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? r gtftmr r nan ai rt? ^ ^ ? PAID ctBcrxATiort ^ i j^v rv ^ n rw *^Br TFTE VTOATHER |jfc| Friday S4ftft /fl l?^. lilail^f Jl "I ?"** a-%"*"&-4'?' ,,SLs L I j-^23 J.too II tip li-|Pm l-iT liTTTTiSfltl ? '?" Audit Bnrean Sfi 4fi|^K* /r^^' H- ^ M -| C Closing New York Stocks, Page 3 J ' W?re (Wi a . Newspaper?*4 Prtreuam Fore* -tn-ihrnv Community. Full Associated Press Wire ;"; , ? I - ?? IB IMPOUNDED 1845 FAIRMONT, W. VA, SATURDAY EVENING, JUNE 24,1922. SINGLE COPY 5 CENTS "~ ~ : ? 11 ' " " 11 ? - ?"" * 1 - : " '" "" : .. ? ? ' Lgermai FCoa/ To\ foutputFcoal l npnpc rapk | uhui u unuix ul I CARSON FRIDAY jfcur^oerland Division Only One K to Show Increase in Pro? I duction HereW-&73 MINES WORKING No Signs of Further Trouble in Clarksburg Section Evident Today. Coal tonnage took a keen drop in IK .-] Vorthern West Virginia on Friday ^LygjJhen it slumped fifty-two cars. Bfifli iwas more of a drop in pro^Eiction than the big gain of thirty j^Mvo cars in coal tonnage, where Jbvas noted Thursday. n However, the production on FriH day at 455 cars was 33 cars more than the daily loading of Monday, which was 422 cars, and 337 cars ^Lraore than Friday of last week ^pvhen the tonnage was 41S cars. Divisional tonnage losses were HL\sustained as follows compared to HjpThursday's production; B & O? Bpfonongah, 21 cars; Charleston, S ^ >rs; Connellsville. 10 cars; West I tin Maryland?Belington & Weav|\ -3 cars, Monongahela. 14 cars, lie only division to show a gain fcsterday was the Cumberland diwinch was 4 cars. iCf changes were noted on the ther divisions. tB'aiiy production by divisions yes Prday were as follows; b; o. fcrnongah, 98 cars; Charleston. SO fSisiSJConnellsville, 27 cars; Cumerland, 82 cars; Western Maryind-i-iBelington & Weaver, 1 car; lorgantown & Wheel!ng, 23 cars; tOontinuea on rage Four; - H FREE 1922 Ford Touring Car Come in toda^ and get your tree ticket. Inauire at our ("store as to how you may get more than one Free Ticket. Get Yours Today The Home Furniture Company B JEFFERSON STREET I! NOTICE ^Persons or Firms Requiring B City Licenses: iBy will hereby take notice ^^all City Licenses expire Hi. 1922. "Unless licenses ^Bed by City Ordinance are Eft out and paid for before Hf.1922 a penalty tax of 10 ^pnt of the amount of said will positively be charg^ Restaurant, Hotel, Fool ^Billiard. Gasoline Curb S, Bowling Alley and Taxi ^ Land licenses require acHBKy the Board of Directors 13^ being issued. Applica>ns for said licenses should be ide not later than Saturday, ne 24, 1922. LUKE C. ARNETT, City Clerk. 1 ERB39EHL "ANNOU: B The A. B. Knight 2 operation and is equ 1 chinery which is the 1 HR . r I am now better p i your machine work ' V aJ\ Whether large or smi g^Hff cot inspect my new planl J ,(7 "Best machinists ii ^ First Class V ^r" The Cylinder grindin. H working in about tw yVHNK nnage Sh Production Near | Average of 1921 j j The second week- oC the na- ! tion-wide coal strike, which rep- i i resented the peak of the mine j ! wnrkprs' efforts to shut off the I entire ooal production, curtailed j j the production o? Northern ! West Virginia to an average of i I 120 railroad cars per day. Four i hundred eighty-two mines were I 1 closed by the strike order and j I sixty-seven remained at- work. ! j There has been a consistent in- | j crease since that time until Thursday when the peak loading i of 500 cars daily was reached. | This is close to 60 per cent of the 1921 daily average. This means that between 1.400 ' and 1,500 mines employes were : at work on the second week and j j there are now approximately j ; 9,000 men employed. There I There have been 104 mines opened up, manned, and now producing coal. At these mines no question was asked the applicants for work, whether or not they were union on nonunion men. DO POLITICIANS REST ONSUNDAY? If They Knock Off Work One Day Each Week?Well, Sunday's Fair. By THE WATCHMAN. There is every indication today> that tomorrow should be a quiet and peaceful Sunday for the political candidates and office seekers. Tho .weather prediction is "fair and warmer" for tomorrow, so if i politicians ever take one.;jd?y in. thg weeit off to 'enjoy' the grandeur of nature and get away from terrible struggle for supremacy they'll likely have a chance to recuperate in the cpen all day Sunday. But I presume Sunday is much the same as any other day for a politician. I can't say definitely, because the experience is unknown lu me This little game of office seeking must be a weary one, but with a I fascination that must bo compeuj sating in some degree as evidenced by the large number that play it. Someone's always after you in the political game. When a man starts a campaign, he might just as well kiss his personal business ot4 professional interests goodbye: for the time being. He has hisj hands full with his political ambitions. Demands for speches here and speeches there: someone always at the office door and the telephone ringing all the time. Advice and suggestions, threats i and promises, rumors and false alarms flow in a steady stream upon i him until he has to be a smart man 1 to know where he stands, if he stands at all. If he's been in office before his friends point to his record with pride, while his enemies pick it to pieces. If he's out for the first time, his enemies say he has I no record and that he is an untried' Neophyte. j It's a great life if you don't weaken. Sunday a day of rest? Bet thei politicians are lucky to get to (Continued on Page Four) [r H FINAL NOTICE T 0 TAX PAYERS Friday, June 30th will be the last day of which 19 21 taxes may be paid. All taxes unpaid will be reported delinquent. For convenience of taxpayers the sheriff's office will be open from 7 to 9 p- m. Saturday I evening, June 24th. J. D. Charlton, Sheriff of Marion Co. " j it NCEMENT" aacnine anop is again m ipped with all new maaest that money can buy. repared to take care of wants than ever before, all I invite all to call and 1 Fairmont employed," >'ork Guaranteed. g department will be o weeks. pectfully, B. KNIGHT , - | >TER 0 ows Big iisin bereleBon bail, says amos Ninety-One Striking Miners Will Have Opportunity to Gain FreedomNinety-one striking miners ar- I rested hero yesterday afternoon by | county officials on charges of tres- J passing on coal company property and intimidating workmen at the J Hughes mine of the Robinson Coal j Co. will be released on bonds ,of j $500 and $1,500. according to Pro- j ecuting Attorney Frank Amos. Eighteen of the miners, a'Jfeged I to have been connected with the I recent attack on the Hunsaker mine, will be held for $1,500 bond, while the others will be released ] on $500 bond, it was stated. Rather than being disheartened | at their plight, the miners -lad a gay time at the county jail last night. Laughter and song was heard until a late hour, when the men, went to sleep, two in a small bunk. They were up at an early hour this morning, eager for their breakfast and wondering what new development the day would bring. Ask About Bonds One or two foreigners - pjit in their appearances at the prosecuting attorneys office this morning, inquiring 'aljout fihe- (amount of bond necessary to get their fellowcountrymen out of jail.. There seems some basbfulness among tho miners as to who shall be the first to come out of jail .This is not. caused by any love for the. county jjiil. in the opinion of officials'. "Warrants for other miners connected wth the march on tho Hughes mine have not yet been issu.ed, apcoKdi ng. tocA ,sta tement-,th!3? morning by Justice of the Peace ,1. V. Blocher. The county officers are understood to have the names of many of the men, nowever. With the exception of a little excitement at Downs, near Mauningtoii. where a large group of men marched on the Salt Dick mine of the Dodge-Thorn-Shinn Coal Co., all was quiet throughout the county. Officials stated that reports from Monongalia and Harrison counties indicated that there would he no trouble in those districts today. At the Salt Dick mine, the strikers marched to the mine and stopped outside at about 6 oclock. Mine officials sent a call to the county officers immediately. Before the sheriff and his men had an opportunity to answer the call, however, a second telephone message: came to the effect that the miners were dispersing. Mine officials stated that the same group of men marched on the Salt Dick mine yesterday and held a conference with non union workmen employed at the mine. The non union men refuse to quit work (however and the marcher marched j away. No motive has been as! signed to the early morning call I today. Break at Hughes Mine | The break in the Hughes mine I situation came at about 4 o'clock yesterday afternoon. Sheriff J. D. Charlton and his men had ordered the 200 or more marchers off the property of the Robinson Coal Co., at 2:30 and the.men were sitting and standing in the roadway, waiting for the non-union miners to come out of the mine. At 3 o'clock two large trucks with light loads entered the nr'ne property. Presently one " of them drove out, empty. The miners allowed it to pass, unquestioned. Shortly before 4 o'clock, the other truck, loaded with tne non-union (Continued on Page Four) p ' NOTICE OF MEETING OF BOARD OF REVIEW AND EQUALIZATION I To Whom It May Concern: You are hereby notified that the Board of Review and Equalization of Marion County, West Virginia, will meet in the City of Fairmont, at the Court House if said County, on Saturday, July 1st., 1922, for the purpose of reviewing and equalizing the assessment of said County as re turned by the assessor, and -will continue in session until said work is completed, not, however to exceed twenty-five days. The land and personal property books of said county for the current year will be then open for inspection and any person may examine the same and have any errors that may appear in the assessment of his property corrected, and do such other and further things that may be necessary to protect his interests. Given under my hand this 3rd day of June. 1922. LEG N. SATTERFIELD,' Clerk of the County. Court and ex-officio Clerk of said Board. I j I F FORI Decline Gown Large Enough for William Howard Taft Not A vailable LONDON, June 24?Oxford University has no academic gown large enough to fit the --i- ? e TTtr:tu ,.,1 I proportions or VVll llcLiJl xiutraiu Taft so the former president had a tailor take measurements for a new robe in which next Wednesday he will receive the honors of doctors of laws. When he was to appear at court there was much speculation as to whether he would wear the customary costume, | including knee breeches, as worn by Ambassador Harvey and other diplomats, or ordinary evening dress. Mr. Taft solved the problem by appearing in his judicial robes. ISNOWBIRDSSEEK I PROTECTION NOV United Mine Workers Sue for Marches Against Wagon Mines. INDIANAPOLIS, June 24.? (I the Associated Press). ? T1 United Mine Workers and all o fleers and members of the unic were made defendants in a su for an injunction filed in Unite States Court here today by Clai Masson, owner of the Peacoc coal mine in Knox County, Ii diana. The court is asked in the su to restrain union miners fro continuing activities aimed . closing so-called wagon mines < the state. John L- Lewis wi made a defendant to the suit, i president of,^ the. _ United_ 3&i( Workers of America" and as an 1: dividual. So far as action is against tl United Mine Workers of Amerii as an organization, it is brougl under the recent decision of tl United States Supreme Court the Coronado case, whereby I was held that a labor organizatu j is suable. The bill is voluininoi j and recites in many details ci j cumstances connected with tl | activities of crowds of mine ithat have marched in recent weel I against various wagon mines. Tl j bill, however, has not been fill | on behalf of other mine owne than Clara Masson, according | ULLUi If CY o. Fear Traffic. CHPSA.GO, June 24.?Couns for the Southern Illinois Coal C( whose strip mine was burm Thursday and the non-unic workers slain by striking mine and sympathizers. today sent telegram to Adjutant Gener j Carlos Black at Springfield, r | questing that troops be sent Williamson County. The atto neys charged that the sheriff the county was still refusing do his duty and that there w danger of further outbreaks. BIG WELL DRILLED IIM GILMER COUNT PARKERSBURG, June 24.?T estimated initial production of t South Pennsylvania Oil Co. test . the Cox Heirs farm in Troy D trict, Gilmer County, West Virgin is from GOO to 700 barrels per dt According to reports received hei the well has caught fire and w still burning this morning. J cording to the reports, it is t largest well that has been compl ed in West Virginia oil fields for number ' of years. The first reports on this w were received here this morni: and came from a source which considered unusually reliable a I conservative in estimating tiie i I itial production of new wells. T j location is in territory- that h i been drilled to some extent b ! which has never before produc any wells of more than avera size. ? WANTED ? To Rent Canoe, or Row Boat the first two weeks of July, wit guarantee care. Phone Sl-M after 6 p. m. I NOTICE I My examining rooms will be closed until July 1st. I leave tc attend the Optical Congress anc will bring back all the new methods developed in the pasi year in e>? wu the ,new styles in eye glasses and spectacles. My lense grinding and reparr shop will be open as usual. A. B. SCOTT |f|lTTT ^ 1 EIGN flF in North ^ATTMjtary PROBE OF HERRIN j DISORDER BEGINS Suits Against Mine Union and County Will Aggregate $1,000,000. INQUIRY OPPOSED Twenty-Two Bodies Already Recovered With Search in Progress Still. HERRIN. 111., June 24.?(By The if Associated Press.)?A state miliU tary investigation ol the Lester ? mine massacre, which took between twenty-five and thirty lives was begun today headed by Gen. Milton d Foreman of the state militia, acting under orders from Governor Lea Small, which were issued when the chief executive became aroused over failure of local officials to iy take any steps against the miners who captured and killed the majorf ity of strike breakers working in in the strip mine. General Foreman and his commit; tee reached here this morning. ^ They were met by Col. Samuel Hunter. who has been here since before a" the massacre. His orders to return t to Springfield today were can' celled and he became a guide for t the military board. General Fore-' man and his officers went to MaI rion, the county seat, where confer_ | ences with State Attorney Duty and Sheriff Thaxtop were planned. A r -btnur of the araa; of the fight was made and It was expected that numerdus persons supposed to know ,a something of the disorders would be called before the board. ie General Foreman had been inin structed to learn why the state's it'attorney had not taken steps torn j ward convening a special grand rsljury; why the coroner's inquest r- had not been held and why these re officials repeatedly refuse to aurs thorize Colonel Hunter to call for ks] troops, even after an indignation re | meeting of miners was held the id day before the fighting started and rs even after the miners had marched to on the strip mine. Failure of ,the authorities to send out an adequate force of deputies the night the el fighting began and during the fol5-. lowing day when almost unheard 3d of deeds of cruelty and brutality m were committed also was a point rs to be investigated. a Another matter to be looked into al was why requests from the gove" ernor for information were ignored ? and why, when he was receiving r~ scores of telegrams from private citi? zens telling of the outrages, he was " ? continuously informed by the au as thorities "that the situation was well in hand," and the troops were not needed. Inquiry Opposed. Y There was little doubt that General Foreman and his board would not receive welcome from the coun he ty as a whole. Ninety per cent b3! miners in population and 100 pet ?n|cent unionized, Williamson County s"]has shown a decided disinclination a-1 to welcome any outside Jnterferiy-1 ence in the massacre which is look"e-jed on as a personal affair which as should be Ignored by the rest or the LC" world. Persons on the street have he been heard repeatedly to remark et" that if the troops had been sent a there gttns would have been taken away from them, ell Comment expressed resentment ?S over the sending of the military 3 board, although officials 6aid they nrl would gladly co-operate with the n* board. he Sheriff Thaxton and Mr. Duty as promised co-operation. The situaut tion was made mors tense last night when caretakers guarding the 5- mines through agreement between owners and unions quit work under _ threats from groups of miners ?. Shortly afterwards, Hugh Willis, district board member of the union, persuaded them to return after mine guards had been stationed to pro 1 tect them. Had they remained ' away, millions of dollars worth 01 mines would have been ruined through flooding within a few days These caretakers are not mine union men. ~ Search for bodies continued toft day at some points in the county, although the searching parties were . few. Twenty-two bodies had beer ' recovered and it was considered (Continued on Page Four) DANCING ' SATURDAY NIGHT, S:30 to 12 ?AT? RAVINE PARK PAVILION Music by, Melodylane Syncopatora" . from' McKeesport, Pa. seven pieces I'll * 1 i ! I i J** FAIRS i tern West JUNE CASTLET< ^MS^SK^a}&3SiSSsSsSt9f9& ?gQ^Vv>v^?lwM JUNE CAS' BOSTON, June 24?June Castleton lias vanished, leaving tear- ( ful notes to her parents and to Dan Caswell. Juge is a member of the "Sally" company?or was, until J she spoke openly of her high re- * gard for Dan Caswell. 1 Caswell is a Clevelander and heir to a considerable fortune. He t married Jessie Reed of the "Fol- 1 lies" a year or so ago. after a 1 courtship that warmed the hearts 1 of Broadway. INCENDIARJES HOME ? ELKINS, W. Va., June 24? Bloodhounds, broughffrom Fairmont to trail the incendiaries who fired a mining tipple at Weaver, near here today, picked up the scent from the . handles of jugs > ' j which contained oil and followed I I the trail to the home of Charles [ and Scott Martin in that village. The hounds walked directly from the tipple to the Martin home where state troopers arrested the brothers. They were brought to Elkins and committed to the Randolph County jail in default of * $5,000 bail each. Justice of the i I Peace N. M. Smith placed a charge ? of arson against them. , The fire was discovered by State Policeman Moore. Swiger. Pillman 1 and Adams about midnight. They sounded an alarm, and with the 1 assistance of watchmen extin- v guished the blaze before it caused i ; extensive damage. An investiga- t tion showed that oil had been < poured about the scales and tip- t pie. 1 Both of the Martins are union 1 \ miners, both being formerly em- t ! ployed by the Davis Coal Co. of i Weaver. i ; NEW JURY PANEL ! DRAWN FOR TRIAL : t CHARLES TOWN, June 24. ? ] (By The ssociated Press.)?Ar- j rangements . were made today by Judge J- M. Woods in the Jeffer7 . ; son County court to draw a new ' panel of veniremen to try John ! : I Wilburn in connection with the ' : killing of -a Logan County deputy (during the disorders^ in the coal , | fields last summer, wilourus case, similar to tbat of his fathers, the 1 Rev. J. E. Wilburn; found guilty of second degree murder for the 1 killing of John Gore, the Logan ; deputy, whrile the miners march " was in progress, was to start next ' Tuesday. ' While judgment was suspended 1 i In connection with the verdict af- 1 . fecting the Reverend Mr.-Wilburn, ? indications today were tbat ar- ' , rangements would be made shortly 1 as Judge Woods said he would 1 pass on a motion for a new trial J i and setting aside the verdict with. in a few days. A portion of the 1 [ Jury panel drawn for the minister's 1 trial remained for the next case. ' i but the court believed it >*onJd be < advisable to summon a new one ! for the John Wilburn case. Fol- : lowing this trial there will be an < adjourned term of the Circuit J Court until the early part of Aug- ! ust, when the prosecution-indicat- -1 ed that the trial of C. F. lyeeney, | president of the United Mine , Workers, charged with treason and i Indicted following the . armed * March, would take place. MONTGOMERY HERE I Sam. B. Montgomery of King- < wood,, former labor commissioner a and a "candidate for governor at the ' Republican primary in 1920, ar- I rived here'today. Just "how long Mr. Montgomery will remain in the i city and the exact purpose of his j mission here was not announced. 1 . ' . f-y v . " _ M'Ii-,;v> I;W'/ $ USSflSS 1 Virginu 3N VANISHES r l^My .J^T <;/ / I TLETON The fires of romance soon burnid themselves out, however, and Dan and Jessie parted. But Dan kept up his friendship vith other members of the Ziegeld productions, being especially lice to Miss Castleton. In consequence the manager of he "Sally" company?which has >een having unpleasant times in Boston?gave Miss Castleton noice. Then she vanished. ^RGFANITY USED HERE OEPLOREO Ministerial Traffic Cop Says Traffic Can Be Regulated Without Cussing. "Too much profanity" is used by nembers of the Fairmont police orce in directing traffic at the corter of Main and Jefferson streets, iccording to the Rev. W. Icen ?ritchard, Fairmont's ministerial raffic officer. Traffic can be just as -well reguated along Main street without the lse of profanity, and the Reverend Hr. Pritchard is endeavoring to how the city officers just how this :an be done. Of the twenty-five or nore arrests for parking along Wain street thus far, the Reverend Vlr. Pritchard has treated all of hem in a courteous manner and las received the same courtesy in eturn. "He's a good officer, hut uses too much profanity," was the opinion if the Reverend Mr. Pritchard in "eferring to one of Fairmont's old;st officers who is prone to get angry very easily and put up a barrage of cuss words sufficient to shock the most disobedient autost The Revei^snd Mr. Pritchard believes, in giving ever-y man a fair chance and .-will not order a person into police court if he has not had his car parkdtf at least fifteen or Iwenty minutes along Main street. The maximum time allowed by the parking regulations is ten minutes. The new traffic officer can be! seen almost any time along Main' street in the afternoon or evening with a pencil ana a number or small blue cards in his hand- The system he uses is to start at one 2nd of the street, and tahe the license number o? every car parked along the street, and 'with it he writes down the time the car is parked there. After reaching the pther end of the street he returns and checks up on each car. ro the ca:^, parked too long he attaches a little blue tag, ordering the owner to appear at police court the following morning at 9 o'clock. He is well known in and about Fairmont, having been the Metho list minister at Barrackvllle a few years ago. After about two weeks he will leave Fairmont to take up a charge in Ohio. Twenty one more arrests were made yesterday by the Reverend Mr. Pritchard. Of this number, only a few appeared in court this morning for trial, and Chief of Police Snider instructed his officers to go out and again order all of the traffic violators to appear Monday morning and to collect oash forfeits of ?5 Trom each of them. C. C. Hinkle was arrested last night by Officer Porter for speeding. In" court' today, he t,'hed 310 INATED i Friday MINISTER SHOT i WHILE LEAVING HIS RESIDENCE Two Shots Fired, Killing Dr. -|? Walter Rathenau Instantly Today. ASSASSIN ESCAPES 'Wizard of German Empire' Kept 'People Eating and Army Shooting.* || BERLIN, June 24.?(By The At sf scciated Press)?Dr Walter Rath- H enau, German minister of foreing ^ aflairs, was assassinated today. The minister was shot and Instantly killed as he was leaving his residence in Grunewald, a subuvb 'j of Berlin, for the foreign office in an automobile. The assassin escaped. Two shots were fired, taking immediate effect. Official announcement of Dr. fijg Rathenaus death was made in the Reichstag. . Dr. Ranthenau was a giiest at a dinner last night of A. B. Houghton, the American ambassador/ On receiving news of the assassination of the foreing minister this morning, the Amercan embassy prompt- 'J|| ly hoisted its flag to half mast. No clue to the identity of the ?, murderer had been discovered up to noon today. The assassination of Doctor . A Rathenau followed hard upon a vttTOlatac^^tt&f&^'on^^lfeir^feifrn minister by Dr. Karl Hclfferich the Reichstag yesterday, wim. the nationalist leader grilled .a government generally and Doci Rathenau in particular concen ing the cabinet's reparations? ':-;j policy and its attitude towards the" ? populations of the RUinelaud and the Saar Valley. The news of the ^ assassination reached the Reich-' stag at 11 o'clock, just when the (Continued on page three) TWO CASES IN JUSTICE COURT HERE POSTPONED Charles Johnson, arrested by county officers charged with an as- jj sault upon Delmar Starn an East J Side youth, appeared before Justice M. R. Musgrove yesterday and gave bond for $100 for his appear- ,:im ance before Justice Musgrovo on * The county authorities were so '? busy yesterday afternoon in the "afe mine trouble that it was necessary to postpone the trial in the case agains Bud Lewis for the third. fl time. Lewis will be tried next ^Friday on a charge of having mash in his possession. He is now out $ of jail on bond. PENNSY OFFICIALS HERE" | ON AN INSPECTION TRIP The party of officials headed by J. H. Gumbes. Pittsburgh, general superintendent, Pennsylvania rail- -*#js road, which was here yesterday I were on an inspection trip of the - -J Monongahela railroad, which the Pennsylvania supervises. The offini ale wrr- mt*t. hv R. " 3VT. president of the Virginia & Pitts- <4ffl burgh Coal Co., wiro took them on an auto tour over Hilltop and other points of interest near the city. Other officials in the party i?;| were as folows: Superintendent A. W. McClelland, train master. G. W. Curtis; division freight agent, G. C. Gardener; master v machanic. J. L. Cunningham; division engineer. 0. G. Hopkins; assistant superintendent, H. B. | Applications will be received by Ernest Bartlette, B. & O. trainmaster, until June 30, for ono passenger brakemah on trains 4 1, 45 and 42 and 4 6, passenger trains between Clarksburg and ,?j|? New Martinsville. It is a 146 day turn, Monongah Division percen- I .APPRAISEMENT BILL. The appraisement bill of tho estate of Orlena Rodgers was filed i at the office of the country clerk this morning. The appraisers were Harry J. Hawkins, A. G. Martin and George E. Amos.