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The Sleeping Talate.
Tht yarjing year itith blade and ebeaf
Clothes and re-clothes the hippy pl ?
Here rests the sap within the leaf ;
Here stajs the blood along the veins.
Faint shadows, vapors h'chlv curie.!.
Faint murmurs from tbe mealows come,
LiVe hints and echoes of the world
To spirits folded in tbe womb.
Soft lu'tre bathes the range of urns
On ererj slanting terrace-lawn,
The fountain to his rlace returns,
leep in the garden lale withdrawn.
Here droops the banner cn the tower,
n the hall-hearths the festal fires.
The peacock in his laural bower.
The parrot in his gilded wires.
Roof-haunting martins warm their eggs ;
I these, in those the life is stated.
The mantles from tbe golden pegs
Droop sleepily. No sound is mad?
Not even of a gnat that sings.
More Uke a picture seemetb all.
Than those old portraits of old kings
That walch tbe sleepers from the will.
Till all the hundred summers pass.
The beams, that through the oriel shine.
Make prisms in every craven glass.
An 1 beaker brimmed with noble wine.
Each t-aivn at the banquet sleeps ;
Grae faces gathered in a ring.
Ilis state the king reposing keeps :
He iuut have been a jolly king.
All round a hedge upshoots, and shows
At distance like a little wood ;
Thorns, i lee woodbine, mistletoes,
And grapes with bunches red as blood ;
All creeping plants, a wall of green
Cloe-maited, burr and break and brier.
And glimpsing over these, just seen.
High up, the topmost palace spire.
Wh. n w.!l the hundred summers die,
Yn 1 ihuuglit and time lie born again,
,' I newer kiwwledge. drawing nigh,
Ilnng truth that sways the soul of men ?
Her- ah tln.fr1 in their place remain,
all were ordered, ages since,
l ' im are and Pleasure, Hope and Tain,
An 1 bring the fated fairy 1'nnoe '.Tnnyton.
' Km FIIOE " IS " I'llEOX ElOLlH."
' Pigeon Knglish" is the language which is
ennstautly in use in communicating with Chinese,
1 tli in business transactions said for all other
purpo"e. Most of tbe words are English, more
or les darted: a few, however, are Chinese
Anglicized. This op r hop means very fast;"
rnutkir. "don't mind;' chop b'long, of a
kind.'' ti'i'lr galah, excelsior (hurrah for
t.ip)dei' ' The Chinese always use for r thos
l r tor rice;"' loom tor room;"
criri rlin, "good by" (used on meeting and
parting, really meaning ' worship." or ' hav
ing a talk with the gods"); Jon, 'gods;"
loss pi Iqtn man, "priest."
That nightee teem he come chop chop
i ne young man wmlkee, no can stop;
Colo maskee, iceemaakeo;
He got flag, chop b'luog welly eulio, see
Topside Galah !
He too muchee solly; one piece eye
He talkee largee, talkee stlong,
Too muchee culio; alia same gong
Topside Galah !
Inside any houses be can see light.
Any pieeee loom got fire all light;
He look see plenty ke more high;
Inside he moot" be plenty, ely
Topside Galah 1
" No can walkee '" olo man speakee he :
" liiuieby Iain come, no can see;
Hah got water, welly wide !"
Maskee, mi must go topside
Topside Galah '
" Man-man," one galo talkee he :
hat for you sp topside look-see?"
" N other teem," he makee plenty ely,
Maskee, alia teem walkee plenty high
Topside Galah '
" Take care that spilum tlee, young man.
Take care that icee "' he no man man.
That coolie chin-chin he good-night;
He talkee, " mi can go all light "
Topside Galah !
Joss pidgin man chop chop begin.
Morning teem that Joss chin chin.
No see any man, he plenty fear.
Cause some man talkee, be can bear
Young man makee die; one largee dog see
Tim muchee bobbery, fiodee he.
Hand too muchee colo, inside can stop
Alia same pieeee Sag, got culio chop
Topside Galah !
Deawu:., Harper's Magazine for October.
I TbrlUirK InrMrnt at flaurara.
In the very centre of the seething, whiri
in? cauldron of waters known as the Amer
ican Kapiiis, lying equi-distant between the
Amerinn shore and the Islands, ana uain
I-lnnd Bridge and the brink of the Calls, a
rock proicctd two or three feet above the wa
ter. The eye rests upon it merely as upon a
svk in the middle of an angry flood , with
every dash of the angry torrent pouring
down trom the p!ateau;abovc, nail submerg
ed, and sometimes wholly hidden from
sight. At the time of this casualty a log,
thrro ur four feet in length, had been jamm
ed hi or under this rock and protruded from
it The r-jiot was one that was in the daily
sight of hundred, and in the early hours of
that memorable summer morning the first
man who bad occasion to cross the bridge
was startled to see a human form standing
erect, in the midst of the raging, whirling
flood, on this little point of rock, widly wav
ing his arms, lie must have shouted. 'too.
but bis cries were diowned in the uproar of
the rapids. It was Joseph Avery, the sole
surior of the unfortunate boat's crew. It
was conjectured that the boat must have
tried down to this paint, unharmed by
rick or rapids, and that striking here, Avery
was thrjwn or sprang out, finding just room
enough lor a perilous foothold, while the
other two. with the boat, were swept on
over the cataract.
The alarm quietly spread. It is not dif
ficult tn draw a crowd at Niagara for the
excitement seekers of the worla are there
and in half an hour the bridge and adjacent
shores were thronged with horrified yet cu
rious spectators. With them came some
dozens of lioatmen, laborers and others, who
comprehended at once that there was a chance
lor rescue, and immediately begin to devise
a plan. In tbe meantime the man bad been
recognized by stone one, and while
preparations were being made a large
txnrd was rudely lettered with the
words in (Scnnan, 44 We will save y.iu ' "
and held up so that he could read it. lie
hissed his arms up and down several
times, in token that he comprehended its
meaning ; aud then the crowd awaited the
result of the preiiarations, and watched the
object of them with almost breathless in
terest. It was truly frightful to see him
there amid that hovtiiDg waste, almjet in
the laws of the mighty cataract, and appall,-,
v cut off from all human aid. But as
'.' iv wore on, and the poor fellow became
'Is i to the situation, he seemed to bear it
uitii much composure. Sometimes, to
uic his position, he sat down upon a rock
.t'i 1 - inetitues made g-vtures to the crowd,
t ! meaning of which could not olten be
ii'i I'TftHid. His face, seeu through a
j 1 1 . 1m ked 'atjt r, almost beyond the ex
gn -i in of human laces, but it was hopeful,
noon approached the first attempt was
made f .r his rescue. A large raft hall been
n-truct.-d of heavy plank, bound together
r isswi-e. and this was to he lowered down
fr mi the bridge, with strong rojies, to cast
away, when it was thought that he could
drawn up without great difficulty. Tlie
ciitnre wai. a failure trom the start. The
rapids seized and whirled it away before the
men at tbe rolies could check it , the ro 'jes
became entangled, the raft was carried far
below the rock, and at last went helplessly
over the Falls.
It was a bitter, bitter disappointment as
well to the sympathizing, expectant throne:
as to the imperiled man. liut, nothing
daunted, the stout hearts and ready hand-,
immediately set about the making of "another
rult while others were occupied in cenvcy
m.j: "d and drink to poor Avery. This was
ca.-i y d me in tin cases, attached to stout
c T' c hKh were floated down to him.
The ' o-twav ate his Military meal there up
on that line, foible point of rock with keen
relish, and t'..n stood up and bowed his
thanks. Again and again the cheering
wir.is. Wo will save yon," were exhibited,
and he was cnouiragcl U other short sen
tences in his native language, which were in
the nie way rs.inted m huge letters and
i.i M up to min
Ii.e afternoon wore on the long, hot,
li-'liss summer afternoon there at Niagara,
. -1 ally devoted to idling over iced drinks in
t . -i ule of the hotel porches or parlors,
lit ',i,w cheerfully given up to the assis
"I. or sympathy for a felloiv being.
1 f wi hundred-) in that crowd who,
1' ' -I by the spirit of American chival
" 1 which is neter wanting among us,
I '.in cheerfully plunged in to his res-
' i i the act have been anv other than
"s f . J-tiardiness ; and there were wealthy
to-, wno went tnrougn the crowd un
1 eiot sense of emotion, offering
e r-Wdrii. to whoever would rescue him.
itfapli had. by this time, carried tbe
New T ail W'e ; a'ternoon papers in
U rlt m tuIS av contained it. and
it ttern m traing frQm uat7ao and Koch.
Tieci?I"trre'2htcd with Iiundredfi
wives J n! "f fr erman or them-
' ut a !'UJi of tLe wnd raft progressed ;
t!' ugh everything was dune to ha
mJrf ''"w found it unfinihbed, and the
1 In 1 1 1:11,1 'ingW dkpereed for the night.
f irl m TI(M aIone tel1 how that pOr
nr 'rn s.ulped the dark, dreary hours
him n?SUett0ed hLto all around'
' peat by of terror jawning j
beasts all around
VOL. XLIII. NEW SERIES, VOL. XVI.
almost at his feet. Some sweet bore mutt
hare sustained him in that trying time, or
the morning would hare found him dead
there upon the rock of his dreadfu 1 exile.
UajlUt came, and with it the eager
crowds Wned back to their rotnts of
eijht. Tbe incoming trams all day brought
more and more spec""'' "J1 , USFc,?oon
the bridge was literally crowdeJ with them,
learinsoutasmall space in the centre for
workmen with the raft; and on cither fide
the bank was lined nay rocked with
spectators. There were thousands upon
iL-nl. present, all eager, curious and
vet STDinathetic Avery appeared as on the
day before, etill hopeful, eating anu arms- supposed to be sanctioned as inevitable wis
im. what was seat down to hiin, motioning I . f fT . - .., Th ioinin".
with his hands and arms, and watching all
that was on the bridge and tbe Bhore.
gTbe cricis of the excitement arrived when,
ahont the middle of the wcond day, the sec
and raft was launched from tbe
bridge upon the hurrying fljod. i-trong
and wilting hand'! held the ropes,
and it was cautiously lowered until it almost
touched the spot where the cact.iway stood.
With a liound he placed himself erect on the
rait; ana men arose sucii a mow '"
. . . . ,. . . , . loss 01 acousiuerauicoargu -
joicing from the lips of that multitude that mUmi mloo!e wrKkDter again to be gath
it was beard even above the roaring ol the ereA I founj that tbe old church idea of a col
watere. ' it.ge (CoAvivm), where youths of the malesex
It was a Bhort-livcd joy. The ropes were , wtre gathered to the cloisters of their male teach
manned by all tbe hands that could find j frs the monks, and where any sight and thought
place, and the raft stiuggled up a little way 0f a ROman approaching tbe place wascooceiv
in tin- teeth of the rariide. and then a fa- td to be a profanation, was itself a dismal im-
rious volume of water broke over ana uj.m
it, washing it from end to end. and hurling
.Uery bodily into the rapid ' One faint,
desperate hope remained to him , as the ir
reetible current hurried him down he might,
bv stout swimming make the shore of t'.ip
IJa nil anine rods below, and t't tbe
west of him. It was a furious, terrible
i ttruggle for life , and while tbe multitude
held their hreatn ana looaeo. on, u seeuiuu
at first as though he might still save him
self. He almost reached tbe shore of the
little island but be never gained it. Some
said that the bush upon which he laid bin
hand broke in his grasp, others thought that
hie strength left him when a few more
strokes would have saved him. He yielded
himself to the fury of the rapids, and an in
stant later bis body nas hurled over the
fatal abve. amid the shudders and groans
of tbe beart-sick spectators
Those who were nearest the spotwherebe i
went over were certain that bis dving shriek i
full of horror of despair, articulated
Mary. rackartTs Monthly.
(twice I'Atrarl! akattt HaaikeM;.
He said in befinnine to write Kosmos : "1
wish to delineate nature as it lives in truth,
and let it be felt that I give more than my
Speaking of French administrations, he
says : "None of them has kept faith with the
people, for none has subordinated its selfish
ness to public good. As long as that is not
done, there will be no permanent government
in France. That nation was always de
ammmI it will be ajrain. She will neriodi-
iw -u. to ,uir.l, Win and chcatinir : for
that she is ripe enough."
Again- "How at certain periods one idea
Iradesthe world ' Sometimes it is are-
vival of former beliefs ; then any irrepressi-
Die desire for repose : then mistrust or over- ,
taVee a hydrophobia against talent . then it
wante to unify ail ehurehce , then it allows
diptomats tu write protocols ; cardmcs re
rum." (The hinges of events )
To Varnhagen he writes . " To minds
like youre rest and solitude are neceearr, lor
you draw reaoaroea from within yoarttelf."
Oo the day when Kosmos was beeun. he
. I hav rho mad rm.kv to delineate
. n th wh. m.tWil worid '
and to give every great idea that bat? arisen
alongside of the actual fact. I
It must represent an epoch of nvmtal (level
opment in human knowledge of nature.''
He said of his own style : l have the on- 1
fortunate die position to clothe thought in poe- .
tic forms, to conf-truet long Hentencce and to 1
concentrate manifold views too much.
General Kaehi eaid ot him ; When he
is dead, and not before, ohall we know what !
we had in him.' !
Humboldt said once : God rult the
world ; it is tbe business of history to trace ;
his eternal mysterious dectsion8.,t
Speaking of Madam Progress, he nays :
Oar sight grows dizzy before tbe fulinet ol f
the material to be worked up; tbe new i
sources of historic knowledge brought fr -1
other iieople; weinu-: show ,l i- i
maybe subjected to ti.i lunur ih..i 1
will be simpler in tlx n vt null i hm.m
Since the great epoch of C.l n i' '- . i i t
ma, as one after another part ot "t.r j 1 ti" '
becomes known, the tea.tbe mobile cicin n:.
has rendered Wept European civilization uni
versally potrflible. From all the hardened
point of human development, other man
nere.otber human wants aet and reach on each
other, and even the grossest masocs are ne
trated. Of national self-overestiination he ravs
I have an ungovernable prejudice against
tbe idea that every people muet represent a
certain something, and that they niurt do ,
what Wh-called philotphers prognosticate
He called the ruling pert?ns in Berlin, I
once, tbe Iterlin World KlephantH," and f
savs Those who govern now are mum-
mies in extraordinary service."
Alluding to some complaints, he replies '
' We muet be careful how we draw conclu
sions from anv author "e silence."
Speaking of those who labor to reconcile
knowledge with dogmas, he says A phil
osophically argued Christian dogmatism with
a marked physiognomy, i?, of all corcets, to
me most disagreeable.'
When Mrs. Fry and William Allen, of
Philadelphia, sent him some pamphlets, he
writes " 1 am entirely fjuakerfied ' Little
bcrmong on penitentiaries, and small tracts
against drinking alchobc drinks'
To Arago be writes : Outeide of my fam
ily, thou art without any comparison, the
person whom 1 love most'
Of the King oi Prussia, he said " The
King, like all princes, has no measure for de
termining what learned men need
lie adrited a gentleman once : " If you
paTcue an object, you must ute the ncces
Of tbe King, he said I like his ten
dencies and views, but he is no man for ac
tion. If he acts, it is by fits and starts.
I without coherence and without due measured
i degree. Be it kindne or tenacity, he is
' afraid to do what he most wishes."
Varnhagen said of Humboldt : Think of
him the beet, expect cf him the best, and
j yet you will never he disappointed."
iiutuooiaisaiu ot cmirch religions - All
'k, i: . . ,. :. . ,
CZ.",J- la,V ii .If" . I can fill the higb, moM responsible places of
1. A novei treatise, generally all alike and I m.nsg(.Bent n4 lrnst lhfy iast and
pure. 2. A geologiail dream. 3. A myth , wm obtain such plaots, and the rewards that
or historic nol and the last has always men have in the same. Theyirill have proftss
obtaineil the chiet imjiortance. " i on)hips allowed them, such as they can more n-
wi u uoihw ..in; ui ic isaipie, ne Miiu ;
I do not agree that there is a reouro of
which tbe people became incarnated. There
is no tnch incarnation."
Of human character, lie said. Natu
ralneee i the bet element in a man's life."
Of theduty of truthfulness, bet-aid; We
owe in life truth only to thoee whom we ein
cerely and deeply esteem. M
Of dogmatism, he said : It is a very dan
gerous presumption in men to want to in
terpret the primeval degrees of God. His
tory tell us what errors were perpetrated
under this guioe."
Of courtly vanity, be wid ; ' How glas
button, iaoock feathers, and ribbons in
vite man !
Of a certain literature, he raid . The
German- will write many a book yet un
Of modern political progiets, he td .
I believed, in 17a9t that tlie world would
have solved more qucetionn than it did. I
I hare seen much, but much less than I
lie taid once with a f-raile : " Queen Vic
toria will not find my Koemos Chru-tian!"
Of constitutional law, he said : Const i-
tutions which come to pooiJe as royal gifts
nr food for nothing." i
AMaseinations, he eaid " are terrible, be- I
cauw impOtible to be fimeen." 1
Of life generally : To he born is a t-mall
matter- to utilize life is much."
"The social conditions of the world are '
like tbe bottle of water, of which D1
bert, after shaking it, Kiid, Caloulez moi-
1 The momentum of Europe is changing,"
The hybrid i never right in literature."
Of trovernmentf. he said: The wildest
Republic cannot endmger as permanently t About tells a very extraordinary story in connec
the mental progret-s of mankind, and its tion with the illness which carried off the Mar
honorable com-ciouenes a a regime de mon j quis de Moustier, and one which for fear of being
Onele.1 It is a Vespotisme cohire dogmat- ! an accomplice in a medical puff. I should scarce-
mtlhevx, that which upes all the
means of civilization to let the will and
fancy of one prevail..'
Centuries are seconds in the great pro
gress of mankind.'
The New York Herald ot the 12th inst. has
nineteen columns of three-line advertisements of
Situation Wanted," Board and Rooms,"
Tbe Joint Cdutation or the Sexe.
Tlie follonlnj disousjlonof thsuljct Is taken
from Dr. Eushnell's last work, ir.mtn's Suffrage ;
te;Jo(iiiVakretpubllshed byC. Scribner 4
Co.,Stw Vork. Iliadroeicyofaccmmontrilalr.s
for the sexrs should have more benefit from too fact
that be opposes female eoffrase.and ever thing thit
In bis view seems likely to unsex and coarsen wo
rnanj We have made a good and right beginning al
ready in tbe matler of education, and the benefi
cent results that come along with our new codes
of training are even a surprise to us compelling
us to rectify a great many ioon-n prcjuura .u
liw lnnr&irt. af evnerieoce. The joining,
for example, of the two sexes in common studies
and a common college life what could be more
un-universi'y-like, and morally speaking, more
absurd! And, as far as the young women are
concerned, what could be more unwomanly and
really more improper! I confess, with some mor
tification, that when the thing was first done, I
was not a little shocked even by the rumor of it.
But when, by and by, some fifteen years ago, I
drifted into Obcrhn and spent a Sunday there, I
had anew chapter opened that has cost me tbe
nosture. and a kind of total lie azainst every
thing niit beneficent in the bisexual order of
our existence. I learned, for tbe first time, what
it means that the sexes, not merely as by two-and-two,
but as a large open scale of society, have a
complementary relation, existing as helps to each
other, and that humanity is a disjointed creature
runniugonly to waste and disorder, where they
are put so far asunder as to leave either one or
' the other in a proerly monastic and separate
i state. Here were gathered for instruction Urge
numbers of pupils, male and female, pursmug
t their studies together in the same classes and
i lessous, under the same teachers ; the young wo
men deriving a more pronounced and more posi-
tivecharacter tn their menial training irom as
sociation with young men in their studies, and
the young men a closer and more receptive refine
ment and a more delicate habitual respect to
what is in person il life, from their associations
with young women. The discipline ot tbe in
stitution, watchful as it properly should be, was
yet a kind of silence, and was practically null
. I, e ,i, ' 1 '
being carried oti virtually ny tne mutuiny quali
fying and restraining powers of the sexes over
each other. There was scarcely a single case of
di-ciphue, or almost never more than one, occur
ring in a year. In particular there was no such
thing known as an esprit du corps in deeds of
mischief, no conspiracies against order and the
faculty, no bold prominence in evil aspired to, n
lying proudly done for tbe safety of tbe clan, no
barbarities of haxing perpetrated. And so the
ancient, traditional, bell-state of college life, and
all the immense ruin of character propagated by
the chtb-law of a stringently male or monastic
association, was totally escaped and put awa.
What we sec occurring always, where males are
gathered in a society ly themselves, whether in
the prison, or theshop, or the school, orthear-
roy every beginning of the esprit du corpsia
evil is kept under, shamed away, made impoasi
We by association of the gentler sex, who can
not cooperate in it. an 1 cannot think of it with
TOwhu , wls rf b th ,
.. , -, Ln. l 'i .
dom m tly 0r by otner ,Iperiments
un it r other forms of relion, an well as under
all Tarictiea of literary culture end social atmos
phere. Thus if anyone should imagine that tbe
aucceeaof this first trial at Oberhn was Joe tn
' the particular, ery strongly pronounced typetf
1 religious influence tLere established, be may
' hear President Mann, uf tbe Unitarian College at
Autich, wbere also the two feiea were corobine-1
i IU UIC SMilC BlUtlllS, uuuuigiu tut awiuivuj-
" b ,fte niost . ;
apiary institution in the country, w e ptwi
'lore than ba'f
throng h th
no nfc- i -All
met in tl "
T n -ei 1
il! 1 1 1
v u t hilt
i. ! is.1 r r
Tin re i
i1 ri: i i
t, j 1 1
' -trt-T t II 1 f
her mm n ix:
n j '
u ! ri a'- h - -i". !, yc , 1 in
i i .lb-' i r t Njc fank., i-tti
I iijf n in. i. " in a n'f 1
. r iiiu i nt wnr m tli ft
.mtetl with t h i - ar 1 w
tint- t ttl,o .It-ci- w -uj
re-, ti iiiH-ri'lent.) Ii
turn ii ' i j It n-mr . tti
lir-t Cil't 1 gnitifinrti
i t i ) c n n; tht' t t v
. - ii, i'.d iT!iptRfr HI tlllt I.! ttiV " tl,t
- t t c ' t o '', ln n-iT U-en lmt t-1 :.r
ij.i 1 f Ii ii k I 'i' w th it it the . 1 in
m r -ni'lj 't- tr'nic tu niMirv V heLher
"i . -tn t m.vtr-.t i'- f t'.ei'U monastic
(v j w,i. .hang" in thL.r crgau nations, so as to
claim their advantages in the better way dis
covered, remains to be seen. Perhaps tbey would
not do it if they could, and perhaps tbey can
not do it if they would. It remains, in either
cafe, to be seen whether tbey have benefits of any
kind, sufficient to compensate lor their moral
disad aiiUges, and so to ktep them still in exist
ence. i The two sexes brought together in this manner,
it is hardly necessary to say, will be rapidly dis
covering their true scale of merit. It matter
j little whether tbey are found to be eualorun
! equal m their talent of scholarship: for it d.?
not follow that tbe greatest funlity of acqairv
meot will be issued in the greatest power, or will
1 even tie felt as having now the greatest practictl
breadth and volume. Enough, that both sex. p
i will better understand, and more respect etch
other, and wiK learn to take their relative places
more exactly and gracefully. That they have in
fact a complementary nature one to the other,
will bedifltitwtly felt, and all but visibly seen;
and tbe college itself, in its double combination
of male and female impulse, will be only a more
complete mtn cr humanity, than it otherwise
could be. Tbe male talent, and the female, will
be a great deal more exactly apprehended than
tbey have been It wdl even be seen that
sex is predicable cf talent as of organization, and
both sexes of mind will be receiving qualities
and contributions from each other in their cross
relations, such as aaswer with general exactness
to the husbanding aad meet helping of the mar
riage bond itself.
Educated on this footing of equality, women
will very soon escape their unrighteous debili
ties, and obtain a place in the scale of estimation
I that exactly corresponds with their personal
, weight and capacity, and more than that tbey
1 have no right to aak. Employments will be
( open to them just according to what they are
I best tjualified to do, and their wages, like the
wages also of men, will be in tbe ext com
pound ratio of what they can do, and what they
personally are. And as what they personally
are includes a great deal of favor to their wo
man1? look and voice, they will scarcely miss the
full reard of their industry.
As they have been educated with men, they
win aiso oecomeeuucaiors witnmen, sna ii inev
jiropriaieiy nil dm oi mecnauieai pnuosopny
psrnaps, or conutsiry, or metallurgy, or lortin
cation, hut of tbe languages, of botany, of
moral science, and, not improperly, of the ex.
Magnetism has been found to exercise consid-
I erable influence on the running time cf watches
made with steel balances. One whot-e balance
1 possessed magnetic polarity to an unusual degree
(although it had never had intercourse with a
magnet) was plicetl with the dial upward and in
such a position that what was found to be the
, north pole of tbe balance would be toward tbe
1 north, when at its place of ret. In this situation
, tbe watcb, although a fine one. gained five min
utes in twenty-four hours. Tbe position being
changed, eo that the north pole of the balance was
' toward tbe south, the watch lost six minutes in
twenty. four hours. A gold balance was then sub
stituted for the steel one and the watch was found
i to run accurately.
Tna Lava or Vcst-virs. It is a remarkable
fact, says the Engineer, that the lavas of Vesu
vius contain a greater variety of minerals than,
nerhin OUT fitkam in lia Tr...
tionsthat out of 8S0 simple minerals known to
him, no less than eitrntr.twn .ro Yur r.TsA
on Vesuvius; and cf these several are peculiar
to the locality. Sir Charles Lyell expresses the
opinion that the- have not been thrown up in
fragments from some older foundation, through
hici! tne Pous explosions have buret. but
as several new earthy and metallic compounds
are known to have been produced by fumerolet
Extraordinary Mldical Inve.itioic. The
Pjris corresDondent of the Exvre$t sivs: "W.
iy have cited rrom a writer et lew repute, lie
aiys that one oi his mends, ur. .Mtrey, a pro
fsor of the College of France who was invited
to Compiegne last autfimn, is the inventor of an
apparatus which he calls a sphygmograrh, and
which marks upon a sheet of paper tbe beatings
of the human pulse; he has alo an analogous
machine for recording with unfailing accuracy
the movements of tbe heart. The Emperor and
several of the guests submitted to experiments.
Dr. Marey told M. About, who himself has been
a guest at Compiegne, that certain statesmen
whom he had examined were destined to long
life, and that certain great ladies had a defective
circulation indicating a short one. Hut he was
especially struck by the state of the Marquis de
Moustier. 'That Minister,' he said, 'who has
not the least suspicion of his alarming condition,
has an affection of the aorta, which mut inevi
tably lead him to the tomb shortly. I do not
give him two months to live.' M. About now
thinks it useful to make this prophecy, which
has been realized, known."
A Woxderfcl Insect. The scavenger beetle
is one of the most useful of all insects, as it re-
auy penorms tne uunes imieauu
in not climates they aDoumi, says me cantell A. Bl-ly, (Can
Wonders, in many villages, whieh are always j tell a big ll.)
sweet and clean, and very unlike those that have Josh UIHidct,
to trust to the cleanliness of the natives. No j Vr!,'
sooner are any pieces offal or excrement dropped M,trieJ, fan,'
than, attracted by the scent, the scavengers are y. l; i-hilander Itoe
heard humming along as fist as their wings will Fm,cJ't.ibllt)r
carry them. They roll away tbe droppings of Major Jask HoiDlnj,
cattle at once in round pieces, often as large as Fleets,
billiard balls; and when they reach a place fitted Frank Forester,
by its softness for the deposit of their eggs and j i'
the safety of their young, tbey dig the soil out birry
from beneath the ball until they have quite let il
down aud covered it. Tbey then 1 ly tneir eggs tTc bnuwoud,
within the mass. While the grubs are growing ; irrJ. orlngo,
iney uevour me insiae oi mc oa mvi.wii.. (
above ground to begin the worw lor ineuiecc
The beetles, with their gigantic balls, look like
Atlas with the world on his back; onll they go
Wlvonl. n-;k fkjilr liil il..wn. and nush I
with their'hind legs, as if a l..y should rdla l
snowball with his legs while standing on bis .
head. Deal birds, lizards, an 1 all sorts of un- I
pleasant things are thus got rid of an 1 in "le use-
ful to the young of this important little Utile '
How CUCKOOS C'.RKY TliriB K....1 V IMI-
respondsnt of Land and Water cMitrihutes the
following item of observations un tin- suhjivt .
I h vine observed in a magazine uf 1 ist year the
mention of a cuckoo having been shot m the
wine, and having, on linc pickpl up, slipped
an entire egg out of its mouth. I re-ulied tu ir
. mire if there were anr natural proiiion for
enrinr the eeir in I lie throat while the luril
is seeking a proper place to deposit it. I f.r- )
tunately fonnd a hird-stuffer in the act ot pre-
paring a specimen of this ecctntric creaiure
with tbe throat laid open. At my riu.stthe
put his knife to the skin of the pan immediately
llow tbe mouth, and eipose-lju-t such 1
as i was looaing ior, empiy, ii mij;c euoujiu i
hold an egg. He afterwards put a Draaawi
down the throat, and, with a lute care found
an orifice distinct from the gullet, just behind
tbe tongue, leading into a ca ny closed at the
lower end. This was eident!y the sac which
he had previously pierced trom within, a little
above the base. It would be ell if some clever
anatomist would carefully extract the internal
membrane of the throat of this l.'.rd. and given
an accurate description or drawing of it. includ
ing the larvnx, which iiiu-l hie a peculiarity
of its own. If I have not Uvn mistaken I think
the existence of this sac, coupled with the inci
dent liefore mentioned, --oves that the method
f this bird is first to 1 ij the egg cn the ground,
and then to swallow it into the special receptacle
and carry it away to place it in the first conve-
A Sm DmwBH WITH Gtx CuTTOS. A
great discovery with gun cotton has been made ;
by Professor Abel and Mr. Brown, of the Royal 1
Arsenal, Woolwich. As we Mtchanici' Ma-
gaztne) hae regularly laid before our readers ,
the progress ot discovery wun mis important
.. nomA nnl nnl. rM'a ! I the M StaffeA
-The preservation from decomposition by the
use of a weak alkali, and tbe employment of
conipressed charges L'sed in the last-mentioned
form, we have mid f at gun cotton, lighted by
an ordinary fuse, l.i- about six time the de- '
structiTe fjree 'i- itl weight of gunpuwder.
Messrs. AM i I r . however, after experi
menting with j ni saturated with nitro
glycerine, (cn ' ' - 11 -ri!y with the deto
natiDg fu-. tr t experiment cfigmtng
guncott' i1 mc -ime way The results
showed i In! - " ' ' ded in this way has,
perhap-'. gr- 't-r . :ive force than nitro
iflvcoT it I - - it and valuable ducuv-
!,,! r n iv. ! t comparative safety of
r -un un' tremendously destruct-
Tine. For mining and
emoves the only suurce
- of gun cotton, for no
-ary. It is sumcient to
i'i in ii
. f .,'X
tad. Oun cotton, as we .
r' rtv jt y
- n 1 v. ' '
1 ! I V IU'
Ki.i 11 1 1 1- rr.,
may be carried and
v from explosion. The
nserted in toe charge
iae. As with mtro
. one charge protok -
- Thus, if it were
i I f lt-'r, i i ; mit, it iaonly ner --
I it. i .1 ti it i' - 1 - i aces rcuud
-u a- lti i- k'he exptueK
- rapidity. Moi
; cuton is expt
t is not necwrt :
i '-j its analogue, nit -u
a so instanUneoua th.t '
k't jostas jrreat as wbe.
-i 1 ...
iv ih. :
Tl.e -h itt. :,i
shatter! t v
A detail. 1 a
mi. posed. Large block ot
1 1 1 .1 ; Ate of iron have been
i . i: j; open charges upon them,
i. 1 1 the experiments made by
. f ii in ihia way is not yet made
public. 1 ut il.t i -ooverers, no doubt, will
soon supf,',- .t
a vinegar machine
An American lady in Bonn has married a rich
Hebrew of Vienna. Her name is Lincoln.
Tbe Cassagnace. father and son, have fought
110 duels within the past & years.
The new Paris executioner condemns the guil
lotine and wants the gar rote introduced.
An tnplUh clergyman is taking subset ij t u?
for a monument tu A dim.
It is said that biin Reeves may make a Mit
to America early next jear
A memorial to the Prime Minister f Ei.fr1. ui J
for the disefttahltshment of ihe Chunli in W ds
is circulating in the principality.
The Q-ieen of Pruss.i g,vW five iui, Ire-1
dollars to every woman in her husband s do.ii -nions
who has given birth to a rotir.d hn of
TK fcVAn.l. n i ....
a.cuvu nc uTuy wiien m me ixai
great races at the Bois de Boulogne near Paris, j
V iV ii B i
halt a million francs each. (
sland's potato crop is the best that has been
T 1 1-
iraauu e poiaio crop is tne nest that has been
known for very many years. Irish potatoes are
so good that this news is doubly good England's
potato crop is reported a comparative failure.
The Russian government lately had two Polish
ladies barbarously beaten, at Warsaw, because
they had letters in their pofessun written by
Langiewicx six years ago.
It is said that Mr. James OTunneil. a brother
of the great lUuiel O'Connell, will be made a
baronet, in acknowledgment of the latter's ser
vices. What a pity that Mr. OTonnell did not '
t.e ui wunees me inumpn oi his principles
, . T . . -
Ltueiri 1 oiettt, mot ceieorated nf mfwlm Its-
ban architects, ami who superintended tbe res-
Wfttinn f St I1. r'k....l. . i, .
. . UI a vn. ii txi rume, maKtng
. uu u iu uuni euiuce- iu tne world, died re- ,
Georges Sand will spent the winter in Paris,
contrary to her usual custom, becaue she is
superintending the production of a new piece at
tbe Odeon Theatre. Her "Little Fadelte" in
opera has been a great success.
A Paris letter savs that " Kn iui.ii
she gave the engagement ring of her mother, the i
Empress Jophine, to her son, the present Km-
peror of France, ma kinir it a i,,; .k.. i,,
nn.ln ,K.I h-
should never put it on another band than that of
uie luture impress of the French. The request
was obeyed, ami Eugenie owns tbe ring."
A FrctiLh Jenkins has invaded the Tuileriee,
and disclosed all the private habits of the royal
family Among the choice tit-bits of informa
tion which he has extracted are the following :
Tit-bit .No. 1. They call each other Louis and
Lugeme. No. 2 Tbe Prince Liases his papa aud
mama. No. S. The Emperor takes his tea by
soaking it in a roll o. 4. The favorite dinner
dish u. a brisket of veal. So. 5. Whatever happen-,
the Emperor never finds fault with his
Quite a Spectacle One of tbe handsomes
and lt disd gentlemen in the city is a wor
thy merchant, whoe great personal care of him
self and his addiction to fine living have procured
him a rotundity which, while it detracts nothing
from his good looks, utterly conceals from his
own inspection his extremities. The circumstance
was on I nday morning the occasion of, to him, a
mortifying exposure, whilst others looked upon
it as an amusing speckle Before breakfast he
invariably takes a morning walk, and his urban
ity and polite recognition are looked for by early
pedestrians with pleasure.
Dressing himself, therefore, with great care,
be sallied out; but, strange to say, every one he
met turned their heads and laughed, and some
ladies from the gallery i,f a residence over the
way ran screaming into the bmse.
What did it mean
At last be met a little boy whose immoderate
laughter drew from him the indignant inquiry :
" hat do you we about me, you little scoun
drel, that every body laughs at ?"
"Why, Mr. I) .you've forgot to put on
Overwhelmed with shame, the old gentleman
uunicu uuuie nu eageny sought out the mir-
ror. In his haste he had arf..ii ..i;.,.!
t; y.t ;.i.j r .? J . .. I
O. Picayune. V i
luciciuic, uuumiumji wturicucc, Cliuer lOino- I
-.-it : : : i. j :a I
sioally, or in its wide-spread influence.
rv A T IT .1 a . i
reaJ alike n paaa and ha!., .d4 ha carried I by her neighbor acroaa tbe channel. If ZT ! bill to
i a wnmipmii aneii nr sniriimuirir wttii iham - i . - n-
V ; "J"3 KOTcrnmeni oi napoleon be overthrown I
His break with the Holy See. at this time. is. the Pn.-h win OTe"nrowo,
BURLINGTON, VT FRIDAY MORNING, OCTOBER 2Q,
THE B CAT, XAJIES OF 3IAXT rOrUlAR WEtTEES.
Mr. Dole, in his "Catalogue of tLe Skowhe
han Library," gives the following list of the
pseudonyms of native and foreign authors,
names changed by marriage, and the authors of
anonymous hooks :
b&niuel A. Bant,
('liarlu II. bmith,
Kpliralm ti. Eqaier.
Joseph A- Scuvtlle.
Benjamin Austin and Ly
man Ablfott, jointly.
CLarles Aptor Bristol.
.eo. W. Peek.
Henry W. tjhaw,
JUv. bimuvjl Fiske.
J. T. Trowbridge.
Miss Susan Dunning.
31 r. tUllou.
Mtt4 Lara O. Kedden.
Jlra. fcarah J. C. Ltppn
oott, LL Henry A. Wise, V. S.
M tM 31 a r y AblcaQ
Ir. . 51. Terbuoe.
Mri. Jennie C. Croly.
R. H. Newell.
CapU U. Harric.
Mr. I). M. r. Walker.
Donald (1. Mitchell.
ill K. & Clarke.
MiM Anna. L. JuhiMWfi.
t. . I Hamilton,
Orpheus C. Kerr (Omee
ftS'JJ lul .Nm.
P. R. Locke.
Dr. OMhaui. i
.Mile U'lteill; .
Calebs. Henry, LL. I.
Vim. T. A da au-.
Col. Cnarlea 0. IUluine.
Jl. l bhUlaker.
Vavt. Ueo. H. Derby. U.
fieu. IK I fetrotber.
Mr. O. J. ictor.
Charles I Kirk.
j. he ri..i mi,
1 l'i rte 4 ml nil,
L PyliHl, t wnairraui)
DeKay author of
" taaetueksj ."
Matthew F Whlttier.
A. L. Von Jakib.
JoeiahG Holland. M I.
Mt FJu'h btuart Fbelpe
hauiuel L, Clemen.
E. J . Mansfield.
Charier F. Bruee.
Mim Charlotte Toeaer.
Br. Bdward Bradley.
M. Knxabeth & Stip
prd. Pr. f. V. E. Ajtwun and
A veteran ui ier
Ulythe Wbttc, Jr.,
A.L.O. E. (
Osntry Partuo,' a.K. II.
Rev. A.K. H. Bjd.
Un. Marian J ( Kraut,
Mr. Harriett Parr.
Mrs. Eluabeth IVur.xe.
JI..U. hdard H. 0. Lt-
Mrs. Clara Mundt.
Amantlne Locile Aurore
( ltapin ludevant;.
fo. 8. PtuUip.
Judc The. C. Uali) ur
J.hii II Wa.-'..
L - ii' Kit hrU J M rn-
Kaaas t Baiaan & i v . ;n. t.
mtUd J. Evsiu, '
Mr ii l. w
Mrm.t . k
Mrs. fL b npnvford, Jr.
jixoaraors soora an nuta avraoas.
Alchemy and the Aleh
mtsU; alto Cbrifftthe
"tlin'i Ckmte Cosm
Borne again ExElalae4
Red Book of Applo.
a uena- . m . r i. 1 1 ,an a
, Eeee Homo.
, Ecce Culam,
!li' M lt,l i
m Mr- RhU.I- ut-,
M 1 b. u'tim ii
I .i.iA.- t. HaIU ,.
II v. M JUW. r
M M 1
Mr- h.itiUlt. Cli -Mr-
D. I urtt.
Jan. - Itiiitf'
l - 51 A I'.ati ( a!"
i Tbe Lax
i-ni II. H Hi
n i I the L'n:ur , fur
( ' i ii- ii tin ae Iit an 1 1. r the
i .! . n- t. the -ame. A we m. w pre-
- I ubt.t? the mi -"t c i p ete llt of
Mi' -h. 1
K i i M U IV-
1 . w r n Mr. s -ir. .,-
'1 ' Iam M Ii C hf
h r lnr i . i, t. J l !, , j f r.
- . . K' K. H 1 ari.aui
u . i M " L .. . IUuii
If i, - V rr-t - 1 Vk m-
Hi 1 ! Vt.tti.r. .1. M Uirner
Amy I.: r j a i h..m t
. Ckarlsa.'Li -ie W Vi i t u
Walter ai W .n. n !.
I Edw.Wm.a-- in I' Tiu-krr
I F.U.Trafluiu J M. H ni. .
1 Reginald Racru . tm nw.le ia . l
' Peter Parley, o Lurnk
: Kllertno Vincent, Wm
' VABOUCU F ' I 1 M 4.KK t r
I M. J. ajevnbary, v- r ft her.
I R. M Berry, Mr- vb vw
l A.TbomsflV tlr iu'iii
, A.C.HR .tt Mr- K l.l. e.
R. P Hi- i Mr- l'Mt
it. i ijv i , J Urn Key.
Tut .K'i iv rue Sorrutajt Akmt. Some
two t ir-. Alter Boll's Run, when tbe negro had
learned more of the nature of tbe content, and
was under less temptation to exhibit any pluck
on the Southern side, we were marching on tbe
Federals through the woods of the Wilderness
district of Virginia. A rapid firing springing
up suddenly in front, told that the van had
engaged the enemy. Our division was ordered
up at "duuble-tjjick." Rushing forward we
came on a small opening cleared ia tbe young
.irf JlKtf a W wr nlnn thin nnu
. . 6 .
tiae a negro entered it irom the other, making
away from the engagement at full speed. As
Beuure uu"u vu wur "wnueu ranas ne sung
0ut, with stentorian lungs, i
"Danger ahead White man to de front, I
--'ugr uw "uiw man io tie irom, i
nigger ttt a rer- orward, march !
.i uc mtw uu ii uur iiues anu into tne
woods behind a grand shout of laughter rung 1
out from thousands of throats despite the com-
i ng danger. (
vn me morning ui inenu or April, irrj, ihe ,
oiLicurt m-, uaiuij, i4iiru iiav aa avaiancoe
on the partly surprited Federals, were forcing
them back through their abandoned camos and
o i towards Pittsburg Landing and the final I
stand on the river, where gunboat and battery. I Giving the uiil c-tlture and training tbe fol
handled by desparation, finally checked their I lowing is a reasonable calculation, a -hown by
Sit hroni came a nerrn mnnnt. nn a LnunJ.t I
horse, lie rode leisurely nlong, keeping far ,
i. .L . . . j Y . h
enougu in me rer io oe out oi oanger. it was
;n ik. a i. w j
his hrst cxpenence of battle, for he bod just
i : tf- . i . . z .
arnveu in camp, iiib master nau ordered him
to keep thus in the rear with his spare borse,that
it might he convenient in cae the one he rode
were shot. He had also ordered the negro, in
cae he were killed, to carry tbe news as swiftly
as possible to his wife. I will let tbe negro tell
the remainder as I beard it from his own Hds.
Well, you see I was follerin' on that boss of
t1? anath7"P shoot in ami goin ahead
.7 V? M ?u ,rn,S 1
tell you there were lotq o' cood thines Ivin round
loose, packs of cards and half glasses 0f whis
key. Itecken a how tbey left thar 'fore they
counted on goin Then there was blankets and
spare boots, and nobody to look after 'era. So I
begun to lay in a supply and had a heap of nice
things piled up, when I see sump'r. come bounc
in' along 'bout like one o them footballs the boys
kick round ; an it stopped purty close to me and
Lep' goin' fii-z ! fiz-z ! and I a wonderin what
on airth it could be. -Vfid presently it Wowed
up, and all creation ! Ton never heerd such a
fuK Golly ! 'twas a bombl I got on that boss
and started for Corinth. I forgot them things,
and fore I knowrd it I like to er killed that hoss
runnin' of him."
" Where are you runnin to, boy V
You we moster told me to carry mistis the
news of his death quirk,"
Yes, but your master wasn't killed."
A cunning look glimmered in the negro's eye
as he replied,
" Yes, but you sec I thought that if moster
warnt dead already he would be soon ef he stayed
where things like them was bustin promiscus
and I mought just as well start right along with
tbe news." fee. D. M. Reetes.
The New York Herald gives Father Hyacinthe
this vervfunnv. but verv sensihlp ,uu 7 '
he visits this country : !
Let him firmh avoid anv accentano f !.
bofpitahtiesof the city" at the hands ot the
Common Council of New York; let him politely
decline " the use of the Governor's room in the
City Hall for the reception of his friends;" and
above all, let him steadfastly refuse to say what
'ket he will support" at the November
The Pall Mall Gazette armies tT,
cestui establishment of parliamentary govern-
ment in France, will result in v,vi" . '
rliew e.r th.t r. . loreigu
volution which has thrown the G.Zl Zlf
F ranee into the hands of the woole nL
followel by French interference with inSS
DathV With liberal tnOTPmenta in v.. f. .'
Yru "f"11 movements in turone, which ,
they are unable to express.
. . . r-i"'-"'"-") uiaauestthat
lfashlnyton TerrKcn as a Trnl! (.roving
BntuxoTox. Oct. 12, 'CO.
G. G. Benedict, Esq.,
Deab Sir : I enclose you a letter from A. It.
Roberts, Esq., of Walla Walla, Washington Ter
ritory, which will give to your readers a definite
and accurate idea of the adaptability of that sec
tion fur the production of fruit. General Harney,
in 1808, issued his proclamation declaring Walla
Walla Valley open for settlement to tbe whites,
aniit was not until 1 SCO that anything was
done towards the raising of fruit, white now there
are in the vicinity over i00 acres in peach, plum,
apple, and pear orchards in bearing. On the 18th
of July last I was in Mr. Roberts orchard, and
eat from his trees ripe apples, plums, pears, etc ,
and when we left, his neighbor, Mr. Ilitz, put me
up a box of ripe tomatoes, apples, plums and
pears, to tak,e along with meon my journey. Mr.
Huberts is a close observer and a practical man,
and all that be states can be relied upon.
Your readers must tear in mind that Walla
Walla Is a new country, very sparsely settled,
above the 4tith deg. of north latitude, being tbe
same as Quelc.
When I left there, July 20th, farmers were
haresting their wheat, which was a fine crop, al
though the country was suffering more from
drought than for ten yea's Ufore.
Thos. II. Caxfielo.
Walla Walli Cnr, July 19, 1869.
That. II. Canfitld.Eq., Maaagtr of the North
ern Pmetfie Ilatlroad.-
1)E4B Sic In laying before your people
facts and evidence relative to the resources of this
country, its climate, soil. ., it will be ray ob
ject to state nothing but what cm be relied on
by yourselves in looking to the interest or ad
vantage this part of Washington Territory may
be U your enterprise, and alo aiiiafy the emi
grants who may from knowledge disseminated by
you, be induced to Mk homes in its beautiful
vallejs Having spent 13 winters in this valley,
residing here with my family over ten years, I
claim tu be able to tell something of the climate
and resources of the country.
Oar winters are, tor this latitude, exceedingly
mill, it seldom being necessary to feed stojk
at all during the season ; and the only win
ter that has ocenred here since the country wax
first known by. the white men, that really re
quire feed to sustain bore and cattle during
the winter, was that of Ik.,1 and V2, when the
snow fell u the depth of liii inches, and remained
on thegnmn-1 ( though not this depth all the
time) from the 22nd of December until the 10th
of Feb. The grass was so abundant, howee-,
that boms of my own wintered well that I never
j saw from Oct. until March. We usually have
' from three to eight inches of snow at a time,
i often repeated twice or three times during the
winter, but eMoni remaining on the ground
more than eight or ten day? at a time, and more
i frequently only two or three days Seven out uf
j thirteen w inter! the ground has not been o
' frozen that plowing c mil not be done at any
j time ; and but twice hn the ground been fru
en to tbe depth of eipht or ten inches 1
I have realized the fact that after our severest
winter, especially heavy freezing, we rau our
beat crops, and on the whole. I make it a point
( to prep ire some feed for my stock and look tor
ward, f.ipinji for what i t-rmed here "rather
a hard winter," a? a harbinger of health and
I pr toriTvfur tbe coming sea.cn.
"ur c. mate is particularly adapted t the
raiau ; 'r ut And as an index to its general
features 1 w II give you a list of some of our
fruits, with their time of ripening.
Bed Astra .-an , KtrU Hartst, Red June, S.
berian Crab c , from the 4th to the loth of
July. arl Pennck, Summer Queen, Sweet
Pear, Main ' . -1 len Sweet, &c , 1st of August
We raise a! "e leading varieties of winter ap
f .- eomn n n the Eaat, such aa yellow New
t r ippin,u t essp Janiting.Teuksbury's Winter
11 u-h, Rr xl urv Ruesett, Rho-le Inland Greening,
W. v8 i' r, i.o.,wh. chare general y gather--i
lurnji1- (erpartof "ctofer. Those intend
ed! r ,'i g 1 1 1 f iag tare gathered a little earlier
o- nmer varieties are tn the market
!i of July Tbe itartlett ripens
ti to the l1 t b of Aug. The Sickle
. the- Ist of ."vpt. ft inter Nellis.P
ih beauty, Vicar of Winkfield,nd
t )t fine pears, find this their per
1 lit ttie alcove will uthoe.
1 ' .r eir
at" ur ii..- ,
fr i'i tit 1
1! I Ml it 1
nil .... ir, 1
an i ii i i
r,Er!y ork. c, r pen fr-.m the
1 'IntJij t the "nh of August. Erly Idlot
m n. har y 'iwfonl c , fmm the I th to tbe
"h . Aii-t. Malta. ox C'n.ey, xc , 1st.
ej t ui v . Indian, witha.I the late varieties,
aS the Kth uf Sept
The Peach Plum, Drap dOr, Yell, w Egg, kc ,
10th to 15th July. Imperial Gage, Cue's Golden
Drop, Smith Orleans, 10th tu the 'JOih of Aug
Our earliest are the Elln, May Duke, and
Gov. Wood, ripe from the iMth of May to tbe 1st
of June. Royal Ann, Black lartaruui, Bigar
eau, &c, Vxh of June. V e have some late va
rietics daring July, ami ng which tbe latest is
the Slack Mtpu' lie iitnn Ore'in seedling.
We raise to the greatest perfection and with I
thpalightest winter protection (which, however,
--t'LtU necewar ) all that we have yet tried1
. tbe foreign sP ,,r riis rinVra. Our j
earliest var.eties are fi retgn. Early Black July.
Black Burgundv The Miller's liurgundv, White
Sweetwater, R al Muscadine, npening in the I
above from the ll'tth ot July to the 10th of Aug. ,
lelaware. Hart furl Prolimc, and Rebecca, i
white, green and red Trawner, l."th of Aug. to i
the 1st of Sept. Isabella, Concord, i,c , 1st to '
the l'th of Sept. U Angelos, Black Hamburg,
kc , L0th to the r,ith Sept. White Muscat of I
Alexandria, 1'Hh ot Oct I have in my vine-
yanl many other varieties in bearing-, but tbe
above will sufhee as au index. I will remark '
that such a thing a a cold grapery or hot h use I
has never been seen in Walla Walla. After tbe
aboveeviden e it is scarcely necessary for me to say
that strawberries. raspbernes,blackbtrriee,goc-
berries and currants grow to the greatest per-
lection, and every variety above named are to be
Kn at my place in a perfectly healthy condition,
No blight, mildew or rot on grapes, pears,
o ought, miMew or rot on grapes, pears,
peaches or goosbernes,as are so common in other
countries; ana while we can produce very early 1
fruit we at the sara time can produce fruit with
the ni.Mex-v lent keepu jc quilit!e,aaresledby
.tviinen . f apple- now n hand rabed list sea-
son. and a you will also see ep fed for nil at
our fruit stands apples of two seasout growth.
Ihe time required for tbe various fruits io
come into bearing varies some according to oil
and culture, as also tbe manner f nennin
my imhuiiu umiuj iuc iity ini )nr.
but little difference in them) we exnect fruit in
. , . , .. ....
considerable quantities the third season of apples
pears, plum, ami cherries peaches one year
sooner. Twoyear old grape vines bear from two to
five pounds the next seasm after pi wttnjr. These
facts are sufficient to indicate the fruitfulness
vi me cvuairy nun ciiuaie.
is sparsely timbered, and, as a consequence,
whatever can be done in producing forrest trees
should be known, and the settlers induced to aet
upon tbe facta promptly, in order to furnish
timber for home consumption as cheaply as pos
sible, at least for firewood.
tree, very small, planted in lbGO measured,
as you will revolted in your presence fifty inches
in circumference four feet from tbe ground.
Cuttingsof Lombardy PopUrputin the ground
three years ajto are now thirty-five feet hih and
twenty inches in circumference. To prepare the
ground and plant an acre of thepe cottinp
(which grow readily) would not cot over
including three years cultivation Thux it will be
seen that the scarcity of timber in this partial
lar section of country can soon be relieved;
while by the completion of the railroad wecan
obtain a supply of building ami fencing material
direct and cheaply from the magnificent forrest
of Puget Sound.
Very respectfully yours,
A. B. Roberts.
When it is proposed to add so many new do- j
part men ts to tbe Government, such aa a labor J
bureau, a bureau of commerce, and go forth, it ;
is well to consider another pressiog need of the !
times. We mean some sort of an establishment
in which hungry Southern politicians can all be ',
accommooaie-i, a sort oi puoiic cno at which
theJ 0411 u feeJ' V lt .ls B0W me of tLem
must eo hungry What is wanted is someerand
charitable institution, in which Senter and
Stokes can eat from the same manger, Wells aid
Walker partake of their bumble meals at the
same hospitable loard, and Davis and Hamilton
come up from Texas to feel from the same elee
mosynary provender. This we are confident
would bring harmony and happiness. Only let
it be certain that there is enough for all. It would
be necessary to include A. Johnson and Judge
Pent also, in the interests of peace. This scheme I
invwrn mw wpcuw, om we ueuee mat
involves a uttie expense, out we oeueve that aj
tadlci0ns rjublie would twiv lt in order to nut a
Bt0P the wrangling at theSouth be-
tween second-rate politicians whohaTe neither
PriDcIPle9 hoDtttJ or brInfc
Spanish government have introduced a t
suspend the rights of individuals until the
tntlivtrltiala themaelve are Btianndoil. i
A uoston gentleman named JJaniei bum ner
luuiDed for a water from a third-storv window.
1 with an umbrella, and came down unhurt.
Most of the newspipers are incline. I to deride
the course of the trustees of General Lte's col
lege in instituting therein a profewrship of
journalism. According to these critics, journal
ism cannot be learned outside of a newspaper
office, and the first business of a cottee-bred
journalist, when he enters practically upon his
profession, will be to unlearn the theoretical
journalism which he has acquired. Give a
young man. they say, a good general education,
and leave him to get his special training in the
school of practico.
This seems to us an empirical way of looking
at the matter. It is true enough that a thorough
newspaper man cannot be made without prac
tice any more than a thorough lawyer or a
thorough physician can be made without prac
tice. Hut law schools and clinical lectures are
not useless for all that ; and there is no more
tt,Ai i i-a : v. , . . , . a.- i.
soouIJ be impossible to te lauzht theoretically
.t,ffm.i..ri. - i t. i u-
any more than law or medicine. It depends al-
, , . r ,
together upon what you mean by a successful
li-wi in uiuunurcui luecaiH! wot lournaiwm
journalist whether spedal culture U or is not an
advantage to him. If you mean by the term
oniy a man wno make a fortune out of a news
paper, it is possible that ignorance may be no
great detriment tu him. Certainly, some of the
most bignal successes" in this fense have been
achieved by men of very limited acquirements
and very narrow minds. Bm men of tbi sort,
however much money he may have made, bears
the same relation to journalism that a ' ehys
ter1 bears to law or a quack to physic Tbe
end cf tbe law is not to make money for its pro
fessors, but to administer justice. And the end
of medicine is not to make money for its profes
sors, but to heal tbe sick. And so tbr end cf
journalism h not to make money for its pro
feseure, but, first, to gather and present tbe
news in the fullest, fairest, and promptest way
which is purely a practical function ; and,
oecond, to comment upon it o as bt to pro
mote public intelligence and public virtue
which is purely a spiritual function.
Of course, in this, as in all other itu -suits.
nobody, or nobody but a fool, 'goeth a warfare
at his own cost.' And so it is essential to the
existence of a newspaper that people thould
buy it. If it fail in its first fa net ion that of
giving tbe news it may editorially ircalcate
the purest moralities and the suMiment wis lorn,
and nobody will be the better of it, fur nobody
will read it It is by superiority in this fimt es
sential that illiterate men have nude fortunes
out of newspapers, cf which all that was not
news was east and drivel. But we question
whether in the future even such succttes will
be possible. There U no reawu why a newppa-
per should not be equally excellent in both de-
part men ts why it should not in its new col
umns real ze Burke's ideal, and be tbe " history
of the world for a day," and in iu editorial
columns fulfil a still higher ideal, and be the
philosophy of that history. The reaann why no
such newspaper has ever existed, with the one
exception which modesty forbids our mention
ing, is that to produce it there, is requisite a
combination of qualities very rare in themselves,
and still more rarely united in single person.
There have been few occurrences, in the hi-tory
of j uroalism, of a man who was at once a first
rate newspaper manager and a first rate
ne wsp per w nter. One fu netion requires
a man of business The 1 ther requires a tnink-
er. The late Mr. Raymond unite-1 the two re-
mUttes in a remarkable degree. There were 1
more successful editor than he. There were
also more effective writers. But his eminence
was due to the fact that he understood so well
the interdependence of the two departments,
and the extent to which each needs to be subor
dinated to tbe other. And Mr. Raymond had 1
received Doth a scholastic education and a se-
vere apprenticeship in the drudgery of a news-
Journalism is yet everywhere in its infancy.
But we look in the pmereiM of its systematic ad
just men t to see the division of labor, which is
the first step toward, perfection in any pursuit,
made much more exact than it is now.and to see
a broad line drawn between editors and writers.
For each of these a special training would be a
great benefit. But for a man who aspires to be
at the head of a corps of both, and to reconcile
their respective functions so as to bring both to
their higheM perfection, such a training will, in
the future of American journalism, be found in
dispensable. There are some special t ranches of knowledge
which every newspaper neophyte ought to know,
and wh.ch none but newspaper expert do ac
quire. Stenography is one of them. Contem
poraneous polities are another. Political econo
my is a third. No journalist is fullv equipped
without these thine. Yet few journalists do in
fact know them alL And those lew acquire them
under every disadvantage not " in the sttil air
of delightful studies," with the facilities which
competent teachers and a scientific system of in
struction gire, but after they have entered upon
tbe practical work of their lives, in tbe intervals
they can snatch from the immediate duties of
their profession, and by their own unaided and
ungauided endeavors. A course of instruction
which should toach thee subjects thoroughly
and as preparatory to practice is what few news
paper men will deny to be a desideratum.
So much is necessary for a journalist, con
sidering a public journal as merely a receptacle
of new. But much more is essential, consider
ing it as a vehicle of thought. It has become a
truism, though even thirty years ago it was
thought a paradox, that journalists are the rml
priesthood of a modern nation. What influence
ha4 an utterance from the pulpit on Sunday
compared with utterances from the editorial
tripod every day in tbe week ? Mankind, in this
ace, estimates them both alike, by the amount
of matter it finds in them. Or, if either has an
entrinoc advantage, it is the writer and not tbe
preacher. For the divinity that in the old times
was thought to hedge tbe latter has now depart
ed from tbe imaginations of men, while the nim-
bos of anonymity which still surrounds the form- j
er gives h:m a certain oracular impartance in j
the eyw of his readers. The most popular (
preacher m this country weeklv aidrees an
average audience of three thousand people. The '
writers on every one of four or five newprtpers
daily address an audience of ten times that j
numoer. uei atone ioe ower aavaniaces toe
written word has over the spoken, it is obvious !
that, as Mr. Lecky has remarked, tbe poer of
lterattt n which tbe journalist pos$e:es in de
livering himself daily gives him a superiority
hardly to be overestimated in influencing those
to whom he speak. Accordingly, we need not
wonder to find what we do find that the
opinions and character even of a church-going
man are moulded much more by the newspaper
he reals than by the clergyman be sits under.
Awl for the vatt and increasing body whom the
p resetter cannot reach, even in nts limite! way,
there absolutely t no alternative to the newspa-
per as a moral teacher. Anu new.paper writers
are gradually superseding tbe writers of books
as well as the preachers of sermon. No bu-y
man wilt read a hook upon a subject whieh he
can have treated with equal talent and far more
terseness iu a newspaper article. In tbe arts,
in social topics, and in politic, as well as in re
ligion, the newspapers are getting to be the su
pieme arbiters of public opinion.
The defects of this mode of public instruction
are manifest enough. The new-paper is literally
an ephemera. It mut not strain the reader's at
tention too closely, nor detain it too long. But
this defect is partially neutmlixed by that same
power cf ite-ation; which enables it to return
again and again to its topic. This is the con tin -val
dropping that wears away the stone of preju
dice and gradually shat.es the minds of men.
The influence of the newspaper writers of this
TTJ It'f,8" 'l"""'"?';
character of the men whe wield it. And that '
character must be formed by education. To say
hat a herd of clever youngsters can be turned ,
loose into newspaper offices and trusted to write ,
happy-go-lucky articles upon the momentous
hemes which there engage their pens is to say ,
that it of no consequence whether the destin. ,
i of the country which they help so much to '
shape are shaped well or iU. They mut be i
trained to a notion of the dignity and responsi- (
bdityof their work, if they are to do that work '
as it ought to be done.
usefulness of journalism is unquestionable, j
The only question about the probable usefulness
of the professorship instituted tn that end in
Washington College depen-is upon th further
quesuou wneiner journau.m is luely to t well
or ill tucht there. The school of American
journalism ouht to 1 in New York, where are
its brightest exemplars and its necessary centre.
But we believe that almost any teaching of it
will be better than none, .V. '. World.
Governor Senter's Message to the new Leg
islature of Tennessee is very good. He proposes
that the existing disabilities upon disfrancbi'ed
rebels be remove, he urges the ratification of
the Fifteenth Amendment; be sustains earnestly
the new public school system of tbe State; he
recommends the sale of delinquent railways to
lighten the State debt; be vigorously opposes
repudiation, and he appeals to the Legislature to
do something to encourage immigration into the
State to develop its vast resources of wealth and
prosperity. This certainly is a good programme
for tbe Legislature, They will probably, how
ever, pursue an exactly opoositeconrse on most
of these points. They will not ratify the Fifteenth 1
Amendment, mey are reported to have com- I
menced a war unon the new school system. They 1
are supposed to favor repudiation, and are about .
to elect an avowed repudiationist totheUmted '
States Senate. They propose to abolish the whole !
judiciary of the State in order to get rid of one 1
obnoxious judge a Republican. All these things
are bad in themselves, and they will have a ten- '
dency to discourage immigration. Senter be- 1
trayed his party and obtainel the governorship as
his reward. We shall now see hqw he gets along !
with his Legislature. j
Ex-Senator Toombs is said to be no longer In
danger of sinking into himself.
The receipts of the Mechanicsf Fair at San
Francisco exceed $u0,003 from the sale of tick
Thirty freight trains came to Boston over the
Boston & Albany railroad on Monday last.
Tbe Covernor's Tlengr.
Gentlemen of the Senate and Uouie of Rep
Having been elected to the office of Chief Mag
istrate of this State, with a most earnest appre
ciation of tjie great responsibility whkh the
action of the people has imposed upon me, I have
met with you, aa required by the Constitution,
to give to you such information and assistance
as may be in my power, and be required by you
to tnable you faithfully to guard the interests of
the Commonwealth, provide for the support of
its government, and consider and decide upon
such alterations and improvements, as you may
deem necessary, of its laws and its policy,
trustiog that in the performance of my duties I
may enjoy your confidence, and, if need be, have
tbe benefit oi your kind forbearance; but above
all, that we may each be gifted with that wis
dom which cometh oalv from God, without
. . . , . . - . .
wdosc approval anu assistance oiaies, as weii as
t , . . . Z . , i
I Individual, are powerless for good, and whoee
. , . r , r a. ,
acknowledgment and worship have been mvle
. f ,. . M , V, . iiw Pa, .
j th M TlaP hM MUlil
During tbe past year peace has prevailed
throughout the land, contrasting most beauti
fully and significantly with tbe stormy excite
ment of the years of warfare for our National
exwtence, through which we have so recently
passed. The earth has yielded bountiful crops
I to its cultivators. No general epidemic, or dis
ease, has prevailed within our borders. And
business of all kinds has progressed without
serious revcrs, or financial disaster. For all
which grateful thanks are due and should be rev
erently returned to the lHvine Providence, from
whence all blessings Sow.
The details of the present financial condition of
the State, and of the receipts and disbursements
for the year, are (bown by the Reports of the
Treasurer and of the Auditor of Accounts, which
will be laid tefore you. The result may be briefly
The total funded debt of the State at tbe pres
ent time, is one million seventy-ave thousand
dollars, ($1,075,000,00.) whkh sam, how-
ever, includes twenty-seven thousand five hun
dred dollars, ('J7,ow,w,) 0I bonus One in
1876 and lbT, which have Uen purchased by
tbe Treasurer and have not been cancelled, but
are held by him with a view cf exchanging them
if found expedient, for bonds due in 171. The
excess j of current liabilities over current re
sources, is twenty-one thousand one hundred
awl eight dollars and forty-eight cents, ($21,
I0S,4b). The present apparent total liability of
tbe State is therefore one million ninety-six
thousand one bonureu anu eight dollars anu
forty-eight cent, Oa6,Kte,48.) But against
this is to be otfaet tbe present amount of the
sinking tti ml, which isseventy-nve thousanu six
hundred and ninety-four dollars and two cents,
(S7-',0'Jl,0,) and twenty-teven thousand five
hundred dollars, (S'J7,5U0,0O) of bonds held by
the Treasurer as before ated, making tbe net
liability not provided tor, nine hundred and
, ninety-two thousand nine hundred and fourteen
dollars awl forty-six cents, (9!,914,46). For
all purposes, except that of exchange, these
bonds held by tbe Treasurer may be treated as
paid, in determining the present financial con
dition of the State.
At the commencement of the year tbe fund
ed debt was one million two hundred snd
i twenty-seven thousand dollars. ( $ 1 ,1:7,000.00)
The excess of current resource over current
liabilities was feventeen thovsand four hundred
and five dollars and forty-nine cents, (917,106.
4' ) Leaving the net liabilities at that time one
million two hundred and nine thousand five
hundred and ninety-four dollars and fifty-one
eents, (SlJ00.o4.ol.) But tbe amount of the
siok ng fund then on hand, which was fifty-nine
thousand six hundred and thtrty-evea dollars
and seventy -one cents, (5-jy,b3..d,) was ap
plicable in reduction of that sum, leaving the
net iiaouitiee ot tne state, not toen proviuei tor,
one million one hundred and forty-nine thous
and nine hundred and fifty-six dollars and eighty
The funded debt has been reduced during the
year one hundred and seventy-nine thousand
five hundred dollar?, (S17V ,000.00.) which
sum includes tbe bonds purchased, but not can
celled ; and the net reduction of the total liability
of tbe State during, the year, treating Utoce bonds
as paid, has been one hundred and firty-?een
thousand forty-two dollars and thirty four cents,
(157,042 34 )
At the cione of the war in 1S06 the funded
debt was one million six hundred and fifty thou
sand dollars, (51Co0,N)0.0;)and the total liabili
ties of tbe State were one million eight hundred
and thirty-four thousand one hundred and sixty
three dollars and ninety-ix cent. (Sl.fr3t.lti3.
) During the four years whkh have eUsed
since that time the funded debt has been reduce!
six hundred and two thousand five hundred dol
lars, (h02,50o.tH;) and the total liabilities not
provided for, have been redued eight hundred
and forty one thousand two ho wired and fifty
nine dollars and fifty cents, (SMt .LTioO )
The bonds of the Slate to the amount of four
hundred and eighty thousand dollars, ($4Ml,
(HM)OO) fall doe June 1.171 ; of whkh four
hundred and four thousand three hundred ami
five dollars and ninety-eight cents (5401,30.VS)
remain unprovided for; and provision should be
made for their prompt payment at maturity. As
the Auditor of Accounts gives no very certain
assurance that any considerable amount will be
received within that time from tbe General Gov
ernment in further payment of the claim of tbe
State against the United States, this will involve
the necessity of increasing the present year and
the next year the amount appropriated to the
sinking fand. The amount appropriated for
that purpoee in 168 was one hundred thousand
dollars, (5100.000.00;) bat the amount actually
applied to that fund from the tax levied in lStV?
has been butsixty thousand ddUrs(S6O,0OO.OO.)
And if the excels of the current expenses over
the current resources, twrnty-one thousand
one hundred and eight dollars and forty-eight
cents, (521, HWvlH,) bad been paid from the
avails of the tax, it would have left applicable to
the sinking fu nd from that sourse but thirty
eight thousand eight hundred and ninety-one
dollars and fifty-two cent. (5&S;'Jl.52,) in
stead of one hundred thousand dollars ($100,-
000.00,) as was intended. This is due to the
fet thal tbe required to be pud during
the year for the expenses of the State, allotment
claims, c'aims for the State pay due to soldiers
in the late war, and other matters, other than
payment of interest on bonds and loans, has
largely exceeded the amount estimated at the
commencement oi toe year, upon which esti
mate the amount of the tax levied in l$t3 was
It is obvious, that for the purpose of meeting
the current expenses of the present year, and
such claims acain't the State as are due and
outstanding, and making necessary provision for
the redemption of the bonds due in 1S71, a
larger tax mast oe imposed than was levied in
156S, the necessary amount ef which will be
reduce! by just so much as the aggregate
amount of the current expenses for the year can
be reduced. It becomes, therefore, the peremp
tory duty, as tt undoubtedly will be the pleasure.
of the General Assembly, and of every officer ef
the state.to provide for and practice the strictest
economy in all matters affecting the finances of
I commend to your care the educational inter
ests of the State, the common schools, the acad
emies and colleges. At the foundation of these
interests is the principle, recognize I even pre
vious to the adoption of tbe present Constitution
of the State, that tbe State is under obligation to
hWmi,l from tbia Mow, naturally tie,
fw the ftmoUDl of expended, and that
tht)He for whoFe benefit they armed. shall
of their uUl AaX ia enlarging
improting the standlrl of education In the
schools, you inevitably advance in a
coponJinj. Jegree the standard and value of
th(t hisher institutions of learning.
TheDgreat number of small school districts in
the SuTe, and the low graIe of attainment which
ia tomanyc,,, i. required of teachers by those
who are chge4 wita the duty of employing
them, are serious obstacles to the full develop!
mentof lhe impr0Tement of which tbe school
, tem j, sa5ceptibte. In a small distnU, eoo-
tiiniog Ut fei fimUies. as compared with a
u district containing many families, it is
obTlous, that one of two results must follow if
good teachers are employed, who can command
high wages, the expense for each scholar mut be
greatly increased above the average of the larger
districts; and if the expense for each scholar
is kept within the average, it will be by the em
ployment of poor teachers, who can only com
mand and are willing to serve for low wages.
For remedying this objection tbe Board of Edu
cation recommend, that all school districts be
abolished, and that the support and supervision
of the schools be committed directly to the towns;
and I commend to your careful consideration
their Report, lotther with the lleport
of the Secretary of the B-ard, stat
ing in detail the reasons for the recommendation,
not doubting that you will act wnely and with
au uiscreuon m a muter ui so grave importance.
The 4tabliihment and continuance cf Normal
Schools and Teachers' Institutes for the education '
of teachers is a great improvement upm the i
school system of former years, and their bentfi-
cialetfeotis already manifest in the advance of
me stanuaru ni common school education. iui
the full measure of their benefit has protiablynot
Jet been attained. The Board of Education and
their Secretary have made some suggestions in
tn's respect, which are sufficiently Important to
justify deliberate examination of thesurject, and
The expenditure for tbe support of schools
each year w about five hundred thousand dollars;
na tnul assumption and performance by the
Stto of lts atT t0 provide for the education of
all its children imposes a corresponding obliga
turn, mat inose ior wnom mis provision is maue
shall a ail themselves or its advantages. The
State has as good right to require, for its own
protection against anarchy and misrule, the re
sults of ignorance and idleness, that tbe children
shall be educated, as to require allegiance as the
corresponding duty to the obligation of protec
tion. Yet a very large number of the children ha
the State, both native and foreign born, do not
attend any school ; aid the piesmt law is in
sufficient to comrel item to do to. I recommend
that more pr acted and strident provisions be
made in this ret pert.
The present condition of the militia Is shown
by the report of the Adjutant and Inspector
General, which will be before jon. A positive
requirement, that the companies composing the
wveral regiments shall be brought in com peti
tion with each other each year by regimental
Parade, would very greatly promote its drill,
ocipbne, general efficiency, and consequent
.ue Ctr the purpwe for which U is maintained,
anu would tend greatly to the completion of the
organizations now authorized, by stimulating
the f0rmatuJn bj voluntary enlistment, of tho
additional companies required fur that purpose.
The remaining annual reports to which I havo
not alluded wdl be laid before you for your con
, sideration. I have not jet had opportunity to
! give them that careful examinawu which their
importance requires. Should I find it necessary
to do so, I will call jour attention to them during
' your session.
LAW BXOCXATIXO HATE Of IITEREST.
1 There is one matter of existing legislation
which I regard a of sufficient importance in its
present bearings to justify my calling it to your
I special attention. Tbe certainty that au existing
, positive law cannot be violate! with impunity
. that transgression, if known, will surely be fol
1 fiwed by punishment his aa much lutiutnce in,
, promoting respect for the law and preven'ing its
violation, as the example of visible actual run
fehment. And the continued existence upon tho
statute book of a positive law which has become.
I so far obsolete as to te wholly disregarded and.
openly violated with entire impunity, has a ten
j dency to weaken respect fur all law. The law of
j this State prescribing tbe legal rate of interest
for money loaned, and positively prohibiting the.
taking, eitner directly or imlirec.ly, or a greaiec
rate uf interest than the rate prescribed, is now
in this condition. It is daily and openly vioIatel
by banks and by individuals, and its violation i
entirely disregiried. It serves only as a check;
upon these who are too conscientious to knowing
ly disregard any positive law, and operates as
an inducement to them to send their capital,
abroad for investment, instead of investing it in
tbe State for the promotion of its industrial .man
ufacturing and mechanical interests. It is thus
a direct element of moral and praetkal mischief.
The only remedy for its enforcement is given to
those who consent to borrow money at a ratn
exceeding the lawful rate, and involves the
necessity cf their bringing suit to recover back
money whkh tbey have paid in pursuance of
their voluntary agreement. It thus operates
mischievously both ways. , If allowed, bo vio
lated with impunity it weakens fepfcrH
law; ami a remedy for its violation can only b
obtained by sanctioning the violation of the
promise in reliance upon which the loan waa
I recommend that the subject le carefully con
sidered, and that the law be essentially modified,
or ample provision made for its enforcement by
the ordiniry officers of the law, or by some per
son not a party to its violation; and this without
reference to anT supposed interest of either bor-
1 rower or lender, but only fur the promotion of a
sound morality and respect tor law. II ue?it
is willing that there shall le no power to eafbrco
a penalty for a violation of the positive xrohibi
tit.n, if the parties agree that it shall not te
enforce-1 that if both are assenting parties to
the viola tion without punishment, then such vio
lation is legitimate and cannot e punished, it U
better to legalise such agreement by positive leg
islation; and if the violation of tbe prohibition
is contrary to the moral sene of the legislature,
then effective provision should be made for the
punishment of such violation.
DKVEfcOPrMEST Or BSOCaCS.
The people of this State are and must neces
sarily ever remain essentially an agricultural
community, although the progress made in the
development of the mineral resources of tho
State, the marble, slate and iron, found in almost
inexhaustible quantities, has to a considerable de
gree modified tbe original character of tbe State
in this respect. The result i. that large num
bees of our young men, trained to depend for
their livelihood upon tbe fruits of patient toil
upon the farm, attracted by the rich soil, easy
cultivation and large returns of the alluvial le
gion of the Western State, leave the Sta'o
yearly, thereby preventing any ccmwderable in
crease of our population, and enriching tt
States, to which they remove, with intelligent
citizens bred in the Law abiding and God feantg
habits of New England.
Every new branch ol industry which is intro
duced into the State, has a tendency to modify and
control thin difficulty, with which, as a Stale, we
now nave to contend, and at the sante tune by
! developing and improvinc the reuro-s uf the
State aids to iU capital and by enlarging tbe
I basis decreases the rate of taxation, and dirtct
' ly benefits tbeagricuiturits of the State by in
creatng the number ef home conjmers cf
agricultural products. Every eocsHerable
stream in tbe State affjrds water power
in numerous places, which has not yet been put
to use, and large amounts of lumber, iroL, and
I other materia) are sent every year from tbe State
to te manufactured m other States, and return
ed in their manutactared form to be conumed
in this State, thus paying to other communities
the pre fits upon the maaufieture, which miftht
ami -boald be enjoyed by our own cituens
It is worthy of tenons comdderitioo, whether
some means may not be demised, by which tbe
resource of the Sute may be developed and put
to ue within oar own limits, whether by wise
and judicious encouragement of tbe various
forms of manufacturing and mechanical indus
try, capital may not be induced to flow into the
State for investment, and the capita! within tbe
State be retained for investment at home. Possi
bly a modification of the interest laws to a cer
tain extent, or tbe absolute exemption from tax
ation, for a limited time, of capital invested in
new manufacturing or mechanical establish
ments, instead of leaving it, as at present, to
the uncertain action of towns, might hare a
tendency to promote this result; and other
modes cf accomplishing the purpose, may sag
gt themselves to the widom of the legislature.
It is a subject deserving cf careful consideration,
and the examnle set by other State, may be
studied to good purpose.
Legislative law, like judicial law, derives its
chief element of value from its stability. A
judicial body, which should annually modify, or
overrule, its previous decisions, would be regard
el as unsettling tbe course of business and would
ceaseto command rtspect. Every reason, which
requires that the coarse cf judicial decisions
should only be varied for tbe most cogent rea
sons, which has made 44 ttare deeitu " one of
the maxims of the law, applies with equal force
to general legislative enactments involving the
rights and relations of persons and of com
munities. Yet it is well understood that
while courts change their decisions, when
once made, only with extreme reluctance,
aad as the result of the must deliberate examin
ation, teg-s'ative bodies feel themselves governed
by no suoh rule, but yearly repeal, notify and
eteorially change laws, both legislative aud
judicial, previously existing.
This constant change in the course of legisla
tive enactments, is fraught with miscfaiel; for so
that a law be not positively mbchietous, it is of
full as much importance,! hat it be thoroughly and
generally understood what the In i-, as that it
should be in all its details the axst perfect sys
tem thai can be devised. A wn conservatism of
the laws ss they exist, o far as is uswent with
a due regard to the progress of tie age aad the
changing course of bVtmes reHtmti, would go
far to make the general body cf tbe law bet'er
understood and repeated, to place up-n a firm
foundation the interest -f the State an 1
of individual, and at the same time
be promotive of sound economy by diminishing
the amount of busises transacted by the Gene
ral Aembly, and thus t-hortening th length of
Much time is consumed annuvly in the con
ileration and enactment sf Mi's fr the for
mation of private corporation-, lly chapters
eighty-six and ninety of the G-nert Sratute
provision is made for the voluntary asHociarkmof
individuals, with full corporate powers, for the
various purposes thereinenomeratrd,and a care
fully prepared and well guarded system provi !
ed for their control and management Yet of the
whole numl-er of charter for private corpora
tion?, enacted in the years lStil to ISofe. in
clusive, sixty jer cent, are for corporations
which might equally as well hae been f mied
under the general laws without ooiniog be'ore
ami consuming the time of the General Af-embl y
Dae regard to a wise econo ny in the expenses
of the State require, that your ses-iou sbou'd
be limited to the shortest time which maybe
consistent with a proper transaction of the bun
nets which may come before you. A j-idicicus
disinclination, decisively manifested, to adopt
any proposed change of existing ktws, or any
general legislation tor special cises, without the
clearest conviction of their utdity, and a req are
ment, that all persons, desirous cf being incor
porated for auy 'jf the purpwes, fir which pro
vision for association with corporate powers is
made by tbe general laws, should form their as
sociation under tboee laws, or that a bill for
such purpose should only be entertained upon
pre-pay meot to the Trea Mirer of a specified sum
of money for the u.e of the Sute, would have
great efiect in producing this most desirable re
sult by diminishing to a considerable extent the
amount of business which otherwise may claim
Amcoir tbe business, which should earliest re
ceive your attention, is the consideration of the
proposed Fifteenth Amendment of the Constitu
tion of the United States, the adoption of which
by the requisite number of States will, for the
first time in tbe history of tbe Nation, rive
reality in fact to the truth enunciated in the De
claration ot Independence, and incorporated into
the Constitution of Vermont, that all men are
created equal," and will preserve inviolate the
public faith pledged to the National freed men.
The tern of tbe people of Vermont upon this
subject has beeu too often expressed by them
selves through the ballot box and by the action
of their representatives in General Assembly, to
leave the question of its speedy adoption by you
for a moment in doubt, or even open to debate.
It is a measure demanded alike by justice, by
good faith, and by common humanity.
Trusting that without the necessity of a pro
tracted session, you may be able to transact
wisely all necessary business claiming your atten
tion, I leave with you tbe care of the Interests of
the State and of its citixens, again invoking for
your deliberations and your action the divine
guidance of an overruling Providence.
PETER T. WASUBUB5.
Moxtfeud, October 16, 1869.
t The Montgomery (Ala.) Slate Journal pub
lishes a letter from ' an ex-coloied Democrat,"
but unfortunately does not tell us what U ths
color of this Democrat now.