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THE BURLINGTON FREE PRESS AND TIMES.
I'SSIA Is Known to tl rest of the world by two stiippndn.is facts the Ktemlln nnii Tolstoi Tho Kremlin, with nil Its 'hnrrlios and palaces, Its giant l.-il .and Its slant can non, symbolls-os li.i-sla's past. Tolstoy, with hli tuplrntlon- nml lnnui'itcni'tos, his unTH nnii mr.-tli Ism. F.vnilnillzci Itussla's prf-i'iit Many 1 InV- he U UUo 3rtin the Hip tipt n volcr i till' wIlilfrncM pri-illctlliK Itussla s future rmloiititcc'.lr ho to'l' himself callcil ni a reformer. When lie vlHlteil the W.irtlnirs, where the T.llile was trnn-latMl Into C.ertnan, he wmte Into hi illary onlr three worili: "I.ntlier Is i.-'-ent1" Many think he Is the polltle.il.. reltcleuR, poelal nnil nrtlstlc Luther of 3ii -Fla On the other linnrt. there are tho-se win hellere he li Insane. The same the pry has heen nihaneed nliout the Apostle I'-itil 'he prophet Ma'aomet anil the lib erator John Urown. Lomliroso poes so far n to connect all Renins with In lanlty. 'hatover view one mlsht take, Tolstoy Is a stupendous fact; his philosophy a vol anle force. If a crank, he Is the Co .Vissns of cranks. He Is the one Iius.-lan who has connnereil Japan. Ills works Nive even been translated Into .Siamese. Tie Is the best-known literary llcure In the world tortny. I'oour or apo"-tle, faker or philosopher, he Is the mot Illustrious lunatic nt larce. The Inconsistencies of his life, the absurdities of his doctrine are patent to all; here Is an anarchist wbi teaches nonrelstance, an aristocrat tvM follows the plow;, yet his sreatness nd Influence none will question, for he thb'ks w!'h a sledcehammer, and his works nre read in frivolous I'arls the nme as In fanatical Persia. tVrKliiKi f Hnlf a Contury. Since Ibsen died ho has been the only luthor of world-wide fame. Ills preat novul, "War and Teace." whoe 2,OW pages stem like Sarmatlnn steppes to Atnerlcnn readers acenstonied to short bites, Is reparded by the Russians as their "Iliad." It depicts the prlnclp.il events of Napoleon's invasion, the buruinj? of Moscow, the retreat of the "srnnde armee." It shows a Napoleon far different from the traditional "Man of Destiny." It is full of horror and pity, like the battle-plctnris of the painter Verest chapln. It has done much to create the sentiment In favor of universal peace; In tact, It la not unlikely that the Czar railed the famous conference at The IlaRiie under tlm Influence of Tolstoy's pen Flaubert, the preat Trench iioveiit, after readlnK "War and I'eace," ex claimed: "Ceit du Shakespeare," which ought to restrain Tolstoy a bit when he calls Shakespeare "repulsive and tedious." Others of Tolstoy's books have attained qual celebrity nd wide circulation. Anna Karenlna" does for the life of the family, the conflicts of Individual souls, what "War and I'eace" does for tho throes of nations, Anna 1r a woman who stoops to degradation and ultimately dies by suicide. The curious courtship of I.e In and Kitty, as described In this novel, Is the counterpart of Tolstoy's own love af fair with Sofia Haer, who became his wife. He propositi to her In the same manner, writing down with chalk the first letters of the words lu his sentences nnd letting her guess them. Ills last great novel, "Hesurrectlon," pictures the repentance and ciplatlon of n man who has slnmd deeply. "The Kreutier Sonata," a sex problem novel ette, stirred the whole world and oh talnid wide circulation In America be cause. John Wnnamaiti"-; as postmaster general, refused to let It pass through tho malls He has written plays also, this many. Scientific Whale Catching. The biggest catch of whales nowadays is no longer from the old sperm oil whale, but from tho bine whale, the largest of all the whale Jilnd, although not by any means the best nil ylelder. Hut the slaugh ter of the sperm whales and thu right whales have compelled tho prcsent-ilny whale fishers to take to the less product ive species. The present methods of cap turing the whales and of getting ont the nil are so superior over the crude methods of 00 years ago that In the long run the profits of today are, surely equal to those made In tho old days of whale fishing. In the early days a vessel of n hundred tons or thereabouts was considered n big whaler, but nowadays nmart little steam era of OK) or 700 tons nre used, and they can steam IB knots an hour, Also the whale Is captured by seamen traveling comfortnbly in power launches, which run right up alongside tho whale. The whales today nre hoisted by patent elec trical windlasses, and the blubber Is tried out in patent furnaces. Then tho oil Is no longer headed up In greasy casks or barrels, hut Is pumped In aud out of treat cast Iron tanks. Tho best whaling vmscls of today are owned and operated by the Norwegians. Now tho blue whale, which 1b bouio- flde.J To'stoy "The I'ower of D-rktiess" Is the most gruesome en-icoctlun eer bt owed for tne inciter. After S"elns It or rending It one ran say, with Macbeth "I have mppi d with full horrots " lver;. manner of base passion nnd vile died has been put Into the le'll broth. from Incest to Infanticide, with wlfc-bcetlm: and hus band polsonlnp to add v.ulety. "My llellglim," "What's 1" He Done?" and "What I Alt 5" rui-cser.t other phases of his writings In theology, so clology and esthetics. He Is n universal preacher, champion of a do7en different fnds and reforms one who thinks he knows everything and curses all he can not understand, be It Wagner or Shake speare, science or art, marriage or prop erty. Tolstoy the Mnn. These writings of his hnve attained an enormous circulation. Tolstoy rrfuses to take out copyrights, and his books Rio labeled with the strange device, "No rights reserved." Anybody can reprint, translate, dramntlr.e them. The result has ben an Incredible diffusion of them. Dragannv has counted 130 translations Into the fzech languagp, 100 Into Servian; no one has counted those .nto Knirllsh, German and French, Yet It Is not so much bis writings, It Is rather the man TolMny who has aroused and holds the world' Interest. lie Is the ptrangest mixture of fnnatlc and philosopher, of aristocrat and anarchist, of meekness nnd madness, of penetrating Insight and un reasoning prejudice the world has ever beheld. And that Is why the world Is Interested lu the man Tolstoy. Kverybody knows how he left his life of ease and luxury to wear the rough garb of the peasantry, to cobble shoes, to repair stoves, to walk behind the plow. At the same time came reports of silken undergarments beneath tils homespun, of kid-gloved servants caning porterhouse steak at his tablefor the other members of his family, It Is true, he eating the coarse gruel called kasha while there are so many pictures by Hepln that on won ders whether the subject Is not poking all the time. To understand all the-'e Incongru'tles, Tolstoy the man must be studied. Ills parentage, his neglected youth, his wild oats, his stubborn temper, his all-embracing pity, Ills sense of Justice, or rather his burning resentment of lulus tlce, all these combine to make Tolstoy what he 1b. He Is not at all reticent about his life; ths book called "My Con fession" Is as frank as l'.ousseau's famous self-revelation, and not at nil sentimental ized like Goethe's "Dlchtung and Wahr belt." The !ioii nf Ills futlier. Tolstoy's ancestry was German; the original family name being Dlckniann, of which Tolstoy Is the llusslau equivalent. If an American poet was culled Long fellow, why should a Ilusslan philosopher bo disqualified by I'atfellow? Tolstoy has written a description of his father, from which the son's Inheritance mny be deduced. The rider Tolstov was large and handsome, fond nf strange fashlonB In dress, contemptuous of thu new generation, a gambler and a Lothario, winning and losing millions, and seem ingly devoid of moral principles. Vet lie was keyed In a sentimental mood, and times a hundred feet long, Is nearly twlre as big as the oil sperm whale, nnd he Is a nntu-nl born lighter. Hrt could seldom be captured by the old-time whale seek era. The muzzle-loading harpoon gun, however, quickly puts an end to even a hundred fool blue whale. The harpoon loaded Into this gun Is six feet long anil very heavy and massive. The old hand harpoon Is a toy compared with It, The point Is st Inches long nnd very sharp. Hehlnd It comes a hollow filled with ex plosives, which carries a tlmo funo, This explodes after being Inside tho whalo a few moments and tears him to shreds In the Interior. Tills makes It easier to chop the whale up In order to try out the oil. Hehlnd the explosive chamber In tho harpoon come four enormous barbed hooks, which pre vent the Instrument from ever being torn out of the whnle'H body. The handle of this formidable weapon Is slotted, and In thu slot is a heavy Iron ring. To this ring Is lied a henvy steel iope, anil this hooks on to a team windlass, Once the whale Is hit by the harpoon from the gun he Is doomed, Thn best whale fishing nowadays Is in the Antartln Peas, near the Auck land Islands, which nro about 2)0 miles nearer tho Southern I'olo than the Island of New Zealand. : S l i I , : f V L fl&fc9ttS& . 1 s3 J : ft tears would often rise to his eyes nt pathetic passages In his reading. There Is also an obvious affinity between father and son In the confession of the elder that "HeetlK'Ven's music always put him to sleep." Tolstoy's father died when the boy was a je.ir and a half old; his mother died only a few years later. His education was a thing of shreds and patches; he dodged history and languages, which be ahum Inateii, and largely followed the go as-you-please principle which he has since tried to formulate Into an educational system. The school on his estate of Yas- naya I'olyana Is run upon n basts of prac tical anarchism. The pupils learn -mly those branches they wish to, nnd only such lessons as they like; when they are tired of school they go homo; when they wish to hear more of an Interesting story they repeat Oliver Twist's formula In n loud chorus until the teacher goes on. One visitor nt Yasnnya I'olyana tells how the pupils pelted the MMiernble Tolstoy with snowballs until they saw tho stranger. Tolstoy bade fair to follow In his fa ther's footsteps, as his "Confession" frankly confesses. He was a gambler nnd a profligate, leading the Idle life nf the Idle rich, until a gambling debt which he had contracted, and which was far be. yond his available means, startled him into repentance and changed the course of his life. Ho chose the career of a soldier, was stationed In the Caucasus for a while, nnd then had himself transferred to the seat of war In the Crimea. When he was nut composing satiric songs, which tho whole nnny sang, he fought with llerce bravery among tho defenders of tho bloody fourth bastion. About this time his first literary efforts had attracted at tention, aud the Czar gave orders to re lieve this promising young writer from such a dangerous post, but Tolstoy re fused, In had already developed that trait of stubbornness which has distin guished him ever since, anil fits In so queerly with his doctrines of meekness and nonrcEtstunco. Along with this stub tlte III 1 bornness went a b ntliiess even more un phllosupliicul, which scleral times brought 111 rii nenr to sukld". Ib' fccured his fa-lher-ln-lnv's consent to marry Sofia llaer only by threatening to shoot himself. Hln flunrri-Is With 'I'lirmienell. The most amusing ebullitions of these Inconsistencies were the quarrels with Turgneneff, his llteraty filend and com peer. Tolstoy had a hot temper, an ob stinate tenacity about trivialities and a habit of blurting out disagreeable, thing. Once, lu the home of the poet Nekrasoff, TurgnenefT was walking up and down holding his thront and pltcously moaning: "I am done for; I have bronchitis." Tol stoy gruttly told him that "IlronehltU is a disease of thu imagination," and threw himself angrily upon a sofa. NckrasoiV, who saw the two star eonti Ibutors to his marnglne on the brink of war, tried to restore pence, but ToKtoy declared that i...- . .1.,.. t, Turguencff was walking up nnd down purposely to spite hlui, "turning his demo cratic shlnboncs this way and that." Another quarrel between the two nearly led to a duel. It as at the house of Shetishlu, another poet, whose pseudo nym was l'et. Mme Fet nsked Tiirpu neff how the education of his daughter was progressing, and Turguencff told how the girl was accustomed to go to the houses of poor people, fetch their old clothes, mend them and return them to their owners. Tolstoy sneerlngly declared that this sort of thing disgusted him as mere play acting. Hot words flew across the table until Turguencff left thn house In a rage. Next day Tolstoy nent him a letter breathing defiance. Tiirgueneff re plied announcing his willingness to light a duel. The quarrel closed with u couilc climax; each wished the other to Issue tho challenge, and so the 111 feeling Anal ly evaporated, TurgnenefT was lendy enough to forgtvi'i and when lm lay ou his death lied In I'arls, years Inter, he wrnto his famous letter of reconciliation, with the oft-quoted appeal: "lteturn to your literary labors, my friend, the treat author of tho ItusBUm people!" Iiiduenci' of Oilier Iilenlfi. Hut Tolstoy bad decided -like Gogol, the author of "Dead Souls"- that his lit erary labors were a snare. Infected by the doctrines of ltousseau. he bad do tided to "return to nature." lie Idolized this French philosopher to such a degree that ho wanted to wear ltousseau'-' por trait on his breast bcsldu the saint's picture. Hesldes ltousseau, lie had been deeply Influenced ' Hertbold Auerbarh, the Ger man Jew, who wrote pathetic Idyls, of peasant life In the Hlaek Forest. On a Journey thtough Germany Tolstov once iMtod Aucrbach nnd Introduced himself ns Fiigen Kallmann. When Aucrbach stared, thinking lie had to deal with some crank, Tolstoy added: "That Isn't in) real name, but It's my business." (i:ugi n llauui.iuu means "noble builder.") Then Tolstoy told hl n-al name and ac knowletlgcd the deep Influence Aucrbach 1 1....1 l.,.l tn litlll bad exercised upon him Tolstoy hail read Henry George also, whom lie called "one of the greatest of the Americans," and adopted many of his theories about the ownership and taxation of land. Flnnlly the great un dercurrent of pity which swayed his whole life, lather than reason, Impelled him to choose the path he has fallowed ever since. 1'lty, pity, and yet again pity Is the keynote of Tolstoy's character. Hy this he Judges literature, music, art. Accord ing to this standard he deduces that "I'ncle Tom's Cabin" Is a sublime literary mas terpiece, and condemns Wagner's "Nlbe lungenrltiK" as absolute rot. According to this standard, ho praises a novel llko "Der Hiiettnerbnuer," by Wllhelm von l'oleni, because a peasant's brutal treat ment of his wife Is touchlngly portrayed, whereat he finds Hhakespearc's "King Lear" to be "trivial and Immoral" be cause be fancies that Shakespeare "de spises the crowd, 1. e., tb worklns classes." As If Rhakespearo hart not volretl In "Kins Lear" Itself the most poignant prayer for pity nnd Justice ever framed, beginning - r Pftnr. nakct a-rtrh',. iliemnr J" BfP That tWf the feltlne .f t tit's pltltrw 1'rrm Tolmtoy mill tile llllile l'erhaps Tolstoy took something from Thoreau, the ni?e of Walden wood; per imps he had heard of the erratic Vicar of Morwenstow, who talked with Tenny m and iw demons, tilled his own glebe and planted beans for the Jackdaws. He got most of his ethical views, however, from reading the Itlble literally, epe dally the New Testament. An amusing tnle Is told In fact, he tells It himself of an encounter with a grenadier In Moscow, when ToKtoy got the worst of the argument, Coming forth from the Kremlin. Tolstoy was going to I glM alms to a beggar, crippled and nigged. Jut then the grenadier came along, and the beggar took to his he-l, followed by curses for having Invnded i that Interdicted 'pot. "Can you rend?" ' asked Tolstoy. ' I enn," answered the I grenadier. "Hum1 you ever nnd the gos 1 pel?" continued Tolstoy. "I've done so often," replied the grenadier. "Have you I ncer read the pi'ssago, 't was an hun gered anil ; e Kate ni meat'?" Inquired , Tolstoy, citing the scripture. The pn'na I dter was taken aback for a moment; then 1 he turned upon Tolstoy "Did you ever reau the military code?" he asked, "and , the rule forbidding beggars to loiter nt i this gate?" Tolstoy admitted he hadn't. "Then I'd advise jon to do so," said the grenadier, "b-fore j on meddle with my duties- " Heading 1:1s Itlble literally, and picking out such doctrine ' nonreslstnnce and The Latest Electrical Discovery. The secret of ob. trie lighting was ills- raised to 3 pr cent Dr. Nernst, thl eoveied Just about HO years ago by Sir German scientist, took a clue from thl ii,.,i,rv Daw. the treat F.ngllsh es- Incandescent eas nantels which bavi i plorer in physical science. At that time ' ' . . ... ..... ....lflll the famous Yeinmnn hum lu muling a permanent electric spark be- tween two bits of crude carbon, and thus 1 invented tho first form of electric lUht- ! ii now used under the pulse of the elec trie arc light. Heceiitly, as If to rele brute the one hundredth siinlversary of Its Introduction to mankind, the electric m.istery has nualn given a great advance to' human science In search of better arti ficial light from the electric fluid. Prof. Ilcrschell C, Parker and Dr. Walter G. Clark have brought about this Improve ment through their work In the Phoenix laboratory at Columbia I'nlverslty. For the past 10 years science has been trvlng to Improve over the ordinary form of' Incandescent bulb light. In this it was proven that there was nu enormous amount of wasted current and a tremen dous amount of lost cnen;y. The llamo is yellow, and the cot per catldlepower Is relathely high. The economic saving possible under the new discoveries runs Into countless millions of dollars each vi-ar to the human race, us there are over "a billion of Incandescent lamps used In the Hulled States, France. Germany nnd Italv combined. Curiously enough, Italy, which Is n small and comparatltely poor country. Is ahead of all nations except the United Stntes In the use of electric llv, and even ahead of this country in the use of the multiplex system of tele graphing. The fortunes rivaling the size of the Standard Oil fortunes which will como to the men who will put Into commercial use an Incandescent lamp with a pure white light at a low cost Has causeii me German'sclontlst, Dr. Nernst, also to seek for the Bolutlon of the problem. One new Invention clnltua to do altogether without any filament to hent with the electric current. The newest discovery Is called a hellon lamp, and has been worked out after seven years' work. It Is Just like an ordinary Incandescent globe until the cur rent Is turned on, when It begins to glow, ami finally turns out a light about four times as brilliant as the electric bulb tne public Is accustomed to In theaters and expenslxe hotels. This light Is claimed to gho an absolutely white light, and It has the same lines lu Its spectrum ns shown by sunlight The first Incnni'es cent lamps used n line platinum thread twisted Inside a comparative vacuum, Now thn filament used Is a rarbontied filament from thu palm tree or from thn bamboo reed, Only about r"f cent, nf the actual current sent Into the lamp through these filaments of carbon Is turned out again In the shapo of light. The rest Is lost In the effort to heat the thread Into lucandcsccuc?. With certain --wnt ' oTfinents this amount has been poverty, which appealed to his scntl mental nature, Tolstoy prnied"d K I'dopt the pine which Oie world hai found so Interesting. Ills nr-cptntice nl I both doctrines mii't be Interpreted "cum . prano fnlh." When he fell under sus ' phden of i evolutionist affiliations once, I and the .authorities enrolled his domicile. I ho sent a warning to the Czar, declaring I that he had a loaded revolver to shoot down the first police officer th"t entered his house. And while ho himself ceae to ei'e about mcn;y, hl.i wife collectel , rcrts and royalties, o that Ms fortune steadily lnrrenen. Tills mnj lie con strued as a compromise between passlv reslstanci and voluntary poverty. Tlie Fltir.l Verdict. In fact, there li too much of health) Husslsn bloed in Tolstoy to be altogethH dried up In nuilrthlstlr resignation. Tin l'ot Shenshln has described a fliht wltn a oenr, In which Tolstoy rsenpert by thrusting his fur enp down the bear's thront Tolstoy has heen thrusting that same fur cap down the gullet of every bear he ha met lnrr, whether the hear was a bull of excommunication or n lamb of some artistic fad which he disliked. Thus, when a disciple suggested that he ought to see "The I'asilon Ploy" at Oberammergntl, lie snnpped out: "To see a fat peasant hinging on a cross must U" rather repulsive!" The fact Is that nearly everything has become repulsive to Tolstoy. His Is the j nllosophy of satlnttoti and ennui. Ilceth- "en's music bores him, is It sent his faiher to sleep; Gr.ethe und Schiller, Huro and Shakespeare aro empty; Michael Angelo's "Last Judguient" he enlis "absurd." One Is reminded of the preacher's despairing cry, "Vanity ol vanities- all Is utility!" Despite ll. Is dysprptle attitude and al1 his fads atd foibles, from vegetarianism to the abolition of Judges nnd Juries, lis I? Ktlll the most potent nnd potential thinker of our time. Ho tl.lntis Mkc a threshing machine. Mid te'ls tiithle-slj what he thinks, nad makes other peopU think. He ts re eptlve to new Ideas, as we may J tdge 'torn his le.i'idng to rldo the bicycle when he was p.ist the age of 00 Anil he Is moved by a vfst Uemcntat sympathy, which ct.n pn I ends all floated tilings, one day, while wi'klng with Turguenefl', they came upon a dying nag, and Tolstoy pictured Its feelings so touchlngly that Turguencff exclaimed: "I am sure, Lyof, that you mint have had hoises among your ancestors." This pro found sympathy and this trem- r.doiis power of thought make him tl.e great dynamic Influence lie K the Colcsus of Cranks, and ttisttfy the pactlc tribute of the late F.rncst Crosby, his Ameri.au apostle: Like some quaint statue long concealed, Deep burled In Mycenae's mart. Wherein we clearly see revealed The promise of Hellenic art, So stand you; while aloof and pioud, The wo'rld that scribbles, prates nni fre's Seems hut a simpering, futile crowd Of Dresden china statuettes. Like John the n.iptlst. once more scan The signs that mark the dawn of day, Forerunner of the Perfect Msn, Make straight His path, prepare tht way. come Into use and secured an clectrh I t nnn ...I i.cnnr. t latnt, I ll a t fftrcft ft tlflf CPtlt . .u.uU..-... r, ,- , a further gain of 1 per cent, over tht former waste of current. But this ll not a cheap practlcat commercial method, and the f.mount saved !n c.irrent Is mor then lost in the cost of manufacturing the Nernst lamps. Still, many ire used lu Germany. It wns thus that s-lence was confront oil with the necessity of discovering soma new mateilal which would withstand the high temperature nnd yet not affording such an Immense waste of the vital cir rent. Platinum melts at n point way be low tho temperature desired. The enrbon aporlzes, besides being very wasteful through Its difficulty In reaching the proper hent degrees to secure Incandes cence. Some of the very rare metals, however, posses a high melting point, with a comparatively low point of Incan denence. omluui, a rare metal found In a few ore scattered throughout thn Fulled States and r.tirope, had both these points, but It was found to be so brittle that It wns confined only to scientific ex periments In the liberator). Other metals, like tantalum and tungsten and their alloys, proved to have points better than the carbon Incandescent: but, then, theic were practical difficulties which prevented their being manufactured on a rrcmend ous commercial basis, Tile latest of all and the one which, It Is claimed, will surely and swiftly do the work, Is called the hellon filament, which name, however, -arrles no scientific mean ing as to Its composition. Its filament Is said not to be metallic In nature, ami It docs not give oiT a bluelh light, a does the tantalum and tungsten illntnents. It plica a clear, pure whllo light. This filament Is said to be a composition do posited upon thread of tome unknown substance. The lighting surface which does the work Is said to be composed of silicon with a small percentage of other rare metals. Hxperlinents before the American Physical Society have proven the scientific value of this new form of lucandescent lighting. Yet Its Inventors do not yet claim tho new light Is reany for manufacture on a big scale. Much te dious work remains to be done lu fnro these new lights can be used by tho pub lic. Yet as a scientific fact thu Incandes cent bulb light has beeu Increased to nearly four times Its efficiency. The working out of tho commercial phase of the matter remains for other realms than that presided over by science In the lab, oratory, A clock once owned by John Wesley and presented by him to tho John Street Methodist Church, In New York city, Is still doing good service In the church, at 41 John street.