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Virginian-pilot. (Norfolk, Va.) 1898-1911, June 10, 1899, Image 4

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VIRGINIAN - PILOT.
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TWELVE PAGES
SATURDAY, JUNE 10. Is'jD.
THE LINE OF 1396.
In a speech at Louisville. Mr. Bryan
said:
"But I want to talk awhile In those
who left us in ls'ir,. because l wani
thorn to come back and help us in this
fight."
On this tho Richmond Times re?
marks:
"Mr. Bryan can easily win these Dem?
ocrats back t<> the stundartl by simply
plnntlng that standard upon the lino of
battle where tmccess was won In 1 S;?2."
Here Is "the line of battle whore suc?
cess was won In 1S92." as far as the
money-quest Ion was concerned, as fol?
lows: "Wc hold to ihc use of bo Hi gold
nnd silver as the stand .rd money of
the country, and to the coinage of both
gold and silver without discrimination
nrralnst either metal or charge for mint?
age; but the dollar unit of coluagi i r
both metals must be of equal intrinsic
and exchangeable value, or be adjusted
through International ngrecmcnt, or by
euch safeguards of legislation as shall
Insure the maintenance of the parity
of the two metals and the equal power
of every dollar at. all limes In the mar?
kets and in the payment or debts; and
?wo demand thai all paper currency
shall be kept nt par with and redeem?
able in such coin. '(Gold and silver
coin.)' AVe inslsl upon ibis policy ns
especially necessary for the protection
of the farmers and laboring classes, the
first and most defenceless victims of
unstable money and a fluctuating cur?
rency."
There is bimetallism, and a full mon?
etary and coinage . quality betwei n goid
and silver: provided thai Ihc <1 illar
unit of both metals must be of equal
value and power In the markets and
payment of debts. There is no , -> n
tial different o between that and (he
present position of tin party (or "f any
party, so far us the value of silver is
concerned); for 16 to I Is the estab?
lished legal parity of the two coins,
nnd this parity the Democratic party
?will always maintain, when in power
Moreover, we defy the Republican par?
ly, or this administration, or its candi?
dates, to propose any other ratio or
parity thrn that of 16 to I. They dnrc
not do it. All the nations and people i f
the earth would protost, and the Amer?
ican people would howl to everlasting
political perdition any party or admin?
istration that should attempt to alter
this established parity or ratio of 10
to L
It will do to prate about the commer?
cial value of silver as a commodity, be?
cause Ihc act of 1873 made that metal
n commodity, deprived it of the privi?
lege of coinage, and then and thereby
no contracted the currency as to re?
duce the commercial value of silver, n?
opart from its monetary value, with
that of nil commodities. This could not
happen with gold, because it is not a
commodity with n cnnimerci.il value,
separate mid distinct from Its legally
fixed money value, and for Hie simple
nnd only reason?because gold has not
been demonetised; and until gold metal
is made a commodity by depriving it
of Its monetary privileges In coinage,
and Its fixed legal value as a money
metal, It can have no such commercial
or commodity value. Yet, until the net
of 1ST:;, when the two metals were on
on equality as coin and bullion, on the
ratio of 16 to 1, silver metal Itself, as
compared with gold metal, wn.s at on
?fWdaMs) VWnlun mw tie fetter.
That would be their present substantial
Status, notwithstanding any possible
Increase In the production of either met
al, or both metals, as the experience of
centuries has demonstrated..
ARE AMERICANS INCAPABLE OF
SELF GOVERNMENT.
"A man goes to a tailor for a salt of
clothes, a shoemaker for a patr of
shoes i"'t shall we say that we must
go t ? t! ? financiers for finances? 1 say
?no.' They are interested too much to
be Just !' would be about as reason?
able as employing ?? physician who is;
Interested in your death if you had
n suit ugilnst a judge would you take
your ? ??? before the Jutlge for a de - :
c Isio i - w. J. Bryan.
So said William i Bryan a*. Louis?
ville In dls fussing the issue* before the
people Vet incut is the system to which
we are coming The ruling Interests
and llasses to mal? construe and ad?
ln.ir. the law in all cases affecting
themsch'es and to assume the facts to
sun themselves. Ate we not alredy
largely under that system as regards
coinage, money,"currency banking arid
finance? "Government by Injunction,"
since it was challenged by the Demo?
cratic platform of l*:e; has taken great
strides, riot only against all it opposes,
but in behalf of itself and all It favors
To deny It Is sheer nonsense, especially
In all cases of popular rigiu. power, lib?
erty and privilege. Not only docs the
Federal judiciary make the law for It
self, but to suit its interests, opinions
and friendships; and In a recent case
the Supreme Court of Virginia actually
'defied the Legislature and nullified our
Constitution, Bill of Rights and Code,
and under the pretence of "inherent
right.'" 'claimed supremacy over the
State and pet pie! Yet in all ease.* affect?
ing a judge, or court, the matter must
go "before the judge for decision," un?
der the judicial assumption that judges
have no peer, much )?. ss a superior.:
We find the same theory Installing It?
self In railroad and other corporations;
while trusts are practically proclaim?
ing that they are beyond all restraint
and can and will rjn?as?they please,
With no check or guide but their own
exclusive interest-. Competition they
consign to extermination, and none but
themselves have any rights worthy of
respect; and their own monopoly is to
be master of all business, all men and
nil capital that will not come into their
conspiracy.
And SO It goes; with ever Increasing
rapidity and Insolence. Capital and its
trusts are supreme. That is a fact.
Law and right ami the people are out?
law, d. and the only remaining question
is: Will the people overthrow this
usurpation In 1900, or will they submit
In it'.' Are we not capable of self-gov
< rnmcnt ?
WHO CREATE TRUSTS AND
MONOPOLIES ?
The Baltimore Sun and the Washing?
ton Post, together with the leading or?
gans of both parties, that urge that the
trusts will not be, and cannot be. a
practical issue between the parties next
year, as it is already understood that
both parties, in their platforms, will de?
clare with equal ferocity against trusts
.and otber combines to restrlcr trade,
competition and personal liberty in bus?
iness, seem to forget that the Issue be?
tween rogues and honest men is none
tin- less distinct and practical because
the rogues shout "."top thief!" Just as
vehemently as the honest men.
There are tru.-t.- < onipi.sed of Demo
crals as well as of Ri publicans; but the
Republicans are in supreme power.
They maintain the tariff that is so
nursing a mother > f trusts, and they
are the authors, beneficiaries and de?
fenders of the great trust and mon?
opoly thai make all the other trusts
and monopolies possible?the Money
Trust Iho gold monopoly, with its pa?
ter ally and ?nt.<ii'm?-. in Lhe Statlona]
Ranking Association. Is the Baltimore
si.n really a dupe of the Republican
cry of "Stop thief?" Does It really be?
lli vc that that cry will screen the cul?
prit and put him en tin equality with
tils pursuers, with the stolen goods
still in the thiers pockets? No denun?
ciation of trust nnd monopolies Is to be
credited that .-mi exempts the trust of
tri.st;: nnd the monopoly of monopolies
the Mi ney Trust.
It is e.f no men ? nt what a parly de
i lau s in its platform about monopo?
lies .iid trusts when it is responsible
i'..r the money trust (the National Bank
Asoi intIon), the gold-monopoly (the
mono-metallism of the so-called single
standard?money being that standard,
thai single standard, no matter of how
many materials legally made and guar
anteed), the currency monopoly (the
National Bank not? >. and the other
trusts, monopolies and combines con?
trolling everything anil evcrbmly by
money and its r w ? t.
Ves! the Kepubl in party Is for an
anti-trust law (?), but opposed to its
? nforcement.
Pennsylvania Democrats who ins,si
upon cheap money and repudiation as
the fundamental principle of Demo
ratlc faith must lack either common
understanding or fidelity to Democratic
nt crests?Philadelphia Times.
The Times has us IInest sensibilities
shocked ami its highest sent'.ments'of
b inor and honesty outrngi d by the pro?
position t> restore silver to its cons:!
I tit.on.11 . lace, from which It was re?
moved by fraud, as well as violence to
the constitution. Hut you see that was
all done In behalf of the class who dis?
dain cheap money, and who are able to
have and use dear money. To restore
cheap money to the people is "repudia?
tion," snrs the Times; but it was all
right to take their cheap money from
the ;>eoj?le and substitute a money of
a cost of sixteen times greater?In
which, though bq much harder to get,
the people had to pay all their debts?
their wages and prices, however, being
In the descending soalo to Balance the
increased value of trold in th% hands
of monied employers and purchasers.
Yes. yes; we see: labor and produc?
tion cheapened, but money made dearer
and scarcer and harder to cot. That
Is nlety, for the burden fallB on the
multitude, who do evil, and the benefits
all go to the few who love?money!
Never before, since the formation of
the Union, has any party or adminis?
tration nrpeared before the people for
endorsement, having so foul a record as
this llanna-Alger-McKinley gang has
made ud for Itself. At home and
abroad its course has been one reeking
abomination, from beginning to end,
marked by every feature that may de?
hne political debauchery and licentious?
ness, and In foreign and domestic af?
fairs It has announced and begun a
program of Imperial and brutai force
that should alarm every rational citi?
zen. Can the people endorse It in 1900V
Only force or fraud can do that.
Call him Drayfus, or Dryfus, cr what
you please, he's to Infamy no longer de?
voted; save that, as victim of wrong's
worst decrees, the honored name of
Dreyfus will be quoted. E'en justice
blushes, as she sees his wife, with
brave and famous Zola at her side. In
love and Joy grasp victory from the
strife, where justice faltered as love
?-11 defied. Truth crushed to earth, will
rise again, be sure, though State and
army, and the law, conspire; for God
and right champion the obscure, and
bring all things and men to light and
right.
We see and hear a great deal of con?
fident talk about the sure re-election
of McKinley; but they who utter this
talk ,as well as they who hear it, know
full well that it is based on the hope
of a repetition of the same bribery, cor?
ruption, forgery, perjury, bull-dozing,
fraud and other vlllanies of 1S96, where?
by the people, as well as Bryan, were
counted out.
This talk ought to be accompanied by
the blush of shame on the cheek of
every utterer; but it Isn't,?all the more
to his shame.
And now it is rumored that General
Horace Porter wants to come home,and
Secretary of War Alger may be sent
over to Paris to take his place. France
is not very far away, but If Alger can?
not be persuaded to go any farther let's
send him there by all means. Besides,
he can give our sister republic some
pointers on how to run a court of In?
quiry and make himself serviceable
over there, now that Drayfus Is com?
ing back to be re-investigated. If there
is one thing that our Algy knows more
about than another. It Is investigations.
And now, rather than be left by his
rival sensationalists In the pulpit, a
Doctor of Divinity in Brooklyn attacks
the Sunday-Schools as nureerles of re?
ligious ignorance ami heresy. "The
dark centuries of Sunday-School teach?
ing" Is one of his phrases. Perhaps the
Doctor doesn't know that there Is a
secular code of Sunday laws, and hao
forgotten the commandment to keep
the seventh day holy. "Six days shall
thou labor," &c.
H?re Is a chunk of wisdom In an un?
expected quarter?the N. Y. Sun. In |
its Issue of May 31 It says:
"Nowhere In the world, except here,
does nnv sensible man contend for the
liberty of establishing an unlimited
number of banks and allowing them to
inject their checks or drafts into the
mass of the country's currency, so as
to give them the value which attaches
JO government money."
When even the Sun dare say that
much, may be the whole truth may yet
have a chance.
Volume or quantity is often, in many '
flrtngs; "l* n i r im] i l-'ii-' than y a I tie:
as in rain, in wheat and all the neces?
saries of life- As a rule, the less there
is of anything in supply compared with
demand, the greater the value, but the
less happiness and prosperity. The an?
nual average wheat-crop of the world,
great or small, has about the same
value; but a full crop is plenty, pros?
perity and happiness; a half-crop is
want, misery, famine and adversity.
Heoause of the goings-on and carry?
ings-on of our forefnthers about the
tea, the stamp-tax and other matters,
the British government and people held
them to be riotous and turbulent peo?
ple, unworthy nnd incapable of self
government; but the essence of freedom
nnd human right is that every people
must judge of their government for
themselves, whether it be self-govern?
ment, or some other sort- That was
the American doctrine until the ad?
vent of Manna and bis Republicanism.
The Dreyfus case is to be revised.
Thank Justice for that; and we sin?
cerely trust, for the honor of France
and human nature, that outraged inno?
cence may be vindicated, and the com?
bined trusts of forgery, perjury nnd
?rimina! conspiracy may be brought to
full exposure and to some measure of
their deserts.
The peop'.e, n i: their oppressors, are
the judges of ttv r ?? wn rights, and also
of the manner in which they shall de?
mand and assert them; and, therefore,
the organs of Mammon had "better
make hay while the sun shines" (for
them), than waste their time In shout?
ing "Idle wind" at the people, as if
they were driving hogs or cattle.
As some horses may be soon curried,
so some subjects may be briefly dis?
posed of; but there are horses and sub?
jects that require more time and at?
tention, and upon which those are very
profitably bestowed. Even the man
who does not ride, Is often fond of
horses, and lUtea ta see them well
rnxwne*.
VIRGINIAN-PILOT'S
(Copyright?.!, iSp?)
DIRECTED ?Y PROF. SSY.MOUR EATON
SUBJECTS OF STUDY IN THE ORDER IN WHICH THEY
WILL BE PUBLISHED.
S VERY SUNDAY?
History?Popular Studied In Ku n;ieun Ilii'.ory.
EVERY TUESDAY?
Geography?The World's Great C'cr.-.rr.oProducts.
EVERY WEDNESDAY?
Governments of the World ot To day.
EVERY THURSDAY AND FRIDAY
Literati.re?Popular Studie* :.i Literatur?
EVEAY SATURDAY?
Art?The WorlJ'a Oieal Artists.
1 ticke course* ? 111 continue unlit June tJOttt.
i?j until, n in be Ueltt hi iln ii ?*iw?o n't a bit*!* f?i
I" x ii in i n 111 it* roMtltteletl
it- gtttttiiii'j of I'ertlOcnie*.
THE WORLD'S GREAT ARTISTS.
VIII.-TURWItr*.
BY RUSSELL STUROIS,
PH. D., F. A. 1. A.
Joseph Mallord William Turner was a
landscape painter, who was born In the
heart of London In April, 177.'?, and who
died at Chelsea, on the western border
of the great town, In December, 1S51.
He left behind him n great number of
his own most important pictures, which
he had retained in Iiis own London res-,
idenco with the intention of leaving
them to the nation; and he also left a
vast mass of drawings, studies, records'
of travel and of impressions, which, '
when brought together, form one of Ihe
principal treasures now In the charge
of the British National gallery. Be?
sides nil this, ho had sohl works of
art, paintings,, prints from his etchings
and mezzotint plates, water color draw
irgs and drawings In slighter nnd less
brilliant form to such an amount nnd
of such value that even at the low
prices of his day he had brought to?
gether a fortune T.-hlch for that time
was very considerable?some $700,0001
in total value. It seems well to begin!
our estimation with these Statements,
because what we have next to say Is not
of the sort which would lend one to'
expect to hear a successful nnd money-I
making artist. Turner's line art is al?
most wholly free from the evidence of
I neglected with ihelr drying sails and
trailing rigging. London was a small,
town In those days, a comparatively
(mail town, with the country not so'
very far away. And here comes In an?
other consideration, for when he walk?
ed four miles northwestward or north?
eastward Turner was already far away
in the Melds, where now he would still
be confined between lines of In us's. The
country around London Is not highly
i picturesque, not very varied, in sur?
face, nor with very marked character?
istics: but it is attractive and some few
, places of extraordinary beauty are
; well known to Londoners. Much of the
. in,try which is now built up with
rows of little dwellings which replace
for the London artisan and wage-earn?
er the tall New York buildings, whose
floors ure rented out separately, was,
even as late as within the memory of
living men, a charming region for quiet
walks. It was delightful, as late as
lSHO. to cross the fields or follow the
roadside to Dulwlch, where the picture
gallery was and is. or to Greenwich,
Where is the park before the hospital,
dear to readers of Marryatt, or to Den
and Hampstead Heath on the north,
mark hill on the south or Kentishtown
Then, too, 'Turner had, even In his ear?
ly life, longer journeys afield than those
we have imagined, for ho was one nf
those precocious draughtsmen who take
to laying washes of color and drawing
TURNER.
any other Influences than artistic ones.
There is no purer line art In the world,
none mere completely free from social
Influences, from political or patriotic
enthusiasm, from intruded personality
of the artist, from the limitations which
might have been expected to result
from his geographical and social sur?
roundings. He lived and died an artist
and nothing else, so far as his life con?
cerns the public. To himself, and to a
very small number of occasional asso?
ciates, he was a rough, even somewhat
boorish, man, good-natured and capable
of fits of generosity, but, in fae main,
unsocial, desiring no intercourse but
that with the nature he communed with
and the art he studied; and he died so
lonely that during the weeks that he
lay upon his deathbed his place of res?
idence was unknown and a few persons
who Interested themselves in him found
him out only at his last gasp. It Is.
therefore, as an artist primarily that
one needs to study Turner, and yet an
Inquiry Into his early l.fe and sur-j
rounding* is always valuable, because
It reveals unexpected conditions as con?
ducive, en the whole, to artistic excel?
lence. Th-js, the boy Turner, being the
son of a barber In a fairly successful
way of business, nnd lsvtrtg in one Of
the old streets not far from the!
Thames, was free of the river streu? i
and of the water side, and, as we knew
from his paintings, loved truly that
strange side of life. I; was not the
stone-built embankment of to-day
which he knew along the north bank of
the Thames, but sea walls nnd piers of
the roughest description, with mud
banks between and beyond them bare
at low tide, nnd a very filthy tidal estu?
ary ebbing and flowing above thorn.
It was not the great ships In exact
trim, well appointed and apparently re?
gardless of tempest and of danger nnd
foul weather, that Turner knew, but
above London bridge the shabby and
careless lighters and barges, and below
it, in the pool, the ships for forden
parts, seaworthy and seagoing, indeed,
but small and rough, aaa new, In their
harbor guise, bedraiTBfled and seeming
! portrait! cf living and not living things
about him. and by the time he was 13
hud gr.ineil a certain primitive skill in
such matters, lie earned money by
coloring prints; for It was customary In
i 11.ose days to issue books illustrated by
etchings and the like In what was prac
I tically outline, and these were issued
' colored or plain at Hie choice of, and
according to the price paid by. the cus?
tomer. T-jrr.rr was employed, too, ap?
parently when he was about 11. to add
little water-color backgrounds to the
drawings cf a London architect who
knew his father. lie never went to
school after lie was 13. but year by
year worked more steadily every day
and all day ions at drawing in one form
cr another, and Mr. Hamerton ;? Iis us
that little drawings by him were hung
around his father's shop door and of?
fered for sale at prices not exceeding
i 3 shillings apiece. A notable thing in
: nil this Is that he began his work ns
an artist with something definite to j
do, some practical work brought to him
nr.d for which he was to receive some,
definite remuneration. He was to re-'
eelve more regular teaching than had
marked his childhood, but probably no
part of that teaching was more to the
purpose than the early practice which
accustomed him to ndy and constant
work, all of it applied to a definite end.
There were gocd painters at work
when Turner was a hoy, but they were
not landscape painters. On the other
hand, a school of landscape painters
grew up with him whose great reputa?
tion Is overshadowed only by his own.
Gainsborough was the onlv landscape
painter cf great merit left from a pre?
vious generation, nnd he died when
Turner wns S years oi l; but Constable,
John James Chalon, Copley Kidding.
Olarkson Stanfleld. D vid Cox. David1
Roberts, Thomas Cn swlck. J. D. Hard?
ing nnd George Cattcrmoje were nil of
Turner's time, and it Is quite certain
that no such roll of names could be
made up of English practitioners of
that epoch in any other art, including
literature. Moreover, this list contrasts
well with a list of artists of any other
nation of that epoch. These artists
were limited In range; they w*re fsefe&S
and hesitating when venturing keyoas
It; each of them had his keynote an<
would hardly have dared compose IB
any other; but this is characteristic ol
artists in all times and in all countries,
of none but the very greatest can we
fail to see that this range is narrow and
ilia attempt to go beyond it nearly al
wVtys disastrous. Another name must
be1, mentioned in this connection?that
of Thomas Glrtln. who would have been
a great painter had he lived, and of
whom It Is said by some students of
Turner that his genius was equal to
that of the greut master himself. This
must bo classed as one of those sayings
\\ hieb are harmless except as they mis?
lead, but which do mislead. Genius In
line an Is the combination of laaicyfac?
ulties which balance and counterbal?
ance, check and intensify one another;
which physical conditions, the eye, the
hand and even physical disabilities and
restrictions, go not only to modify, but
actually to build up. Glrtln died at 27.
John Keats at 26; what the future had
in store for either, had he lived, It is
In vain to surmise. Turner's life of In?
cessant, varied and prodigious per?
formance might have been as impossi?
ble |a Glrtln as It was easy and natural
to the master who lived and of whom
we know more.
When Turner was 21 years old he
took a little studio of his own, still In
tie' heart of London. In the same year
he exhibited at the Royal academy
eleven compositions, of which six were
connected more or less with architec?
ture, such as drawings of Bath Abbey,
Salisbury cathedral and Llandaff ca?
thedral in Wales, together with at
bast one sea picture with fishermen's
I boats. These paintings were sold, and
! many water colors were sold during
; these years, though not at high prices.
I Moreover, the engravers, or rather the
employers of the engravers, that is,
the publishers of books, furnished the
I young artist with a steady income
I from the copyright or right of produc
| lion of his drawings?a thing which,
I then a:i now, was easily separable from
i the tangible work of art Itself. Accord?
ingly, when he was 22 years old Turner
visited Yorkshire, and out of that visit
j came that wonderful set of drawings
from which were made the engravings
. known as the Yorkshire series. Prints
from these engravings arc In great de?
mand among students of Turner's ear?
lier and more severe work, but he did
a vost deal of such work during these
early years of his manhood, and good
work, too, with his name signed to It
and forming the chief attraction of such
Interesting volumes of charming as?
pect as are the annuals or that time.
In the Itinerant, the Oxford Almanac,
the Copperplate Mugnslnc nntl other pe?
riodicals his print.: arc sllll to be stud?
ied as well as In the annuals. He got
to know Kngli nd well, fron? Kent In the
I far southeast to th" Scottish border and
to Chester in Ihc northwest, and he
was known by the publishers as a
workman who could bo trusted. This
seems Important, for In this way the
man's actual artistic career was made
to last fifty-five years, und it Is not
hard to see that the modern artist who
goes to school until he is 17, stays In
college until he Is 21. In the school of
art until be is 26, and hardly does a
day's work professionally before he is
HO, will never have a working career of
more than half a century. Moreover,
Turner's lonelliu ss, his life as a bach?
elor, with only his old father keeping
house for him in London, his own soli?
tary trips In England and later on the
continent, all tended toward a single
minded devotion to the practice of his
art, which it may almost be said Is an
essential to very great achievement.
The excellent qunllty of the art pro?
duced by some men who have produced
but little Is not to be Ignored nor for?
gotten nor questioned for a moment,
but the central truth is that the best
work has been done by men who have
produced an enormous amount of work.
It lias been suggested above that
Turner's early manner wan firm and
simple. It may also be said that It was
subdued in color and rather full of de?
tail. One might almost say that the
characteristic painting of Turner's
earlier time was portraitlike In tiiat it
represented some gentleman's mansion
on a hillside, witli rolling mountains
beyond and don*=e woods at one side
and a river In front; with a bridge, the
whole in careful and patient gradations
of green and gray. Few of these pic.
tures have come to this country, hut
there are one or two here, and there
are many In London In public galleries.
Nor is it possible to imagine a more
useful study for a landscape painter
than to analyse this early work and to
pans from it to the work of the soon*
coming middle style. For as early as
1S02, Turner then being 27 years old,
he had completely abandoned his
earlier manner and had begun his en
Tcer as an Imaginative landscape paint,
er. In other words, he had begun UT~
design as he drew from nature. He sat
on a rock In front of Rheinfeld or
Lausanne, or In a boat off Calais jetty
or Hastings cliff, nnd drew with swift
decision what lie saw In his mind as
the true artistic interpretation of the
scene?not at all the facti? as they were
before him. Mountain slopes would be
made steeper and cliffs higher; towers
and steeples rising from the town be?
fore him he brought Into couples and
threes, one lowered, one heightened, un?
til their grouping served the artist's
turn. Buildings in no way a part of
tie i < ne b fore him, but which he had
seen in the town itself and associated
with it, were brought Into the compo?
sition. The compositions themselves
were often of extreme subtlety, even in
a swiftly made sketchbook drawing. At
the same time color, which had always
had an especial charm for him, as his
i irlli r I tudics show, began now to take
a permanent place in his work. No*
was this color used indirectly and for
effects inexplicable except to a highly
trained palnter-crltlc. The color harm
onies were In positive nnd glowing
tints, and, although a still richer har
niony was to come with later years,
oven In his earlier manhood Turner was
t colorisl of the more splendid and
brilliant type, a painter of the school
of Paul Veronese. As a curious in.
stance of his feeling for color, and al.
so of hia complete independence of the
natural fact In hia landscape work, the
unfinished drawings in the basement
story of the National gallery should be
studied. In these a lead-penciU outllno
appi irs, finished completely all over
his square of paper, but a strict out?
line without the slightest Indication of
shade .and of course none of actual
shadow, only here and there a touch
to show where the hollow in a rock
might probably cause a deeper shade.
Within this outline color seems to
yhave been put either on the spot or
soon nfter leaving it, but often in ons
part only of the drawing. A little
piece will be finished in water color and
this colored part taken in the middle,
or near it, of the penciled picture, and
this little square of color will be found
really completed, highly finished?If not
absolutely finished, at least wrought so
far toward completion that no serious
change in its artistic character could ba
made, even when it appeared as part
of the whole composition, twenty Inches
long or larger. This would seem to de?
note great certainty on the part ol the
artist as to his purpose in the drawing.
fContinued ea Firth Fag**

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