eleven dramas, each of which is ".in arrow in the heart of the mun? dane goddess of modern society." In each of them he unveils some skeleton of modern life. Neither as cynic nor as sentimentalist does he put bis ques? tions of doubt, but with the penetrating Insight of an inexorable Idealist, whom nojhaip, no traditional or eonxantlODj al pretense, can deceive. He subjects to searching scrutiny such questions as the freedom of the individual In the social environment, the suppression of the Individuality of woman in mar? riage, the hypocrisy of "tlto pillars ot society" and pursues with withering scorn thai slippered ease which la con? tent to recline on the soft pillows of the existing order of things. In the tlrm conviction that everything that Is Is right and reasonable. Ibsen believes that this slat.- of mind means spiritual and Intellectual stagnation. Hence his pest.disturbing questions, ho sharply pointed that they cut to the quick. Note - This study will be concluded Thursday, June 15. EXAMINATIONS AND CERTIFI? CATES. At the end ot the teran of seventeen weeks, a series of questions on each course, prepared by Professor Seymour Eaton, will be published In the Vir? ginian-Pilot, and bl inks containing the questions will be furnished every sub? scriber maklnir application for same. Two weeks will be allowed ttfter the courses close, for the receipt of exami? nation papers containing nnswers. Tluse papers will be referred to a Hoard pf Examiners, who will assist Professor Eaton, and ns soon ns the work of examination Is complete, the result will be reported, and certificate? issued to the s'.udepts entitled to them. CONTRACTORS AND BUILDERS. In the market for L'.ran, Port? land or American Cement Pl?s? ier Hair, Oblinney Pipe Fire ll'l'ek Kath or ShiiiKlos. iseo us he'fore von boy. Wc nre sola acenn 'for Acme CVrnent Plas? ter New No. 115 Water street. BATCHELDER & COLLINS STENCIL G?TTE,RS, Rubber and Steel Stamps, Railroad, Hotel. BaggAM unit Brass Cheeks. Seafs, Radxcs, stencil amdStamp inks, Fads, Haler?, etc. PHCENIX simm and stencil Mi?, PrititfKt', C*. NMim mi Cfttib Stj.