Newspaper Page Text
VIRGINIAN - PILOT.
-BT THE:? (VIRGINIAN AND PILOT PUBLISHING COMPANY. i.0rt0lk mmm m daily pilot. (Consolidated March, isos.) Enteitd at the PoaiuMca at Norfolk. \a., aa second-dais matter. OFFICE: PILOT BUU.PINO. CITY HAUL AVKXI IS. norfolk. va. CPFICER3: A. H. Grand), President: W, S Wiik tison. Treasurer; Jj?hs 13. All?. Sec ??i*r>. BOARD OF DIRECTORS: A. 11 Grantly. 1. !>. Stark* Jr. T W Bhelton. It W. ShuUlee W. S. Wilkinson, James 13. Allen, U F. Donovan. 113 i:cr.? :;th a >* l?H? < orr. subscription rates: The VIRGIN IAN-PI LOT t? OV-Wwred i<> subscribers by carrier* in So/iolK ami v.cir.itv Portsmouth: Herkloy. Hurt?ih. West Norfolk. N'.wport News, tor 'u c'*:us per wcri. pay ?bte to tb) carrier. By mall. >o any oIucb lu t?? Lmu?u km tee. psstagr (reo': DAILY, one yenr - SB.OO ?? ?ix monlU? m m m ?. 00 lUrcc iiiouilts - - l?A0 ?? mir um .nil ? ? ? ?'>*, ADVERTISING BATES: AavertUe menm Inttrtea at Ilm rule of Ja cents 11 bquiro. lu st Insertion; each ?uusequent Insertion 40 ct'iilM. or SO ?.cuts, wnen ?"? ?erted ICv.iy Other Dav Contractors ;>:o Hot allowed to exceed iheir space or u<l vertlse other than their legitimate ous ?"?ss. except by paying especially .or too taire . Reo Ilm: Notices invar'nbsy W- cents per lln<* lirst Insertion. Each subsequent in? sertion 15 cents. No emplovcc or tho VIrglnlan-Ptlot Pub? lishing Company I? authorised to continei any obl'gatlon in the name of Inc com? pany or to make purchases in ine name of the name, except upon oratM s signet! by the PRESIDENT Ob' THE COMPANY. Jti ordrr t-i nvold Ooluy?, on account of pc-rsomil iil.senrc, i?ttrr.s r.nd nil commit RicStl'lis for Tht VIRGlNlAN-PILOl Khoidd not b- addressed to nny Individual connected with the ofllr.o. but simply to The VIRGINIAN AND P1LOI l'Ull LdSHING COM VAN Y. TWELVE PAGES SATURDAY, JUNE 10. Is'jD. THE LINE OF 1396. In a speech at Louisville. Mr. Bryan said: "But I want to talk awhile In those who left us in ls'ir,. because l wani thorn to come back and help us in this fight." On this tho Richmond Times re? marks: "Mr. Bryan can easily win these Dem? ocrats back t<> the stundartl by simply plnntlng that standard upon the lino of battle where tmccess was won In 1 S;?2." Here Is "the line of battle whore suc? cess was won In 1S92." as far as the money-quest Ion was concerned, as fol? lows: "Wc hold to ihc use of bo Hi gold nnd silver as the stand .rd money of the country, and to the coinage of both gold and silver without discrimination nrralnst either metal or charge for mint? age; but the dollar unit of coluagi i r both metals must be of equal intrinsic and exchangeable value, or be adjusted through International ngrecmcnt, or by euch safeguards of legislation as shall Insure the maintenance of the parity of the two metals and the equal power of every dollar at. all limes In the mar? kets and in the payment or debts; and ?wo demand thai all paper currency shall be kept nt par with and redeem? able in such coin. '(Gold and silver coin.)' AVe inslsl upon ibis policy ns especially necessary for the protection of the farmers and laboring classes, the first and most defenceless victims of unstable money and a fluctuating cur? rency." There is bimetallism, and a full mon? etary and coinage . quality betwei n goid and silver: provided thai Ihc <1 illar unit of both metals must be of equal value and power In the markets and payment of debts. There is no , -> n tial different o between that and (he present position of tin party (or "f any party, so far us the value of silver is concerned); for 16 to I Is the estab? lished legal parity of the two coins, nnd this parity the Democratic party ?will always maintain, when in power Moreover, we defy the Republican par? ly, or this administration, or its candi? dates, to propose any other ratio or parity thrn that of 16 to I. They dnrc not do it. All the nations and people i f the earth would protost, and the Amer? ican people would howl to everlasting political perdition any party or admin? istration that should attempt to alter this established parity or ratio of 10 to L It will do to prate about the commer? cial value of silver as a commodity, be? cause Ihc act of 1873 made that metal n commodity, deprived it of the privi? lege of coinage, and then and thereby no contracted the currency as to re? duce the commercial value of silver, n? opart from its monetary value, with that of nil commodities. This could not happen with gold, because it is not a commodity with n cnnimerci.il value, separate mid distinct from Its legally fixed money value, and for Hie simple nnd only reason?because gold has not been demonetised; and until gold metal is made a commodity by depriving it of Its monetary privileges In coinage, and Its fixed legal value as a money metal, It can have no such commercial or commodity value. Yet, until the net of 1ST:;, when the two metals were on on equality as coin and bullion, on the ratio of 16 to 1, silver metal Itself, as compared with gold metal, wn.s at on ?fWdaMs) VWnlun mw tie fetter. That would be their present substantial Status, notwithstanding any possible Increase In the production of either met al, or both metals, as the experience of centuries has demonstrated.. ARE AMERICANS INCAPABLE OF SELF GOVERNMENT. "A man goes to a tailor for a salt of clothes, a shoemaker for a patr of shoes i"'t shall we say that we must go t ? t! ? financiers for finances? 1 say ?no.' They are interested too much to be Just !' would be about as reason? able as employing ?? physician who is; Interested in your death if you had n suit ugilnst a judge would you take your ? ??? before the Jutlge for a de - : c Isio i - w. J. Bryan. So said William i Bryan a*. Louis? ville In dls fussing the issue* before the people Vet incut is the system to which we are coming The ruling Interests and llasses to mal? construe and ad? ln.ir. the law in all cases affecting themsch'es and to assume the facts to sun themselves. Ate we not alredy largely under that system as regards coinage, money,"currency banking arid finance? "Government by Injunction," since it was challenged by the Demo? cratic platform of l*:e; has taken great strides, riot only against all it opposes, but in behalf of itself and all It favors To deny It Is sheer nonsense, especially In all cases of popular rigiu. power, lib? erty and privilege. Not only docs the Federal judiciary make the law for It self, but to suit its interests, opinions and friendships; and In a recent case the Supreme Court of Virginia actually 'defied the Legislature and nullified our Constitution, Bill of Rights and Code, and under the pretence of "inherent right.'" 'claimed supremacy over the State and pet pie! Yet in all ease.* affect? ing a judge, or court, the matter must go "before the judge for decision," un? der the judicial assumption that judges have no peer, much )?. ss a superior.: We find the same theory Installing It? self In railroad and other corporations; while trusts are practically proclaim? ing that they are beyond all restraint and can and will rjn?as?they please, With no check or guide but their own exclusive interest-. Competition they consign to extermination, and none but themselves have any rights worthy of respect; and their own monopoly is to be master of all business, all men and nil capital that will not come into their conspiracy. And SO It goes; with ever Increasing rapidity and Insolence. Capital and its trusts are supreme. That is a fact. Law and right ami the people are out? law, d. and the only remaining question is: Will the people overthrow this usurpation In 1900, or will they submit In it'.' Are we not capable of self-gov < rnmcnt ? WHO CREATE TRUSTS AND MONOPOLIES ? The Baltimore Sun and the Washing? ton Post, together with the leading or? gans of both parties, that urge that the trusts will not be, and cannot be. a practical issue between the parties next year, as it is already understood that both parties, in their platforms, will de? clare with equal ferocity against trusts .and otber combines to restrlcr trade, competition and personal liberty in bus? iness, seem to forget that the Issue be? tween rogues and honest men is none tin- less distinct and practical because the rogues shout "."top thief!" Just as vehemently as the honest men. There are tru.-t.- < onipi.sed of Demo crals as well as of Ri publicans; but the Republicans are in supreme power. They maintain the tariff that is so nursing a mother > f trusts, and they are the authors, beneficiaries and de? fenders of the great trust and mon? opoly thai make all the other trusts and monopolies possible?the Money Trust Iho gold monopoly, with its pa? ter ally and ?nt.<ii'm?-. in Lhe Statlona] Ranking Association. Is the Baltimore si.n really a dupe of the Republican cry of "Stop thief?" Does It really be? lli vc that that cry will screen the cul? prit and put him en tin equality with tils pursuers, with the stolen goods still in the thiers pockets? No denun? ciation of trust nnd monopolies Is to be credited that .-mi exempts the trust of tri.st;: nnd the monopoly of monopolies the Mi ney Trust. It is e.f no men ? nt what a parly de i lau s in its platform about monopo? lies .iid trusts when it is responsible i'..r the money trust (the National Bank Asoi intIon), the gold-monopoly (the mono-metallism of the so-called single standard?money being that standard, thai single standard, no matter of how many materials legally made and guar anteed), the currency monopoly (the National Bank not? >. and the other trusts, monopolies and combines con? trolling everything anil evcrbmly by money and its r w ? t. Ves! the Kepubl in party Is for an anti-trust law (?), but opposed to its ? nforcement. Pennsylvania Democrats who ins,si upon cheap money and repudiation as the fundamental principle of Demo ratlc faith must lack either common understanding or fidelity to Democratic nt crests?Philadelphia Times. The Times has us IInest sensibilities shocked ami its highest sent'.ments'of b inor and honesty outrngi d by the pro? position t> restore silver to its cons:! I tit.on.11 . lace, from which It was re? moved by fraud, as well as violence to the constitution. Hut you see that was all done In behalf of the class who dis? dain cheap money, and who are able to have and use dear money. To restore cheap money to the people is "repudia? tion," snrs the Times; but it was all right to take their cheap money from the ;>eoj?le and substitute a money of a cost of sixteen times greater?In which, though bq much harder to get, the people had to pay all their debts? their wages and prices, however, being In the descending soalo to Balance the increased value of trold in th% hands of monied employers and purchasers. Yes. yes; we see: labor and produc? tion cheapened, but money made dearer and scarcer and harder to cot. That Is nlety, for the burden fallB on the multitude, who do evil, and the benefits all go to the few who love?money! Never before, since the formation of the Union, has any party or adminis? tration nrpeared before the people for endorsement, having so foul a record as this llanna-Alger-McKinley gang has made ud for Itself. At home and abroad its course has been one reeking abomination, from beginning to end, marked by every feature that may de? hne political debauchery and licentious? ness, and In foreign and domestic af? fairs It has announced and begun a program of Imperial and brutai force that should alarm every rational citi? zen. Can the people endorse It in 1900V Only force or fraud can do that. Call him Drayfus, or Dryfus, cr what you please, he's to Infamy no longer de? voted; save that, as victim of wrong's worst decrees, the honored name of Dreyfus will be quoted. E'en justice blushes, as she sees his wife, with brave and famous Zola at her side. In love and Joy grasp victory from the strife, where justice faltered as love ?-11 defied. Truth crushed to earth, will rise again, be sure, though State and army, and the law, conspire; for God and right champion the obscure, and bring all things and men to light and right. We see and hear a great deal of con? fident talk about the sure re-election of McKinley; but they who utter this talk ,as well as they who hear it, know full well that it is based on the hope of a repetition of the same bribery, cor? ruption, forgery, perjury, bull-dozing, fraud and other vlllanies of 1S96, where? by the people, as well as Bryan, were counted out. This talk ought to be accompanied by the blush of shame on the cheek of every utterer; but it Isn't,?all the more to his shame. And now it is rumored that General Horace Porter wants to come home,and Secretary of War Alger may be sent over to Paris to take his place. France is not very far away, but If Alger can? not be persuaded to go any farther let's send him there by all means. Besides, he can give our sister republic some pointers on how to run a court of In? quiry and make himself serviceable over there, now that Drayfus Is com? ing back to be re-investigated. If there is one thing that our Algy knows more about than another. It Is investigations. And now, rather than be left by his rival sensationalists In the pulpit, a Doctor of Divinity in Brooklyn attacks the Sunday-Schools as nureerles of re? ligious ignorance ami heresy. "The dark centuries of Sunday-School teach? ing" Is one of his phrases. Perhaps the Doctor doesn't know that there Is a secular code of Sunday laws, and hao forgotten the commandment to keep the seventh day holy. "Six days shall thou labor," &c. H?re Is a chunk of wisdom In an un? expected quarter?the N. Y. Sun. In | its Issue of May 31 It says: "Nowhere In the world, except here, does nnv sensible man contend for the liberty of establishing an unlimited number of banks and allowing them to inject their checks or drafts into the mass of the country's currency, so as to give them the value which attaches JO government money." When even the Sun dare say that much, may be the whole truth may yet have a chance. Volume or quantity is often, in many ' flrtngs; "l* n i r im] i l-'ii-' than y a I tie: as in rain, in wheat and all the neces? saries of life- As a rule, the less there is of anything in supply compared with demand, the greater the value, but the less happiness and prosperity. The an? nual average wheat-crop of the world, great or small, has about the same value; but a full crop is plenty, pros? perity and happiness; a half-crop is want, misery, famine and adversity. Heoause of the goings-on and carry? ings-on of our forefnthers about the tea, the stamp-tax and other matters, the British government and people held them to be riotous and turbulent peo? ple, unworthy nnd incapable of self government; but the essence of freedom nnd human right is that every people must judge of their government for themselves, whether it be self-govern? ment, or some other sort- That was the American doctrine until the ad? vent of Manna and bis Republicanism. The Dreyfus case is to be revised. Thank Justice for that; and we sin? cerely trust, for the honor of France and human nature, that outraged inno? cence may be vindicated, and the com? bined trusts of forgery, perjury nnd ?rimina! conspiracy may be brought to full exposure and to some measure of their deserts. The peop'.e, n i: their oppressors, are the judges of ttv r ?? wn rights, and also of the manner in which they shall de? mand and assert them; and, therefore, the organs of Mammon had "better make hay while the sun shines" (for them), than waste their time In shout? ing "Idle wind" at the people, as if they were driving hogs or cattle. As some horses may be soon curried, so some subjects may be briefly dis? posed of; but there are horses and sub? jects that require more time and at? tention, and upon which those are very profitably bestowed. Even the man who does not ride, Is often fond of horses, and lUtea ta see them well rnxwne*. VIRGINIAN-PILOT'S (Copyright?.!, iSp?) DIRECTED ?Y PROF. SSY.MOUR EATON SUBJECTS OF STUDY IN THE ORDER IN WHICH THEY WILL BE PUBLISHED. S VERY SUNDAY? History?Popular Studied In Ku n;ieun Ilii'.ory. EVERY TUESDAY? Geography?The World's Great C'cr.-.rr.oProducts. EVERY WEDNESDAY? Governments of the World ot To day. EVERY THURSDAY AND FRIDAY Literati.re?Popular Studie* :.i Literatur? EVEAY SATURDAY? Art?The WorlJ'a Oieal Artists. 1 ticke course* ? 111 continue unlit June tJOttt. i?j until, n in be Ueltt hi iln ii ?*iw?o n't a bit*!* f?i I" x ii in i n 111 it* roMtltteletl it- gtttttiiii'j of I'ertlOcnie*. THE WORLD'S GREAT ARTISTS. VIII.-TURWItr*. BY RUSSELL STUROIS, PH. D., F. A. 1. A. Joseph Mallord William Turner was a landscape painter, who was born In the heart of London In April, 177.'?, and who died at Chelsea, on the western border of the great town, In December, 1S51. He left behind him n great number of his own most important pictures, which he had retained in Iiis own London res-, idenco with the intention of leaving them to the nation; and he also left a vast mass of drawings, studies, records' of travel and of impressions, which, ' when brought together, form one of Ihe principal treasures now In the charge of the British National gallery. Be? sides nil this, ho had sohl works of art, paintings,, prints from his etchings and mezzotint plates, water color draw irgs and drawings In slighter nnd less brilliant form to such an amount nnd of such value that even at the low prices of his day he had brought to? gether a fortune T.-hlch for that time was very considerable?some $700,0001 in total value. It seems well to begin! our estimation with these Statements, because what we have next to say Is not of the sort which would lend one to' expect to hear a successful nnd money-I making artist. Turner's line art is al? most wholly free from the evidence of I neglected with ihelr drying sails and trailing rigging. London was a small, town In those days, a comparatively (mail town, with the country not so' very far away. And here comes In an? other consideration, for when he walk? ed four miles northwestward or north? eastward Turner was already far away in the Melds, where now he would still be confined between lines of In us's. The country around London Is not highly i picturesque, not very varied, in sur? face, nor with very marked character? istics: but it is attractive and some few , places of extraordinary beauty are ; well known to Londoners. Much of the . in,try which is now built up with rows of little dwellings which replace for the London artisan and wage-earn? er the tall New York buildings, whose floors ure rented out separately, was, even as late as within the memory of living men, a charming region for quiet walks. It was delightful, as late as lSHO. to cross the fields or follow the roadside to Dulwlch, where the picture gallery was and is. or to Greenwich, Where is the park before the hospital, dear to readers of Marryatt, or to Den and Hampstead Heath on the north, mark hill on the south or Kentishtown Then, too, 'Turner had, even In his ear? ly life, longer journeys afield than those we have imagined, for ho was one nf those precocious draughtsmen who take to laying washes of color and drawing TURNER. any other Influences than artistic ones. There is no purer line art In the world, none mere completely free from social Influences, from political or patriotic enthusiasm, from intruded personality of the artist, from the limitations which might have been expected to result from his geographical and social sur? roundings. He lived and died an artist and nothing else, so far as his life con? cerns the public. To himself, and to a very small number of occasional asso? ciates, he was a rough, even somewhat boorish, man, good-natured and capable of fits of generosity, but, in fae main, unsocial, desiring no intercourse but that with the nature he communed with and the art he studied; and he died so lonely that during the weeks that he lay upon his deathbed his place of res? idence was unknown and a few persons who Interested themselves in him found him out only at his last gasp. It Is. therefore, as an artist primarily that one needs to study Turner, and yet an Inquiry Into his early l.fe and sur-j rounding* is always valuable, because It reveals unexpected conditions as con? ducive, en the whole, to artistic excel? lence. Th-js, the boy Turner, being the son of a barber In a fairly successful way of business, nnd lsvtrtg in one Of the old streets not far from the! Thames, was free of the river streu? i and of the water side, and, as we knew from his paintings, loved truly that strange side of life. I; was not the stone-built embankment of to-day which he knew along the north bank of the Thames, but sea walls nnd piers of the roughest description, with mud banks between and beyond them bare at low tide, nnd a very filthy tidal estu? ary ebbing and flowing above thorn. It was not the great ships In exact trim, well appointed and apparently re? gardless of tempest and of danger nnd foul weather, that Turner knew, but above London bridge the shabby and careless lighters and barges, and below it, in the pool, the ships for forden parts, seaworthy and seagoing, indeed, but small and rough, aaa new, In their harbor guise, bedraiTBfled and seeming ! portrait! cf living and not living things about him. and by the time he was 13 hud gr.ineil a certain primitive skill in such matters, lie earned money by coloring prints; for It was customary In i 11.ose days to issue books illustrated by etchings and the like In what was prac I tically outline, and these were issued ' colored or plain at Hie choice of, and according to the price paid by. the cus? tomer. T-jrr.rr was employed, too, ap? parently when he was about 11. to add little water-color backgrounds to the drawings cf a London architect who knew his father. lie never went to school after lie was 13. but year by year worked more steadily every day and all day ions at drawing in one form cr another, and Mr. Hamerton ;? Iis us that little drawings by him were hung around his father's shop door and of? fered for sale at prices not exceeding i 3 shillings apiece. A notable thing in : nil this Is that he began his work ns an artist with something definite to j do, some practical work brought to him nr.d for which he was to receive some, definite remuneration. He was to re-' eelve more regular teaching than had marked his childhood, but probably no part of that teaching was more to the purpose than the early practice which accustomed him to ndy and constant work, all of it applied to a definite end. There were gocd painters at work when Turner was a hoy, but they were not landscape painters. On the other hand, a school of landscape painters grew up with him whose great reputa? tion Is overshadowed only by his own. Gainsborough was the onlv landscape painter cf great merit left from a pre? vious generation, nnd he died when Turner wns S years oi l; but Constable, John James Chalon, Copley Kidding. Olarkson Stanfleld. D vid Cox. David1 Roberts, Thomas Cn swlck. J. D. Hard? ing nnd George Cattcrmoje were nil of Turner's time, and it Is quite certain that no such roll of names could be made up of English practitioners of that epoch in any other art, including literature. Moreover, this list contrasts well with a list of artists of any other nation of that epoch. These artists were limited In range; they w*re fsefe&S and hesitating when venturing keyoas It; each of them had his keynote an< would hardly have dared compose IB any other; but this is characteristic ol artists in all times and in all countries, of none but the very greatest can we fail to see that this range is narrow and ilia attempt to go beyond it nearly al wVtys disastrous. Another name must be1, mentioned in this connection?that of Thomas Glrtln. who would have been a great painter had he lived, and of whom It Is said by some students of Turner that his genius was equal to that of the greut master himself. This must bo classed as one of those sayings \\ hieb are harmless except as they mis? lead, but which do mislead. Genius In line an Is the combination of laaicyfac? ulties which balance and counterbal? ance, check and intensify one another; which physical conditions, the eye, the hand and even physical disabilities and restrictions, go not only to modify, but actually to build up. Glrtln died at 27. John Keats at 26; what the future had in store for either, had he lived, It is In vain to surmise. Turner's life of In? cessant, varied and prodigious per? formance might have been as impossi? ble |a Glrtln as It was easy and natural to the master who lived and of whom we know more. When Turner was 21 years old he took a little studio of his own, still In tie' heart of London. In the same year he exhibited at the Royal academy eleven compositions, of which six were connected more or less with architec? ture, such as drawings of Bath Abbey, Salisbury cathedral and Llandaff ca? thedral in Wales, together with at bast one sea picture with fishermen's I boats. These paintings were sold, and ! many water colors were sold during ; these years, though not at high prices. I Moreover, the engravers, or rather the employers of the engravers, that is, the publishers of books, furnished the I young artist with a steady income I from the copyright or right of produc | lion of his drawings?a thing which, I then a:i now, was easily separable from i the tangible work of art Itself. Accord? ingly, when he was 22 years old Turner visited Yorkshire, and out of that visit j came that wonderful set of drawings from which were made the engravings . known as the Yorkshire series. Prints from these engravings arc In great de? mand among students of Turner's ear? lier and more severe work, but he did a vost deal of such work during these early years of his manhood, and good work, too, with his name signed to It and forming the chief attraction of such Interesting volumes of charming as? pect as are the annuals or that time. In the Itinerant, the Oxford Almanac, the Copperplate Mugnslnc nntl other pe? riodicals his print.: arc sllll to be stud? ied as well as In the annuals. He got to know Kngli nd well, fron? Kent In the I far southeast to th" Scottish border and to Chester in Ihc northwest, and he was known by the publishers as a workman who could bo trusted. This seems Important, for In this way the man's actual artistic career was made to last fifty-five years, und it Is not hard to see that the modern artist who goes to school until he is 17, stays In college until he Is 21. In the school of art until be is 26, and hardly does a day's work professionally before he is HO, will never have a working career of more than half a century. Moreover, Turner's lonelliu ss, his life as a bach? elor, with only his old father keeping house for him in London, his own soli? tary trips In England and later on the continent, all tended toward a single minded devotion to the practice of his art, which it may almost be said Is an essential to very great achievement. The excellent qunllty of the art pro? duced by some men who have produced but little Is not to be Ignored nor for? gotten nor questioned for a moment, but the central truth is that the best work has been done by men who have produced an enormous amount of work. It lias been suggested above that Turner's early manner wan firm and simple. It may also be said that It was subdued in color and rather full of de? tail. One might almost say that the characteristic painting of Turner's earlier time was portraitlike In tiiat it represented some gentleman's mansion on a hillside, witli rolling mountains beyond and don*=e woods at one side and a river In front; with a bridge, the whole in careful and patient gradations of green and gray. Few of these pic. tures have come to this country, hut there are one or two here, and there are many In London In public galleries. Nor is it possible to imagine a more useful study for a landscape painter than to analyse this early work and to pans from it to the work of the soon* coming middle style. For as early as 1S02, Turner then being 27 years old, he had completely abandoned his earlier manner and had begun his en Tcer as an Imaginative landscape paint, er. In other words, he had begun UT~ design as he drew from nature. He sat on a rock In front of Rheinfeld or Lausanne, or In a boat off Calais jetty or Hastings cliff, nnd drew with swift decision what lie saw In his mind as the true artistic interpretation of the scene?not at all the facti? as they were before him. Mountain slopes would be made steeper and cliffs higher; towers and steeples rising from the town be? fore him he brought Into couples and threes, one lowered, one heightened, un? til their grouping served the artist's turn. Buildings in no way a part of tie i < ne b fore him, but which he had seen in the town itself and associated with it, were brought Into the compo? sition. The compositions themselves were often of extreme subtlety, even in a swiftly made sketchbook drawing. At the same time color, which had always had an especial charm for him, as his i irlli r I tudics show, began now to take a permanent place in his work. No* was this color used indirectly and for effects inexplicable except to a highly trained palnter-crltlc. The color harm onies were In positive nnd glowing tints, and, although a still richer har niony was to come with later years, oven In his earlier manhood Turner was t colorisl of the more splendid and brilliant type, a painter of the school of Paul Veronese. As a curious in. stance of his feeling for color, and al. so of hia complete independence of the natural fact In hia landscape work, the unfinished drawings in the basement story of the National gallery should be studied. In these a lead-penciU outllno appi irs, finished completely all over his square of paper, but a strict out? line without the slightest Indication of shade .and of course none of actual shadow, only here and there a touch to show where the hollow in a rock might probably cause a deeper shade. Within this outline color seems to yhave been put either on the spot or soon nfter leaving it, but often in ons part only of the drawing. A little piece will be finished in water color and this colored part taken in the middle, or near it, of the penciled picture, and this little square of color will be found really completed, highly finished?If not absolutely finished, at least wrought so far toward completion that no serious change in its artistic character could ba made, even when it appeared as part of the whole composition, twenty Inches long or larger. This would seem to de? note great certainty on the part ol the artist as to his purpose in the drawing. fContinued ea Firth Fag**