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Daily Richmond Whig. [volume] (Richmond, Va.) 1861-1862, February 03, 1862, Image 1

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Kickm< mo. 84 h October. 1^61 )
• 'If following regulations are p escribedund.-r 'An act lo pro
1 vide a w ode of authenticating claim t for miner ugalar >ht
Confederate eu'.ci not otherwise provided for,” approved SOth
1 Aug;st, 1*81.
I a stateaent of the claim or demand, with the da*e of a -crual,
®u.« besw. rnli by tae pers >b having the claim «ir demand If living;
: uu eae hr be ifeM t tr*>»u his r.sm • in |l r service < fife
i » - rloi * hands of the enemy, anj ttsa be an ag-ct. r
nom-memb.of ha amity, or unless he be un J?r le4al *LsabUI*
ty, an »then ojr hta OomiaHtS*. or Guardian, or some- ann'.tr of
M* Hintlv And If th* per* n be dea l, then the affidavit mav be
in v l by hie Ixrcuior, or Adm*niitrator, or any member of Lie
»|. i h Affidavit most state the clUaeothlp of the original clal n
ant, and If made bv any oilier thin -ueb original cla.maut, It toast
also state »h t It U so made and the relation of the parson mak
ILK it. as agent, wife, Ac If the or.glnal claimant be dead,
ithe affidavit must also slate the na nee and citltensjip of the per
sons Interested in the claim or demand, by descent or distribu
HI. The affidavit may be made before a 0. 8 district Judge, or
CoxunliSloner, or Clerk of a C S. ©.strict 0 mrt or before any
pirson authorised by any one of the Confederate States t«# admiu
i liter oa’hi.
IV the officer before whom the affl davit shall be made, shall
admlnlst-r w» the witless or wttnessee offered In support of the
, i ,‘Qi or demaud, an oath, to make true amwers to Uir following
ntetr \tu ru s, and t > such ot'.ers as may be proposed In behalf
01 the alms which shall be propounded la wriWng or printing,
i |th ffl el thill write, or cause ta be written, the answns
in sde thereto, and have them sign *J by the witness making
V the officer shall certify that he Is such an officer as these
reguiatl >ua sS.horlxi to act in the premise*, and that the affl >*•
Iv i and answers * re sw. ru to before h.m, and shall further state
m the » -rt r. tte, Lis o pints* of the justness of the clans oi dr
!B,ol; and d hesbail believe It to »•* unjust, lo whole o- lu pail,
*kt shall *lale hts reason therefor, and he tnay lend to lisle depart
me It anv affidavit - r affid tv b, tending to show an h uniustnee*
\ 1 Tr r affidavit*, th- interrogator le« and answers t err to, and
sue*, d .'wmeatary evidence ae may be off ?red, and the certificate
I of the officer before whom the proceeding shall have been had,
. ■ I
li lr:y 1 vs after the examination of the witnesses si.ail have been
cwuclu led.
1 Do you know, or dl l you ko-w the said taatne of orlg nal
claimant »* If yea, s‘%t- l ow lung, and the place or placet of his
rew l.no \ and the dal-a thereof, since hr w.»s known lo you*
. Mat- whether o* net, he r»., or is a citls. n of the Confident
rate Plate*, audt »* facts upsn wh'ch you base y»>ur opinion* If
• |gad stat whs trs rsbtltd by dtient or Mitbalra to ttw
cia. u on .1 -utan i. %nd their places of residence.
Hub , or If d \tl, have th? persons uex by d’seebtor dls
I triuut'• , t *en frlen»i \ or unfriendly to the Cocf«derate *tatrs
« - • • the • h of May, l*uil v If vea, state every fact and cl rum
itsoce ti \;n you" krowiedgw, of *uch unfriendly character and
c. u*i«m
4 3ta*c tally all that you know In rtga.d to the origin and
amount of the claim r demand, aud every tMog tending to show
, »jus nru or vtjwskns*.*, In wtide or In part.
.*> a*r whether or not you have way claim a*al.»*t ths rUlm
•nt. If living, or ug ilost his estate. If he be dead; w ether cr not
ycu are r-'atedto hln, bybkolor marriage, and wheth-r or not
you eipect any benefit from the suroess of Uis claim or dem»uu*
fbrejr lug rules are not intended to preclude any other ev
deoce which say be pertinent, or which a parly may deem mate
The 'emlnlne pronoun cr the plural shall, of course, be subsutu
ted whenever the facta rsqu'rclL
ante* is an arum to ixatw* os tas ur« ntswucr arrvaasTe, was
> .. i. k - k i; aw sswmii s, aoatmtt in runs grans
1 • c vi% stalsof e i n.ted Spates ha vine alms f *r tail"g
t e Ce—»iis, wiUp.» >rthrm u »derthe rules preur*be I by the laws
V.h v r: e I 3 at - for obUln ng th-tr pav; In a- ca»es st.i g
P t »:•*, a hetrer they have received any pay therefor, andifs;,
what amount.
Such M%r» i .Is w»n also certifv to this Department tv e amount
dus to any Assists?: for taktccthe Ceos u, »s provided by the law
of ’he Un tedKtatss, and each aimum lfa!*hal must mskesn
%ffi lavtl or furtbh othe- •atlsfac’ory evklenc , »• to t-'e amount.
• anv. rail to! n and whether Lhe same w a In u ait. or In full, of
'us claim sh-n paid.
If a c- ri.* ate of the amount doe to anj Marshal or Asststan
Ma-»h*l ««< give c by the Gcvernmabt of the Coital date* It suit
t>* died.
Marshal*, District Attorneys, O'.mm'asioncr* or CVkiofDls
rrlct cr Crealt Cou t* of tbe Called Sit'«s, haying claim* Certain
e« <r fti-agnlu* • Unite 1 8t*t-s vid state the same, errirt -d,
u • i case*. ‘•y a# faelt, and have them submitted t> ard appro*
1 by the judges < 1 the District Court- of the Coatalerue etalei
it c $i m«na -r si they »ere reqUred to do, bp law, prior t«
$: *\ *- ' er, 1- * Ac t i » a such ales, every Hartkal o*
:!1 *er will t>- required »o state wh*-thrr he had any money
a bn ' ar • 'enging f» the Uuued 8t»t t when he ceased to act
„ * ataiue: ar d if *o, what aacun. and a hat dtsposii.on hat
been tu* !e o* th« taiae.

WAN riD.
I /A fki’ViA I'lTTLll, Itnmediately. A food prlcawi'ibt
ll%UUv BAMPBON JONit* A g’t
Jam** Orncr Main aa 1 BUlBl nets
HI UTAH V AT MENTION — n.e un.Jers gn u H.M
on baud, and a< maun? scoring l»r vs prewed le tf rs, Urott
-^t'. es. Cross .annuo*, Ac., fur Military Caps, and alt > tv call the
attrutlon cl the military to *h- fact.
Or l-.-s promptly elm led to,
A 1 iHiers of tri'galry must contain stamp to pay return portage
Brand* vf a*.' aiaet an > des'.gu* ma le to order aisj, siuail inn
art LKWI9 A K *.
B*and Cotter*, loth between Main an 1 Cary sire, u
Ailiirwa by mail, lewis A R«rtnt, H i NS, HflkflOld, Va.
% ^ II INK \
e » me t • iw !ve y*ars oil, the larged and fines* stock in thi.
city \n .elect from, for sale by Mf 4 Wll.UCI BOMS,
Comer of Petri and Cary otrerta.
rIOM IlNTfl ATED LYE.-8 . asm on hand, f» r sale b?
/ DOTS A no
HKII : N *.w It ICE. RsewV.rg and f#r sslr hy
v«H MAI.v.
Bank htlrli » \ ;uaiiqk. i- bids of i^a).
Oacfi 'eral#States and Yrglnia.- at: Bouts.
Rlchimnd Cl'.J Block.
Gold and Sliver.
jaol» P. 11 MAURY A 00.
Ilf ft|KW.—I ha*e still In store sere fine Sherrie* and Madel
If ras, of
i; ■•r* r p- rt, *■ tiled ( p if*. Al#o. % few ci..t uf ol'f Krnu
- ard .i ase. of eery rare Hnck Wine*, ar. 1 Chat Yquetn
all o'which I offer at ras nasle prices. O. CKA'.A, No. * Ki
[‘mji Hint #«lt
ni ». U lSKk i i* .» IINOUA
| » . N is N */ h i'
'art dj, * hu.r pi, ea Oil Utsoeiay Hrandy. !*» * asau Hsa^r*s b"
.*« * laret Wl.-, r sale by WM. WALLACE BON*.
. * Oury Mrs u I I
N. . • I» t . . v ’ v- * f •
nnv r a m iwn. |t«t«
COHPitlf. 1" indectgi rd, agent* of the 1 nl
dated 0 PI «*r Min»* of Te iMMs, have j st re eiv»-d n su^»
• ly of purr Ingot Cagper, which thry ufier for sale In l ts to sub
. I - .
e> ortfb W. II. Pi.kiABAfsTd.
I >1 PK*.-br.^r Rt Pipes, a large and beautiful lot, for sale
I * -
{IMKLOPK* AND FAFEH.—>*hOU) kneelopri
j -i KcaTii Ruled P*?ct, just received by A. M0RRl>. V7
Main BtrwwL »*rtn
* ■ - • HKIN »Y A pur* artlc u!l by H Pmi
r . % ^ oci<
Hank note pap* it. n i
o.-he^u i iKRk Not or Bond Paper Price $73 per
rllfRATV OP MA .SijllA hw I u? bfen k;*ow:> a* one of th*
J b-a! Pu'v.ll v.« ia lue, l.w l*i the u*ual fui iu . f a dilution
a SOLID FORM km tattle trial rqalulMl totkre*
|U t » . % I" F# ,.,i.i !• 4lVr
iridlw i 1 catrtU* iltJuM have atolile *ltL M*u at uol
Khz year.
r r ,it« It MfADfc A HAk* D. ug Sb.r#,
U4H»HHlM» H I 4T10Nfell I,
lil Ual . street,
. . . . ' ■ pvrblM
• It %ie- u4 i.ifeU, In ch.'Ap %i; library bl"di3g. Travrli, Hi »gr*
Vv *•’ hi t ,r :«*■• M bl ■#. : .■ r •.nail, rnmnon a»4 f»ne>
ilatiiig !.*4» TretAinenk '• •> U>mD Books; 200 Prayn
4otk«. I O'o Popular.'**' ol B» «a. ' k»,0 ‘ • Mai'I'a. bluil, Hlu*
>v ,a« Ft. - . *■ - » K-a "v Noir, L* it*r, Ca|*, ami Fell*
P a ?i;«r; l1"*** W*r*. H *.< such as Ledger*. J >u *nals. Cash
lnf©l«*e. Day H k. t • , S’,i*n) jug.* of Music V.tJin, Banjo*,
1.'- . •»lt»t<<,Mo!v* Hrj)|n, A-* 2U0 OolJ Pen*. w.th anJ wtlhou'
r» ir live, «*H»0 pvka PUv;ag C*rJ«, e»u>tuoo ar. l drat quality,
Vi r assortment of HATS and CAPS for the Spring trade la no*
?I complete, embracing all the ntw styles nnd col ra of Pof»
-!*'• also M ««k!a, “Hi and Coelnere Mate, and a great variety
if no* style of flaps, Leehorn and HItaw Hate In great variety.
tUo, agrueral a-soitmenl of xeoUctnen's forolaMng foods, UK
*.rc>‘as, Wa’ktcg Canee, Ac . Ac , all or any of which will be sol*’
on os good \ erne neat any other establishment In the city. 1 moil
reelect folly luvf.c a cel; from purchaser*.
H ■
1\, \n. Mm tut. Black Reed Pjai, in »tore, and for sal*
4 LUUK m rtui*nt»feufiertor w*»ul llruwli e, Dusters
and ShlWwaah Brualfi. for sale l»y
KC »l. *4 bid* J. Trull A Cc.'s pure N. K. Rum, high proof,
tor sale by
(T i.TUfTI. Dr mint. **‘^T Tooth aud Pocket Omaha, an tie*
_J gem assortment, f«»r seie l»v D IVV A 00., Wholesale Drug
gum _deli
(HVri)K OIL. Ju«t received, one cask Fast India Caetoi
J Ot!% for gate b/ W PRTtttH>N A 01, Iftft Main at del 6
GVM ASIBIC. I tales Gam AroM KM StNlMaari
r * i><>* dtfj jj
CAYKNNK PKPPLH, Powdered flavtnue Pepper,
4.round ‘ U k Prpp* \ of the ht«t quehtr, for srlv a< Mr. ADk
A BAKtRS Drug htjre, l>*i Main vitrei, cor. above P O. Jal4
1 bbl t Inter.| ^ U
1 do Alcohol
On coo*iguuient and for *a!e by
1*4 U H PI.VASAKT.A. lfoh *tr«*L_
UOSi'BTT* R'SBimil - I A ffosea u.i i
and for sale by IJalTj DOtR A Ou., Druggl.u,
01 the/nsnv ‘ Yong Irelatiders" who came as exiles to
our land in 1818—9, Thonas F. Meagher is ths only one
who has become tho vassal of the Lincoln despotism—
a d bat shamefully robed himself iu the livery of Puri
tanism. Most ot those brilliant intellects, who sought
the regeneration of tLeir own country, soon learned to
iden'ify themselves wi h the South. Thomas Devin Ri
e!ly died with pen in hand, advocating our cause. John
Mitchel published articles iu the Southern Citiun,''
which thtn earned for him envy and opposition, but
which are cow quoted as prophecies ; aud he still consul*
iently clings to those opinions. T. W. MacMahon, au
thor of a>td ( jntra<i,” in many speeches before
Northern audiences, predicted, that, which has come to
pass. But thrrd were none more gifted, or more x.'ai
oua iu behalf of Southern Independent- than the author
of the foilowiii^thriilmg ballad,—a song, for tire at d
v'gor, not uuworthy of Tyr’ie is. It wad writteu several
yean sinbut poor Jot Bats a.N diJ not live to see hid
prophecy fuihileo. He died of the < ll.cts of yellow fe
ver in New Urbane, where he was associate Editor of
the Otltu. Mi was an accomplished scholar, abac po
et, a clevir prose writer, a kind and genial friend, and a
true pa’.iiot. in the following nervous ett'aaiju, we see
the spirit o: a brave man, appealing to hid brethren
of the South, by every consideration that can fire the
patriotic heart, to sltugg’o for “a triumph or a shroud.”
Iu these dsys when, in his own glowing lauguage,
“The hour ha* come for manly deeds,
And not for puling words,"
thr fr ry invocation of poor Bandas will strike a syarja
ihetie c!mil iu lb? hearts of thoutands, no longer Inst n
a hie to “the omens in the sky."
hv josxru aaxsas.
Men cf the Soulh ’ our foe* are up
In Scree aud grim array;
Their axtle banner lapi tho air—
An insult to V o day !
Th ■ saint* of Croinwed rise «gtio
Iu sauctimouicut hordes,
Hiding b*hi*id t s garb of peace
A n liion rui'desa swords.
From N h from Kiat and Weat they seek
Thcsa'Pe dl.'ss’.ri US god.
W:-h ft j* upon thelyiug Up,
A il Satan iu the soul.
Mccai >g, with ancient Shibboleth,
Ail wise and jut: reattaint*—
“To the Saints of Rraven was Empire given
Aud m aloud are Saints!”
M»n of the South lock up—behold
The deep aud sullen gloom
Which da kens o’er your sunry laud
With Uiuuder in i'a womb '
Are ye »o blind ye catir ot ace
The out-1 a it: the sky !
Are ye so desf v« cai.net hear
T; c trump of foemen nigh v
Arc ye so dull ye will endure
Ti.e •'hip* am* sour ; 11 tn't ?
Who hide the heart of Titus l>»tes
U * k'i the surds ot Peou ?
Are ye so b. se that, foot to foot,
Y • »ili no' gladly stand
Ter lat d at d life, tor ch.ld and wife,
With oaksd s.ecl iu hand *
A preacher to the pulpit comae,
At. I call, cpja the crowd,
K r Southern cteeds and Southern hopes,
To wi ate a bloody sbroud.
H side the purer book on hit) desk
The bullet I. o :!d i* □,
Aud bu.r the II blc's gold it clasp
The digger’s stealthy »heeL:
Thu elm pic talo Ot Bethlehem
Xu tujre i* fond y to! I,
k'or e.try priestly surf tics drags
Too heavily with gold;
The bluseed(kow of tliul.y
Be. o a s a slf u of lt.nl,
I, ke that w! !ch played when chieftain* raitel
The c'ausmeti of thctiiel.
“I>.aw with the laws our fathers made!
Tfc*y blt.dour hearts no mors,
D. wu with the stately edifice
Cemented by their gore !
i be leget da of our race—
Efface earth »i' decree—
Americans must ktesl „s slaves,
•fill African* nr. fret'
U t 01 ti e tu. re Caucasian blood
O! Ttu'on, Celt or Oaul—
Th" .fleam which sprlrgs from Niger's source
Must tr ump1! over all!”
S . speak a auburn S tua'or
Within those h:1ls to day,
W ■ ch . chot d net the thutiderburat
Of W. bsler aud of Clay '
Mark to the bowling dnn'goguet—
A fierce and ravenous pack —
With uortrilt pro ic, and bark aud bay,
Which run upon our track '
The waddling bull pup H ,le—the cur
. Of MssssciiU'Utts breed— '
The moping mongrt I, spuirly crossed
With Putiinric s.-ed—
T,‘ It efon lards wboj dn the clue*
W h g. 'mine bundle chime,
At. I si Ml or a . -r'.f.ir rwi.il!.> iw*l
(II virpi s just their prime ;
An 1 e’en it.e slum ot Women's R il.tl —
Tr»v Blanch, and Sweetheart, all -
Are yelping -f»r* I air tins' na s ill,
And hunger lor our tall!
l.iok Non!, look Kwl, look West—t ie oca .#
la blackening all arounJ—
\ b » Negro Cordon, year by year,
Is fast dii I faster bound ;
The b ark I n- crjaied—tbe sabla day,
Surround"J by a host —
Car out-pwt lore d. our sculiueU
A leep upon their po.it;
Our brethren’s H * blood daviug free |
To atllti the K nun soil,
And shad in vain, while pious thieves
Aie fattening on our toilI
I.l ’k North, look Weal, the ominous sky
Is moonless s aleaa, black, ^
Aud from the Hast cnni-s hurrying up
A sweeping thunder rack '
Men of the South I ye hare no kiu
Wish fanatics or tools;
V ji aio not bound by breed or birth
To M is'acbuieii* rules.
A huuilrrd nations give their blood
To Urd those heal I,till springs,
Which bear tint s id of .1 cques iiouhomine,
Wi h that of Brarbon kiuce.
Th- Danish pluck aud railor craft,
Tile 11 '..'guenotie will.
The Norn,«ii grace am! chtvaliy,
Tlie On man steady shill:
T ie liety Cell's imp-ta„.oued thought
Inspire tbs Suuthcru heart;
W to hive no room lor bigut-glcoui,
Or piouj plunder's art!
Soisol tbe brave I the tims bsi come
io bow the haugHty crest;
I stand alone despite vhe threats
Of N urlb, or K .st, or West I
Tu» hour has coun lor nianh’deedr',
An i tot for puling words—
Tho-hour has jn'seJ h r pUlform piata—
It is ih<) ime tor swords;
An I by tbs Uni > oi Juhu Calhnur,
T • honest truth b> liue,
Aud by old Jaokaon’a irou will,
N>w du Wiat JS can do'
By nil ye love and all ye hope,
Be risolute and proud,
And make your Hag a symbol high,
Of triumph or a ahrottd '
Mon cf the South! look up, behold
The deop aud sullen gloom,
Which darken* oVr your sunny land,
With thunder iu its womb '
Are ye so blind ye canDOt see
The omen* in the sky ?
Are ye so deaf ye cannot hear
Tte tramp of foernen nigh !
Arc ye eo dull ye will endure
The whips and scorns o( men
Who bide the heart of Titus Oates
Benrath ibe words of Penn *
Are ye so base that, foot to foot,
Ye will not glady stand
For land apd life, for child and wife,
With caked steel in hand ?
From Flackwcoil't Mays* ar
“What do they think of us iu England?” was said to
be one of the qu-stions of late most freq uently heard iu
America. Anil what, we should like to ask, do they im
agine that we. think ot them ? That they are the grtal
' esi aud no >Lst people on the face of the earth? That
! they are just, moderate, and dignifiod iu poacu, and
strong and irresistible iu war? Do they picture us as
v.earg their government as a thing to be envied by tne
ratten cld monarchies of Europe ? Do they fancy that
they are iiiip'om-iig all nulinus with the belief which
I they profess themselves to entertain of the immeasurable
advantages of the Constitution of the Union, over every
other Constitution that the world has seer, and that we
are lost in admiratiou of the system which ha* led inevi
tably to their present condition in the cabinet and in the
held? Or do they not know that we must feel as all mar
teel in vi wing the exposure of the ompty pretensions of
a bully, and that we cannot even pretend to keep our
countenance wlieo the cxploite of the Grand Army of the
Potomac are filling’all Europe with inextinguishable
laughter ? If everybody is amused when Ancient Pistol
is made to cat his leek, swearing horribly as be chews it,
why should we be grave wbeu a whole nation of Ancient
Pistols are enacting a screaming taroe, and, moreover, a
faroe containing n moral for all maukiud ?
Thia rnora1 might hive been conveyed in a tragi dr.—
The'American peopl* nrght have felt all the earnestness
they heve so spasmodicoi'y endeavored to stimulate —
They might have sent out armie* animated with the old
Puritan resolution ; men who would have testified oon
vinc ngly to their faith in tb* cause, with s valour claim
iag respect ovon in defeat. In such a case we need not
sav that we should have granted their claim iu full mess
ure. Though we should uone the ic-s have deduced polit
ical lessens from the fate of the Union, yet we should
have commented on them in sorrow, feeling tint even
political wisdom might bo too dearly bought by the suf
fering* of a nobla race. But at present the tragic ele
ment is altogether wanting. Whether we regard the at
tempt of tho North to re estatlieh by force a Union fouu
deJ on.consent—their congrrsi seeking to maintain the
war bv a tax which includes in its operation the seceded
States—tnelr outer.* suit parauiug m lieu oi argument
and eloquence, tho old stage properties of the star-span
gled banner and the Genius of Liberty, which have dose
service on so manv Fourths of July—their newspasers
raring defltnce to England in one column, and puMi-ii
iog records of the utter worthle«sner8 of thsir troops in
another—their President and Commander-in Chief im
p'd d to premature action by these infnilable journal—
ll.-s. Beeteber S-owe writing letters to Laid Sri* f.shnry
teeming wi h sanguinary pbdatithropv—that rahie o* Ho- |
dadiia which they call their army, with its “Fire
Zruavos," and its Irish regimen's "stripped to 'hoi
pants." all in deep-rate career the wroue way, led by
those immortal three m mil s’ men of Pennsylvania;
where ws know not whether to pity most the officers who
led such men, or the men who are led by such r fti -ers,—
ail ia luce of the very broadast stamp. No situ .at ever
mventod sueh a gigantic joke as the Klilor of the Xtr
Yjrk Hire Id, rolling hiscye in a hue Irci /./, as be thrtat
-ned great Britain and Spun with the vengeinoo of the
troops “better tf.an French,” whose fastesi runners were
even then beginning to spread dismay iu Washington.
Independent of motives of huma i'y, we are glad that
the end of the Union seems more likely to be rid-cUlses
,hm terrible To the American p ople wo wish nothing
out good. But for our own ben-fj’ and the instruction
of the world, we wish to sec the fruits so speciou* at.d
s*> fatal of their pcii'icsl syalcm, * loosed iu the most ef
fective wry. The faults of a ay item th it expires uch y
and pathetically are apt to ba forgotten in the romance
of its end. Hid lh« Uuion died silent, resolute, devoled,
grand, in future ages republican posts and painters might
nave loved to d-pict Fre.-dom ehritkmg at the scene, as
she d d when Ko*ciusko fell. But it ia impossible to con
c-ive tbat auyibiug great or noble was involved in tho
catastrophe of the grand army of the Potomac, that the
muse ol history will serioiftly coucern herself eve s with
ibs Fire l ruaves, or that any poet or painter, whether
American or European, will ever depict Libit-'v a q it'
ring the ear.h arm in-irm with the Lis-, of the Preside-.'*.
And the veuerable Lincoln, the respect tble i.-ward, t -
raving editors, tho gibVriug mob, at I the 8«ift-'io - d i
warriors of B til's Run, are no malicious tricks of formu ,
played i If on au unwary nation, but a*' all of litem the
legitimate cffjpruig of the great R-pub.ic
Iu past centuries, philosopher* aud historians were
used to feel and grope their way towards poli.ical truth
with specuU'.iou* oa theories ot goverunu-at. Fffr age.
these wre only speculations, fjr mankind eeem--d to ac
quiesce in tho eeutimeut ol obedience to constituted pow
er. As alchemists ia rag* dreamed of tho uts .iu-e, so
-ages dreamed of equality, of rights of man, of social
contracts, o! the duties of princes— wbils all around thi m
toe people, ignorant and careless of politics, lived uuder
whatever dupcaration Heaven had pleased to bes'ow,
a -quiesced in any despotism not absolutely intolerab'e,
a* in gnviU'.iou, and were d-pandect for good or b.d
government on the chance dispositions of tlu-ir ruler- —
But the conceptions of these speculators were not with
out fruit. In the Amerlcau aud French revolution'’, ia
the wars of the French repub ic ..cd empire an 1 tor
changes that have cusucd from them, aud in the con
•*iau' efforts in < ur own country to tranaiar power to the
people, we tee these theories in sotiou. And now the
pres iu day gives us tho result. In I road chin-- ers,
• jt’esuiai. historian, mil philosopher tuav study, not
theories, but tacts they may flow,
•* WUIi i|( tbs vary (.toils tot th, uuMu,”
and eveu pilose unntimsing politicians who would disre
gard th* warnings ul what might be cannot rbut their
• 7cs to what U
Iu Austria, absolutism has its choice between ounce*
■iuu and destine iou. In Naples uud Rune the al eriis
live was neglected, auJ the attributes of despotism have
vanished, »s the coins iu the Eastern sto.y turned to j
withered liases when the magic sp.-ll coated. Over tlie ‘
*emi birbarou* peoples ofRu ai.a awl Turkey, the ruling
power ia still absjtule Jjigiug Iroru these lacts taken
atone, we might infer that abs.lutisoi ij only po.i-ibic, in
our time, in tbo absence ol intelligence. Utu in France
ws soe a p opto hoisting to be mjrc advanced iu civili
ration than Gcraisns or Italians, apparently conical to
be ruled witli ft rod ol iron. A'.d w, know tint tbs r<»
• an why such a stato is possible to them is, that they
have learnt by a tremendous r ap-riet.ee to dread the ea
ecsses of libe-ty more than tbo excesses of power. The
empire ia not loved, and could not endure, but that
there is a class or order iu France that prefers it to red
republicanism. Vet, in choosing between the principles
• hose conflict is presented in the up-hsaviugs of society
i i the present century, tbo friends of democracy might
retort that the system they pl ed for has never, in
Francs, had a fair trial, and that the excesses of liberty
there were owing, not to any vice inherent in the princi
pl-s of the Revolution, bat to the natural violence of the
rebound from previous tyranny aud !>ng mU-govtm
uient; a idthit for tboao cxc sees deepotirm iceelf was
thus ultimately r sponsible Thus, it wonll have been
still puss hie for them to dream if their ideal, but. that
America lias furnished the example necc-wiry to supple
ment former experience. H -re we saw the liberty which
enthusiastic sages imagined, realised under the most fa
vorable conditions. A century of mild rule had loiter
ed the principles of freedom planted by the Pilgrims,
who had gathered them amid the ahuudaot crop of the
great oivil wars of King and Parliament. The ind- pin
denee of the Confederate States entued fiom a struggle
in which there was nothing exasperating, from whence
the machinery of law and order emerged unharmed, and
which bad secured to the now nation re pec: at home
and abrosd. Tnire was no old nobilpy to be swept out
of the way, and to tell to other lauds ihe talc of rpolia
tioo and of wrong Wh en the royal authority disap
peared, there was a clsan pigs to wiile tin conrituthn
oa. It was framed with del b ral.on ; the dclicVncies
of the existing Confederation serv. d as a warning, its ,
merits as an example ; and the chief who, at the outset,
presided over the desiinle* of the Republic was a man of
I prt-eaaioeul induauce, great good sense, and leasarkah's

moderation. The nation, thus provided with ail lo'itica!
: svf- gajrds.'co.'uaeuceAi’e career on a theatre whe’e r o
rival powers existed to perplex or disturb, and where !■
limit ihl terii’orr a- d inexhaustible snppliee of m& eral
w an 8 w e eecuri-y egain*! the poverty and discon rut
w too (orm the Sevc t Itja! and kio'iirfet protletnof
| governments. Y r, thus 1 i dled and nursed —one might
J suv codt! d—by Fortune, the spo hd.child Democracy,
af'»r 11 iving strariyj prink* before high heaven, and
j figuring in odd and ilceiuected dirguiatu, die* as sheir
' ly lroiu lick of vitality ae the oldest of worn-out despot
Amid the crash and chaos of governments and peo
| pics, England still rears her head a landmark (or tie
! wreck* of nations. Tie constitution whose origin goes
i beyond the ancient record* of tho state is etill fresh,
j vigorous and elastic, maintaining freedom amid the rush
! and whir! of tils age as it did five hundred years ago.—
: Wa still vfl'-r to the political <K lipus the grand enlgn a
whes • solution is liberty ; whll-i the constitution fracsi d
in the time ol our fathers, by the light of all exponent-*,
to be the shame of the past, the gbry of the present,
1 the example ol the future, is gone like a bubble on tt r
stream. From our own history >c icaru how liberty e-so
corns to make her borne with a peopl.t She dure nut
seek to rise by a sudden bound oa the ruins of deepo -
ism, for that we kuow lead* only to anarchy, and tbrougti
anarchy back again to despotism. She establishes her
self by steps slow and successive. Her path, like tie
path of a pi&t.et, is the result of opposing forces, it is
the process ol winning privileges Itoiu the governii g
power, and of mamlainiug them when mou, that consti
tutes liberty. Aid when all are won—when the govern
ing power is bankrupt—then liberty has already depart
ed. leaving only a shadow which a breath will d ssipatc
But when a people already free from Restraint take
counsel low to p oduce that balance of poweis wbus*
regulated vibrations shall d hue the bounds of liberty,
the process that we have passed through is txaotly re
versed. With u* it was at lirst tho leopio’s ecale tint
k eked the beam. It this other case, it is tho scale of tie
goveru ..cut that Has upward. The people now have Dot
iu lake, but to give. Power is not to bo won from the
government, but conferred upon it; and the people sir
much more apt at taking than giving power. And this
is the case which American institutions illustrate.
That the people shall bur the r full share in legisV
tioc, and that'the laws so made shall be Impartially ad
ministered, are important step* towards good govern
ment, but still only steps. The laws so made must be
executed with certainty and promptitude. But a gov
ernment that rests only on the moraf influence derived
from the support of the people, cm be efficient only s«
long as the nation is of one mind respecting the laws
that are to be executed. I.aws framed for the gem r i
bent fit are frequently opposed to the desires and inter
ests of ciafc.es or sections of the community. Tho eu;
pressiuu of dis:o: tent must bo proviied for; uunopolrr
t.x ,-B must hs levied; and, to this cud, the executi.-e mil t
be armed with material lore*. For a government that
d -pended only oa fuoral support woo’d, iu the case* of
contending in lereats, bod pmJent on a majority; aid
if before acting, it should wait to ascertain and app .1
to the majority, it would never act at all. Its aciict,
must be independent of all disturbing influences ; and
thus a strong executive becomes an ers-ntial condition
oi uueny. d h a ^ovcruuiciu mat in inurpeuucut »u*
strong may n-siil liberty; aril how to prevent that, a
a p oblem that wo hava practically eolvtd, by commit
ting to the government the power of the sword, »ud re
turning for the people tbe jowerof the puree. Tin
strength of our executive needs not to be exictiy d>ft ■
ed, been ate the force cecrssary ler the defence of tht
country will always be more than sufficient for the a
sertion of too lawn. But in America, where no foreign
enemy was feared, and wli re, const quentiy, the perp t
intis-- tax thcms-lvcs for therupportol the execi'ivi
with the tingle o'j ct of intercut goveinment, the uiev
ure of strength taat should be aiiotied was much mox
nicely calculated. And the limitation of ibo powers cl
the l’recideut aud the mode ot his appointment, ft rued,
accor lii'gly, the grand difficulty of the framers of tin
It is impossible to doubt that those s'stesmeu intend
ed to allot due itflucucc to each power of the state. I
is true, the founuaiion they professed to raise it on wat
wh.it they somewhat paradoxically termed the sovereign
ty of ihe people. But, whatever meaning they miy havr
vtached to lire phrase, they certainly would not touve in
terpreted it to signify the supremacy of the nob. Then
wore meu among them—Washington himself,/cr ii.
stincc—proud, dignitiid, even aristocratic in tetnoeru
tneut, si V :re in discipline, and of steady judgment ; an-'
such arc not ft'ends U> the domination of the tua. y.—
Ind one esprc.il object ef th'ir labors was to reined;
the want of a pit-amount executive power i t the cx ticp
cjuiederatioc of st.’es. But tbu spirit raise 1 iu the r>
volution was too btro; g for them, ll.e doctrines cl tl *
treedom and cqimhty ol all men, however serviceable it
i revolt agviiist monarchy, were found very embai-a-fe
lug in the iffbrt to frame a strong government. Mei
^vho had borne a cuii-id.r»ldo pail in me revolution Wert
bound lo show he world a coc-lituJou inn only inon
; i lolly d ii, from tl ot whic!
tiiev l ad rcjul.4'. d T..us, wra « v„r their natural pn
•'ilec‘..Oi.s r.igb b-s, their own su. oc-s.n dictated Ifidi
count-. M. r- ovt r, a jMiwer.nl ir tl isnce was t xerc sec
oi them bv ih • E • oe’ i-gUlatOies, too ^-ulous o' ib*
.-x c -t ve that " is to be piraaioUbt, u> |u rn.it it to b
tr u ft. s-cor.-id ration* rb'iged the emstru:tc>
of the Cuio.t to ci t iheh" weight into the sr-le wi.b tht
sevtr. v. y of the p.-oplo. Tn. v treated '.bf-i President
i a wry di.agm.aole neccdsi-y. They restricted his
power*-, no: only by narrow limits, stcl by c.ieck- an
counterchecks on the excicisc of au'.l-oriiy, iiut by th<
conditions of cilice. The ram ti us to bo elevated from
amongst the people was, iu four years, to sink back
again iitnoogs; tbe people. No • pporluruty woo'd thus
be allowed ior him to extend bis powers beydlid tht or
'imiis by hij personal influence. To confer on him tht
app’arancv tl' independence, they caused him to h
cuosvu by elector?, who were prtsumod to be ir<e ii.
their judgment. But wlieu the electors lliemsflvc? t-tnit
to be elecreJ, who could answer tor the constituency f So
it came to pass that the electors were tat rely tit • to mi
lc s of parltcui .r Intern's, who had already mi le ii e r
own election of a candidate for the presidency. "Ex
periooce,” says Durr, an American writer ou consii'.u
tin: a1 jurisprudence, "has jiroved th»t tho electors do
no*, iu fee , tremble fo- a s:r e-ly free > vrei ? of 'L -i
julgniei ts, but for the purpose ot sauetioniog tbe chofot
A u p.rncul.r fa id.dato previously dcsigi a --1 bv thtli
piny lead is. in scuts instances tbe price pies oi which
tit) are constituted hale been so lar forgotten, ibit lh<
individual ori ionrf the elector has submitted to the
dictation of those by whom he *%s chosen . and, m oth
ers, too eh ctoi a have even pledged themselves b -!o:.
i a id to vote t-.r a candidate prcacKbed to them by the
m&i.agcis ot tier party; and thus the whole too: da Ion
ol the elaborate 'be..iy oi which this part of the core i !
lit ion »« b'hlt has been subvert* d in practice.” l:i ti a
way the ctmo-i « of a chiet officer ol ibe s n e came to
r.a- mbls a pie it:.lc Mtrylohone el *ctiou, where the can
didatc who so'icilcd the vonsof ills countrym u cotil:
claim IruiguiHcance as a raor.i, and could make it hit
h ghee: aim to he, :.ot the |:up irtul t X cutor ol the has,
nn'. the obni|lictU rep.vseutative of a partv. Thu,
feiting to make the oxe. u ive their miater, the Aueri
oand tiied 'o make it their servant, and ended by malting
(t their puppet.
Fouuddd on consent, the government, in the abocticc
of adequate controlling power, con.iuutil to exist by
consent. We have sai l before that a government de
pendent on the moral inti if nee thus derived can be < tfi
c:ent only so long as the nation is of one mind respect
leg the laws to be executed. As party spirit runs high
er, the executive is more and mo.-e weakened, and its
action retarded. Of lata years the strife of party bae
bean inordinately fierce and p rsi’Unt, and it cufmilta s
every four yeats in the elcctiou of a President. T o I
danger to the executive, in such n condition, is fores’.. 1
owed in a pwsags of Waihlogtoi’s Farewell A J .si,
which, as much as any portion of that celebrated docu
ment, attests his sagacity and foresight.
'•There i*," lie siys, ''an opinion t .at par ies li fie*
countries are useful he. ks upon the atluiiflis:rat:oo of
the government, aud sjivj to keep alive thsspiiitof
liberty. This, within certain limits, is probably t.u-; ami
in government of a inonxrehial ca t patriotism mty I >ck
with iudulgenc *, if not with favor, upon tho spirit oi
piny. But in tho e of the popular character, in p'ov.rn
mruts purely elective, i. is it spirit not to bi e. c .magtd
From their natural tend mo/ it is ceftciti there w.lt al
ways be enough of that spirit for every ailu aiy ptirprs
Anl there being cou-Uut danger ot rues*. the • ffor'
ouglit to te, by force of public opinion, to tait'pi .nd
ascuage it. A tire not to hi quenched, it denim Is a
uniform vigilance to p cv>nt its bursting into a !l tn ,
lest, instead o' warming, it should coneum • "
Tbero WctiiJ-teem ti he, theoretlcilly, no iinpo* i li »
in a goveremr nt founded on convent, ye* »tro t envt'
to be 1 dependent (bsHMNlga pcop'e .. g it MWs
some of thvir sovereignty to s rengtnen tl. b»u»»
to ir executive, k epiug, of cour-o, tbe i pprov d seen
ti y against the micu o of forcr. Trust in htitutu u1 tire
must be bestowed somewhere iu a goren-mant—a great
deal must be left to the under*.ion and virtue of the de
p° juries of power. A d it wi u'd re. ra e..f-r to cot fids
h ihe coofoi. utiousn a of a selected < fficial ti an in the
chaece iirpu’s s of the multitude. But the American*
did not think so. They laccied they raw in ihe weak
ness of ihe neculive the m-ssare of their own liberty_
| accordingly it w«s left weak ; party spirit grew strong,
and the disro u'ion of the fabric was a q jeetion ouly of
I turn and crcasion.
Wnb Uws made with the concurrence of (be people,
administered by cffiors iodep ndeot both of people and
gover me it, and executed by an aulhoriy strong to en
face; but Dot to coutrsvece them, it eouid, at fl st, seem
ss if wc bad all the condition* of a free constiiotion.—
: Vet there may s'ill be an important, perhaps fatal, de
1 feet. For the laws themselves, though trained in accord
ance with the letter of the cons ito.ion, may be oppoeed,
not ouiy to the wishes, but to the rights of a portion of
the cammui ity. They may eveu be opposed to the gen
i interest* cf the community. Thus, the executive
may be forced 10 support the Uws, iu conformity with
U.e comti'ution, against the general iuteresU. But this
it not liberty—it is oppression ; and it will depend on
the magnitude cf the nitereut* involve.*, and the spirit
and power of the oppressed, whether civil war shad or
shall not ensue. Hence, to fulfil as far as may be, the
oJuditions is'ential to the maintenance of liberty, tho
• constitution mutt provide for somethlug beyond the bal
autfe t f the powers of the Bute. It mutt endeavor—and
it can. only endeavor—to secure a predominance of wie
darn, iudtvend' nee, justice, and public rpirit, in the na
tional councils. It is not st Hi :ieut that all classes should
, bi represent*d for tome might, ard would, predominate
! to the detriment ol o bets; but there must be a sufti*
cienev of the high, r intellect that looks beyoud class Iu
teres*, to the wide iio-z.n of the general welfare. If it
were not sc—if the mere impulse g.veu to a constitution
at the ou*sct would eufli.-, and if one? adjusted, it might
be set goine I ke a watch, with a certain result, then the
furewc 1 Address of IVscbington would be a dead letter.
For why should he so earnestly implore the people to
na'nuio t.at which was able to mrintain itself?
Thus, as m ght have been anticipated, liberty, the
dream %f generous philosophy, the love of which ia so
passionate a sentiment in the human breast, and the re
*?l ztiion of wh'ch has so rarely been accomplished, for
the delight and example cf mankind, i) of too fine an es
sence to be teenred by any framework of rules or limits
tiouj drviiabie by statecraft. lie txistence depends, cot
on the action of a d< finite, ascertainable mxcbineiy, but
on a continued accession ol vital ii Hoences. And these
i liuences are among the noblest, and therefore among
t e rarest, attributes of man.
In our own bistorv the co: iiict has been unceasing be
tween oir crown and people lor the poeseasion of power.
Iu a struggle involving tee imero.-ts of ill England, it
was inevitable that the champions should be the best that
"II Knglardcouid produce. The great names ranged'cach
-ide of those who resisted the eucroicbment* of the
crown or sietrmcd ihe advance of democracy, are among
the greatest in the wot! 1. This proves that our consti
tution hat fu’filled its most important and most delicate
clfice—tint ol bringing the best ot the spirit and inkl
portent an crid, that (be moat iliogically-construoted gov
ernment in th> world, fulfilling it, would become more
than tolerable, while tie moat pci feet theory, which did
not evolve this result, must be merely a plausible blun
It ii notorious that this end has not been fulfilled by
the Amenta n cou.-ti'ution. Nor wes it rational to ex
pect that it should be. Statesmanship is horn of the
collision cf great principles or ul important interests.—
No such result can be produced where power is all on
one side. When the people have every tiling, they need
oo champions. Therefore, in America, patriotism meats
litt'.ery of the people; party spirit is the spirit of ra
pito; and debates,-instead of eliciting wisdom atd
rutb, are the irnoble up nibbles of mediocrities. Where,
in American history for the last forty years—(bat is to
-ay, ever since the impulse of the Revolution died out—
• ra we to lock lor her great statesmen ? Yet In that
period there is no gnqt tat:oa it Kuropo that baa not
produord u<eu who have s-cured an enduring fame by
heir assertion of great piinciplcs, or by the influence
they have exerted on the destiny of nations. And it is
not true, as has been said, and quoted, with applause,
(hat the i a'ion ii happiest which has no history, for
«U<-h happMbe-s is 8 a ruction or worse. Tue spirit that
oresides over the public life of America has made itself
feit over the whole nation. The higher minds steed aloof
t-om po'itics, u Bayard would turn from a modern pilfe
ring. Tne meed lor which be bad beeu used to contend
vuu noble knights—the smiles of ladies, the favour of
innointed king*, and immortal honour—is cow a bag of
o n banded to the vic.or in a pot-house. Ho the best
A nericat s either betake themselves to ether pursuits, or
roam disconsolately over the world, where they see their
equals winning honour in the field tiom which they are
lot ever excluded.
That men oi this dies should countenance the violent
measures of the North is a- first sight unaccountable.—
li is dithenit 10 imagine that intellectual men should
either bj friendly to a system which extends its theory
>f iquali y to itite'leet. and thus neuiral zes their natural
lupeiiorily ; or should wish to establish, in its grossest
Urji, (he np.emacy ot a numerical majority, by the
orcible suij tguiou of the great minusi-.y which consti
.utes (lie Couth. It is q mo possible, however, (bat
vhil • gtvi-.g their voice to the Norm, they may neither
h friend y to he Union nor desirous of seeing the Sou b
u'jigated They may wish to see the natural ariato
racy to which lilt-v belong rsi-ed to its proper position
in the state. They may cousider thal, by quiet sepia ra
tion, the Union might, with increased compactness and
utiaoimi y, recover much of its vi.ahly, aud that the
system they fLtl'.-r under might be indefinitely prolong
ed. And they may view the present convulsion of that
•y-icio as tbs nde-sary pre i.ntmtry of those political
changes which, ii is natural to suppo e, thdy must ar
dently desire. To suppose this is nut to impugn their pa
iriouim , tor il we have made our views clear in this
pap r. it is evident that they may look on tush a crisis
it nov i lists us necessary tor the regeneration of their
nost important ins Buttons. They may, therefore, tc
compauy the movetneyp with the expectation of finding
•ii opporiuu.y toc.ntrol it. But we do not suppose
.hat any man possi sriug the [e»«rs requisite for ntutes
nacsb p can really believe tha’, if by lurce of arms the
eluctaut South should be diagg. d back to the Union,
he Union will be thereby icstored on its original basis,
juccfsalul coercion would be a g.cutA revolt! jou than
lie acknowledgment ot aectlsiou—this only laps the
'tranches, while that sliik-e at the root. Nor do we itu
mai ujtu m-. iu«c »«c iu uc iuuuu iu iuo
rinks cl the Abandon party. Clever people may be
lung to that party. Mrs. Beecher Stowe is a vary clover
worn in, ami baa written a very clever novel; but sbe is,
■jj tbe Miresi ol that novel, committed to seatimeoU
uore adapted to tiolioa than to polities. Sbe evidently
I >oks on tbe South as a vast conledetalicu of Legrees,
k epiug mil.ions ol virtuous uncle Toms iu horrible tub
I clioa; end quotes Mr. Wendell Phill.ps as if sbe be
lieved that m -chicvous monomaniac to be au inepired
But s atenueu inns', a. k themselves how the
1 !fi jul.y presented by the condition of the Afiicau race
would be solved by s iting them free. What it to be
c nie ot the liberated claves Y and bow is tbeir labour to
ie replaced Y are questions the very first to be a*ktd,
•ju: wilien we nvi.it not expect a cr.sy Abolitionist to
m.wer. But s ich coneiJtri'icrs do not cecur to those
■nibusitstic philtntbrcpists who testify to tbeir love of
the euro by their hatred to tba planter. Toe derttac
don of armi.-s, the ravage and ruin of territory, are is
uothirg, in tbeir heated fancy, compared with the suc
oe*s o: tbeir plan. And if recession were accomplished
.heir plan would be at an end, for t-i.y would then have
io more concern iu the liberation of tbe slaves of tbe
-iou'b than iu a crustde to set the Georgian and Circas
van ladies free from the harem of the Botphonu.—
Thus, under pr-rent urouiuetatcee, tbeir fsuaucism bee
of come sanguinary ; they are pledged to their oourse,
and will fallow it with all tne d.-spsrite reck'essness and
•r.actiy wi.b which weak minds will ciiug to tbeir only
chance of uo oricty.
Supposing, therefore, vs seems to be tbe case, that
n n ol all cl ass-s take par: in [be measure of the North,
«e must sup a sj that hose of the highest intellect
mong them do not shvre tbe op'niuns most vocifertus
I v averted. * Vet, after all, tbeir opioious are not.juat
now, (he most important. The motive* of thoee ou
whom the duratiou »nd magnitude of tbe war depend—
not the wise men, nor the poli iciaoa, uor the men io of
i, e but the sev.-re gn p"'tle—Ihos* are what it ie cf
' ,n9- ouceru to undtratacd. And we think that iu at
tributing their present wsr-fever to mltvd motive* we
fbcul 1 overshoot the tnaik. la the absence of great
mo ives, p ople i re apt to mignify small one*. We
must rrm n.be: that the tuultiiud • have been bred up in
Impatience cf opytnUn, Tory hive a’ao been tia'ncd
ode»ri-e ill? Boa'h. TheT migh-. have bevn content to
- par.te, but they could not bear to see tbe South take
the fn't a'iv.v Oppos'd and hutD'h-'cd *• they have
been, th?ii im^i L'hv* and contempt lave produced vin
dlttiv ucwS, whioh ac kj only Io i' jme, and which lovtnc
a cou h of gcuou fcstuna'.aiy ratuer violent than dura*

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