Newspaper Page Text
ri. mm writes n«
i nifi or in Horticultural Editor of the Ranch Dis cusses Pertinent Questions of the Great Industry of Fruit Raising iw the State of Washington—Tells How, to Grow for Profit. One of the things that is necessary, that must be well understood and well carried out is the thinning of fruit. Not all kinds of fruit need thinning. We rarely thin cherries and do not consider it necessary to their sale. For exhibition purposes we may very properly thin cherries to the end that we may secure extra large speci mens, but for the market this is not needed. Plums and prunes need thin ning for the best results in selling, although with many growers it%s not; deemed necessary with these fruits.) The three fruits that must be thinned in order to success are apples, peaches and pears. On the Pacific coast the necessity for this thinning is past the experimental stage. Occa sionally a new comer may be found who will debate the question, but the; experienced fruit grower in this sec-, tion has passed that point. The ob jections to thinning our apples, peaches and pears, raised by the new comer, are expense and waste. I know I an old couple who rented an orchard and when told by the owner that they I must thin their peaches, they would not do it. As they paid cash rent, j it was no loss to the owner if they j neglected this work. They said it would be such waste to pull off the young peaches and greatly reduce the crop. The result was that their peaches when ripe were unsalable—-' were too small —and fell off and rot ted. When they saw their neighbors, I who had thinned their peaches, get ting 50 cents per box for their fruit while their own were rotting, they saw their mistake. It is not a waste to thin fruit. There wil generally be as many boxes of the thinned fruit as there would have been left on the trees. If half the peacbes are taken off the trees and the remaining half should double iv size, there will be no loss in quan tity. Any one can see that. It is true that in thinning peaches we often take off much more than one-ha!f and it may be true in some cases that we may diminish the number of boxes by very heavy thinning. But which will pay the grower better. f o have fewer boxes that he can sell at a good price or to get two or three times as many boxes that he can't sell at all. The man without experience may think he can sell bis small peaches at some price, but he can not do it. In our old peach orchard we had quite a number of seedlings and they bore much sooner than our budded peaches. One year the budded peaches were nearly all killed but the seed lings were full. The seedlings were hardier than the budded peaches. Peaches were scarce that year and I tried hard to sell these seedling peaches, but could not get enough for them to pay the expense of labor and boxes and expressage, so we did not make a cent on them. It may be thought that the reason we could not make anything on these seedling Peaches was because they were not good peaches. Not so. Some of the best peaches I ever raised were among those peaches. It often happened that when I felt "peach hungry" I would go to some of those freestone seed lings and take a fill. They were so good that I can seem to taste them yet. The fact is that nothing hin dered the sale of those seedlings but their size. People jusl will not buy such fruit. It is a well known fact that the big showy Elberta sells far bettr than many a finer but smaller peach. I have never known peaches to be too large to sell well but I have known extra large apples co sell at an inferior price. In 1904 we had a fine crop of Mammoth Black Twigs, called by the American Pomological society, the Arkansas. Apples were quite low in price that year on ac count of the large crop in the United States. We sold our four tier pack of these apples for 60 cents per box f. o. b. at our shipping station, but could get but 50 cents per box for the four and a half and three and a half tiers. Since then the demand of buy ers have changed and we get the same price for four tier apples and three and a half tier. THE WENATCHEE DAILY WORLD, WENATCHEE. WASHINGTON, WEDNESDAY .MAX 19~i3(& How much to thin either peaches or apples is a hard question to ans wer . It Is a settled tact that a tree will bring up a certain amount of fruit up to the proper size. The fruit ma> be evenly : cattered all over the tree or it may be bunched in clus ters. In either case the size attained will b about the same. Let me give an ilustration: Last spring we top grafted all of our remaining Ben Davis and Missouri Pippin apple trees. Our rule in such work is to j select from three to five limbs to be .grafted so that when the remaining j limbs are cut off the tree will have* i a well balanced head. The other limbs | which are not grafted are left on the) i trees for one year longer. Last spring jwe had nearly 1000 trees of these j | two varieties top-worked in this way. |Those limbs left on the trees set very! : full and we did not thin them at I l jail except in rare cases where a good deal of the top was left. What was, I the result? On all these trees the! apples, though very thick, were large ; land fine. They colored and; were as good Ben Davis and Missouri Pippins as we ever raised. They kept ! well, and I now have some of those 1 Ben Davis, kept in a common cellar, and they are in fine condition, and this is April 20. In cases where only about half the top was cut off in grafting, the trees bore as many boxes of apples as the whole tree would have borne. Two things may be learned by this illustration: One is that you can do a good deal towards thinning your fruit by thinning out the tops of the j trees. If the tops of the trees are i heavily cut away, the thinning of the fruit may be omitted. I do not be lieve that we ordinarily do enough thinning with our pruning knives. The other lesson we may learn is that if the fruit is clustered on one side of a tree or in the top, as is simetimes the case, we may leave it much thick er than if the fruit was very thick all over the trees. It can be seen that we can not lay down a hard and fast rule that fruit must be thinned to a certain distance apart on the trees. That may be done if the trees are equally full in all parts. Sometimes we do not need to do any thinning at all. Some varieties of apples have a tendency to thin themselves. We have over two hun dred trees of the Mammoth Black Twig. Some years they have borne enormously, some years very lightly, but I think we have never yet had t.i tbin this variety. Sometimes our peaches in our old orchard would all be killed except in the tops of our trees. Then we did not thin at all for the reason just above given, however th'ck the peaches might be In ihe tops. From all this it can be seen that a man who raises fruit must know his business and can not work by rule. Wherever the inexperienced man is at a loss to know what to do, it would be well to consult his neighbors who have been in the busi ness for years and they can in most cases help him to solve his difficulties The thinning of fruit Is not so common in the eastern states as in the western. I do not claim any superiority of the western grower in this matter for we were compelled to thin our fruit. If we compete in the eastern markets we must have a finer grade of fruit, so we were driven to this thinning by sheer necessity. It was up to us to thin or fail. I con fess that when I realized that I must thin my apples, peaches and pears or fail, I was appalled. I can see now why new comers, not accuntomed to thinning their fruit, ask so many questions. "How do you do this thin ning? Do you shake them off or do you knock them off with a pole?" are some of the questions I have been asked. When I told these inquirers that it must be done by hand, how often the question has been asked. "Is it not an awful job?" To go over the whole tree and then go on till the whole orchard has been" thinned is an appalling job, but £ can be done and must be done except in the cases 1 I have named where it is not neces sary. It costs hundreds of dollars to thin a large orchard —sometimes thousands. But when we get at it, j the difficulties are not nearly so great 'as they seem to the inexperienced. We count the expense of thinning as a part of the business just as cer tainly as the buying of boxes and pa per and the paying for hauling and any other necessary work. The ques tion with the thoughtful fruit grower is not how much I pay out, but how much profit can I realize after all ! expenses are paid- As I have fre quently stated in these columns, we find that it costs not far from 50 i cents per box to meet all the ex penses of putting each box of apples on the market. This does not in clude freight and commission when we ship to Seattle or other markets but is cost f. o. b. at our shipping sta tion. When apples sell f. o. b. at our station for $1.00 per box our profit is 50 cents per box. Often the yield is several hundred boxes per acre leav ing us a good profit. Sometimes we realize $2 per box or even more and then the profits are large. One of the important questions is, How to thin? No hard and fast rules can be laid down. We instruct our thinners to take hold of the bunch of apples with one hand, generally the left hand, unless the person is left handed. With the other hand take hold of the small apples and turn them backward and break them off. If the apples grow in clusters, as they frequently do. a good rule is to thin to one in a place. Such apples as jßen Davis, Jonathan, Rome Bearty, jWinesap and many others will be well ! thinned by this rule of one in a place. •With some varieties, like Missouri Pippin, this rule wil not work well, and then we must give a rule of four or five inches apart and one in a place. These directions here given will be much modified if we do heavy pruning and it may be. in some cases, no hand thinning will be need ed. There must be a boss with the thinners who knows his business and who can direct the thinners to do more or less as the conditions re quire. The time to thin is an important | matter. No particular date can be set for it is the condition of the fruit ; that must govern in such matters. 'Some few years ago the set of peaches jin our old orchard was very heavy. |We were arranging to start a gang iof thinners on that orchard of 1400 ' trees on a certain Monday morning in the latter part of May. The peaches ! were about as big as the end of njy : thumb. I kept watching this orchard. !to see if there was any dropping of ; the fruit. About Friday before the Monday we had set as the time to be ■*gin the thinning, I was passing i through the orchard and found many i peaches on the ground. I called the attention of my sons to this dropping ; and the result was that we postponed I the beginning of this work. The drop i ping continued to such an extent that jwe did not have to thin at all and in some parts of the orchard the crop jwas too light. Had we thinned those peaches ten days or two weeks earlier than the time we set to begin and j then the drop had come on. as it prob ably would, we would not have had jover a half crop of peaches. This then is the rule: We must wait till we | are sure we are past the season for j the drop. Apples should as a rule be thinned j about a month later than peaches. In the Mississippi valley there is what is ; called the "June drop" of apples. 'Sometimes this drop is a serious men jace to a full crop. It is thought by t many of the best informed horti jeulturists that the "June drop" is i caused by cold rains. With us in our \ warm irrigated valleys we have no "June drop" for we have ao cold rains. I do not think from what I can learn about the matter that this j drop is bad anywhere on the Pacific . coast. As a rule with us peaches are thinned the latter part of May and the fore part of June. Apples are thinned about a month later. It may be said truthfully, however, that fruit may be thinned much later than the dates here mentioned. Sometimes we have thinned apples up to the middle of August and the results were good. It is claimed, and my experience sus tains the correctness of the claim, that picking off the first apples that will go to the market will prove to be of benefit to the later ones left on the trees. I may add before closing this full sketch about thinning that peaches do not grow in clusters and they can not be properly thinned by leaving one ma place. Ths rule is to j leave peaches from four to six inches apart on the limbs. A NNOFNCEMEXT Mrs. T. C. Wiswell. 4529 Brook lyn avenue, Seattle, has decided to open her home to Wenatchee people during the exposition. A large 12 --room house, overlooking the exposi tion grounds, and only two blocks from the university campus. Terms reasonable. Make reservations, if possible. Can also furnish splendid camping sites. **5-22 Some Items of HATS Straw and Linen The weather is warming up and you want a good, cool hat. Here is the place to secure one to your liking at a very reasonable price. We have all kinds, sizes and styles. OXFORD& Black, Tan and Brown With the several different styles we are able to fit you. They are going very rapidly. You should buy quickly, before the stock Is broken. For summer wear we have a high top Shoe that is unexcelled. If you try a pair of Dr. Reed's Cushion Sole you will always wear them. No. 6 Wenatchee Aye. MILK TO BE GOOD FROM HOW ON I BOVINE PRODUCT MUST CONTAIN AT LEAST 3.25 PER CENT OF j BUTTER FAT INSTEAD OF 2.85 PER CENT, AS AT PRESENT. When the new criminal code be comes effective next month, all milk produced in this state, in addition to being sanitary and produced under wholesome conditions, must contain at least 3.25 per cent of butter fat in order to come up to the new standard. The present standard is 2.8 per cent of butter fat. Accord ing to the new code clause relative to milk, all milk that does not con tain the required amount of fat must be sold as skimmed milk. The new code will require that any one attempting to sell milk contain ing less than 8.75 per cent of milk solids, exclusive of fats, will be guilty of a misdemeanor. Even skimmed milk must contain at least 9.3 per cent of milk fats, and cream must contain 9.3 per cent of butter fat. j The new law defines at length thej I term wholesome. In the past, state] i officials have in many instances beenj S unable to-secure convictions owing to | the lack of proper legal definitions; of the term. The new code states j that milk will be considered un-j wholesome if adulterated with anyj substance added for the purpose of! thickening, coloring or preserving the; milk; when drawn from cows fed on unwholesome food or from cowsj kept in dirty sheds, yards or barns, or from unhealthy cews; or when It has been exposed to infections or contagious diseases. Milk drawn by dirty milkers, or drawn Into or kept in dirty pails, cans or bottles, or stored in dirty rooms, will also be sufficient ground for calling the milk unwholesome. Any milk containing less than 3.25 per cent of butter fat will be called skim milk. The new law provides that skimmed milk must not be sold anywhere in the state un less a large sign stating that skim milk is sold is conspicuously dis played. The law goes into effect June 12. Special Interest P. P. Holcomb Chas. Becker P. A. Rogers, Jr. CHELAN COUNTY REALTY CO. There is no better investment on earth than Wenatchee real estate, either city or county. We have been in this city for years, we know the people and we know the conditions surrounding them. We want to know YOU. A call on us will convince you that we can assist you to place your property or your money. Watch this ad. It will interest you. OFFICE, BASEMENT FIRST NATIONAL BANK Phone 453 BURGLARS TO HAVE LEAN DAYS UNDER NEW CRIMINAL CODE STEALING IS MADE SEPARATE CRIME — PROVISIONS MORE STRINGENT THAN OLD CODE. The professional burglar will go into some other business before the new criminal code goes into effect next month, if he is wise. This is one of the crimes which the prosecuting attorneys who framed the code have made considerably more serious than it was under the old law, the punishment having been increased, and a provision added un der which any burglar who steals something may be sentenced for two different crimes—burglary and lar- Geny. Burglary is divided into two de grees, first and second, the first*" be ing punishable by a penitentiary sen tence of not less than five years and the second by a term of not more than 15 years. First degree burglary is defined as follows: "Every person who with Intent to commit some crime there in, shall enter in the night time the dwelling house of another in which there shall be at the time a human being, being armed with a dangerous weapon, or arming himself therein with such a weapon, or being assisted by a confederate actually present, or who will engage in the night time in effecting such entrance, or in com mitting any crime in such building or in escaping therefrom shall as sault any person; or, who with intent GLOVES Ladies White Silk All elbow length White Silk Gloves go at s>c off per pair. Do not miss this rare opportunity to se cure just what you want in the glove line. We also have a nice line of Short Mercerized Lisle Gloves, in white and black. WAISTS Ladies white Lawn We have four lots of Ladies' White Waists which we will offer at greatly reduced prices. Lot Xo. 1, regular $1.50, now $1.10 Lot No. 2, regular $1.25, now $1.00 Lot No. 3, regular $1.00, now 75c Lot No. 4, regular 75c, now 50c to commit some crime therein, shall break and enter any bank, postofflce. railway express or railway mail car." Second degree burglary is any burglary of any kind under circum stances not amounting to burglary in the first degree. The provision which provides for double punishment in case the bur glar secures any plunder is as fol lows: "Every person who in the commission of a burglary, sliall com mit any other crime, shall be pun ished therefor as well as for the bur glary, and may be prosecuted for each crime separately." As the stealing of any goods is not made a part of the crime of bur slary. this would seem to mean that larceny could be charged as well, where any article of value is taken.. Another important change in criminal law is the reducing of ffce limit of value to constitute grand larceny from $30 to $25. and mak ing the crime of grand larceny pun ishable by imprisonment in the pen itentiary for any term not to exceed 15 years. Petit larceny is punished by imprisonment in the county Jail for not more than one year, or by a fine of not more than $1,000. The W. C. T. U. will meet at the home of Mrs. McNlel, on North We natchee avenue, Friday, May 21, for a short business session and social afternoon, at 2 p. m. All ladies in vited. B4 you buy, see my second hand bicycles; $5 and up. New ones, guaranteed, $25 and up. Agent for the Indian Motorcycle. ••• J. J. EVER. Mrs. V. P. Burdick arrived day from Bellingham to visit friend* for a period of three weeks. Phone No. 941 Burglary of Any Kind.