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THIS KUItLlNWTON K RIO 10 IM110SS: THURSDAY, DHOISMIWK, 5,11)1)7.
PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE J'ho president in I1I3 message to con Ijrci s snys: No n. Hon lins greater resources than ours, and I think it can l)e truthfully raid Hint the citizens of no nation pos sess greater eneruy and industrial nbll Ity. In no nation nro tlio fundaniental business conditions rounder than in ours at this very moment, nnd It Is f ii llsli when such Is the case for poo- pic to hoard mono instead of keeping t .a u...... ......u. 10. u , such noani- ing that Is the Immediate occasion of I money stringency. Moreover, ns a rule, the business of our people Is com ! ilucted wPh honesty and probity, and 1 this applies alike to farms and Cue t'irles, to railroads and banks, to all our legitimate commercial enterprises. In any large body of men, however, there nro certain to bo some who are dishonest, nnd If (he conditions are j ,nPnt so long ns It Is properly managed. . ,.n(e nn,i speedy transportation faelll so U that these men prosper or commit , H la profoundly Immoral to put or tn() are oven 'more necessary than tclr mb-deeds with Impunity their j keep on the statute books a law muni- J cheap transportation. Therefore there example ts n very evil thing for the ron.nuntty. Where these men are buaui' "lea of gruii? sagacity and o' tempeim nt both unscrupulous and ! , . , ., .... reckons, nn' where he condll Ions are ' 1 1. J1...1 .1 i ...III . I l,u" or cr re' and at first without effecttvo cheek from public opinion, (hoy delude cess. To aim af (ho accomplishment 1 'i.v innocent people Into making in- of too much umal means the actum c onus or embarking in kinds of plishment of too little and often the do li'is uiss that are really unsound. When . lug of poslthe damage. Cie 1 .i.-uUviIm of these successfully ills- Not Repoal, but Amendment. I101 1 t 1 i'-u nro discovered, suffering iv s not only upon them, but upon ' ,,,(, mt It should be made both meiit under authority conferred upon It the li 'lucent whom they have misled, inure elllcleut and more In harmony '' 'I'1' congreM, Is competent to pns IMi a p.' Infill nwnkenlng, whenever It , Wlrh actual conditions. It should he Juucment 0:1 such a matter. , on i- 1 nil naturally when It does oc- f0 amended ns to forbid only the kind 'J lmse who fear from any icnson the rur thisy who suffer are apt to forget t 0r eomlduatlon which does harm to the extension of federal aoiivlty will do 11 at the longer it was deferred the enCral public, such amendment to be' "ell to study tlio history n.it only of tin re p uful it would he. In (he effort ' accompanied by or to be an Incident of the national hanking act, but of the top . h the guilty It Is both wise and j n R1-ant of supervisory power to the Pre iood law, and notably the meat pp prr to endeavor so far as possible government over these big concerns Inspection law recently enacted. The to 1 .lumt;:e the distress of thosa who engaged In Interstate business. This pure food law was opposed so violent ly e been misled by the entity. Yet it , should lie accompanied by provision ly that Its passage was delayed for a Is nit poi-Mblo to refrain because of or th0 compulsory publication of ac- decade, yet It lias woihed unmixed and .inch iVtross from striving to put an J counts anil the subject ion of books and Immediate good. Tim meat Inspection ri d to the misdeeds that are the ultl- papers to the Inspection of the gov- ,!lw W!,s L'vt'n more violently assailed, ti 'tc (..use- of the suffering and, as a eminent ollicials. A beginning has al- m"' ",c s!"11( '"f" v,'ll( 11,u' denounce ircnns tJ ihls end, where possible to ; ,eady been made for such supervision 1,10 attitude of the national govern-1 pun'sh those responsible for them. ti( establishment of the bureau of nitnt hi neeking to oversee and control I T1 ere l.iav be honest differences of 1 c r "i ai to many governmental pon lnt i -ely tliere can be no such 1 1 os :is to (he need of untllncli 1 , s er.inre In the war against pi 1 f 1 ! honesty. Interstate Commerce. Ni ma. I part of the trouble that we li,ie cornea from carrying io an ex treme the national virtue of Folf rell ni'ce, of Independence in initiative nnd nr 'on. It is wise to conserve tills virtue and to provide for its fullest rxrn e compatible with seeing that ' 3i icrty does not become a liberty to wring others. Unfortunately this Is the kind of liberty that the lad; of all effective regulation inevitably breeds. The fenders of the constitution pro kled that the national government f-lo"ld Lave complete and solo control of interstate commerce. Tliere was llicn nr.'irtlc.illv no Interstate business pre si'-li as was conducted by water, an 1 Ibis the national government at I 01, proceeded to regulate in thorough- gj'ng and effective fashion. Conditions have mw so wholly changed that the i'lterstate commerce by water ls insig nificant compared wfih the amount tl f t goes by land, and almost all big 1 1. 1 '.s concerns are now engaged in li tfi'oiiitu commerce. As a result It can be but partially and imperfectly con ti died or regulated by the action of fii.v one of the several stales, such ac tion ineitribly tending to be either t-io drastic or else too lax and in either case ineffective for purposes of Justice. Only the national government can in thoroughgoing fashion exorcise the neede 1 control. This does not mean that (hue should be any extension of l'c derm authority, for such authority nlnady exists under the constitution in ampl"t and most far reaching form, but it lies mean that there should bo nu exten Ion of federal activity. This is not aJoiatlng centrali-'.atlon. It ls merely looking facts in the face and I rca 'zi g that centralization In business I has aiready come and cannot be avoid- ed or undone and (hat the public at largo an only protect Itself from cur- to1 1 fin ffnets nl' Ihls business enn- trnllznt'-ui by providing better methods for the exercise of control through the iiilthorl'j already centralized In the national gn-ernuient by the constitu tion it (. f There must bo no halt In the heailhy constructive course of ac- j tlon whl a Ihls nation has elected to pin-' 110 ami has steadily pursued dur ing the last six years, as showu both In the legi-hitlou of the congress and tho adm'nl -tratlon of the law by the drpartn cut of justice. National Lieenso For Railroads. The mo: f llal need is in connection with ti e railroads. As to those, in my Judgment, there should now be either u n t ri a incorporation act or a law U-'or " v.iiiuny companies lo engage In ln'c t 1 commerce upon certain 'OIUlll 'liN, 1 111 HIIV Miuilill IJU no rni 1 a 10 gao 10 uiu miersuuu 'oniuierce commission power lo pass ipon the future issue of securities, ... . . . .ii ..1.1 .1 o enable the commission v heiiecr In ts Judgment It Is necessary to make a ihy h al valuation of any railroad. As si'it ( in my message to the congrc-s i year ago, railroads should be glon lower t enter lulu ntrrccincnls sub- ect to Ihf o agreemunts being made ml if in miiuito detail and to the con ent of the Interstate comineice com nlsslon being first obtained. Until he national government assumes prop r control of Interstate commerce In he exerclne of the authority It already iosl-esKf'S It will IK! impossible el'lier o give to or to get from the railroads nil justice. The railroads and ail oth r great corporations will do well to ecngnlze that this control must come, 'ho only questiou Is as to what gov rmwnlnl body can most wisely exer Ise It. The courts will determine the mlts within which the federal author- y can exorcise 11, ami mere win stiu ;nii In ample work within each state r tin railway commission of that ate, and tho national Interstate com icrco commission will work In bar mny with tho several slate coinmls- om, en"ii within Its own province, to :hleve the desired end, The Antitrust Law. Moreover, In my Judgment, fhero (should bo additional legislation looUIng to the proper control of (ho urcat bust- ness concerns engaged In Interstate business, this control to bo exerel-ied ; for their own bencflt and prosperity no less than for tlio protection of in- 1 vestors and of the general public. I have repeatedly said In messages to congress and elsewhere, experience has definitely shown not merely the nnwi-i- dom, hut the futility, of endeavoring to put a stop to all business combinations, Modem Industrial conditions are such flint ttn-t1ttttl t litl la lifif ndti iiiioiutoim ,Hll lllc.v,,nl,, u , K0 , (ho worll, of lmsncss jst as it Is so In (lie world 0f labor, and It Is as Idle to desire to put an end to all corporations, to all big combinations of cnpltal, as to desire to put an end to comiilnations ot labor. Corporation ami labor union alike have every well managed railway. Prom come to stay. Kuch If properly man- the standpoint of the public tiiete Is aged Is a source of good and not evil. ncod for additional (racks, additional Whenever In either there Is evil it. ' terminals and improvements in the nc should bo promptly held to account, j tual handling of tlio railroads, and nil hut It should receive hearty encourace- M,ie nc mntiiir m nnitiiin Amnio nally lu the Interest of public morality that really puts a premium upon pub lie Immorality by undertaking to for- "'t "onest men from doing what must . be done under modern business condl- (l , ,,,,,, ,., ... u,,f ,.,,,.i,t,w tlons so that Hie law Itself pun ides . . . ' 1 jthat lis own Infraction must be the i P,iinlitlon iireiedcnt uiion business sue- The nntllrust law should not bo re- eoniorntlons I The antitrust law should not prohibit: ami misiness concerns men as combinations that do 110 injustice to "t'''t1 ,llllt w'' "(,,v ""wwlltlng and tlio ntilille Ktlll lpss tlioho llii exlstnneo of whlcll is on the whole of benellt to the public. Hut oven if this feature or the law were abolished there would remain as an equally ohleetlonable fea-! ture the ditliculty and delay now IncI-, dent to lis enforcement. The govern- , incut must now submit to Irksome and i .,, ,i..i.,,. i.f i,i.,ii, t,,i I decision of the courts upon proceedings nia ' InMItiued, and even a favorable do an empty victory. 1 free may mean Moreover. In ntteinol: Io control fliese corporations bv lawt-ults means to Im-1 nose nnon both the denartment of ! J.istice and the courts an impossible "lls s,!ll f,",rl ,li,h'-v wnimisslon burden. It is not feasible to carrv on 1 l'rs " striking fashion how more than a limited number of such mwU porul or tl,p wlloIe l),,f,',lu ,0MlHs suits. Such a law to he really effoc- i fro,n ,llc Il,,ar,-V -operation of the five must of course bo administered f0'11''"' al"5 y,nU' n'"inls 1,1 erlvs bv an executive bndv nn.l not merelv , !l reform. It Is primarily to the by means of lawsuits. The design hiiouiq ue 10 prevent 1110 anuses incl- dent to the creation of unhealthy and Improper combinations Instead of wait ing until they are in existence and then attempting to destroy them by civil or criminal proceedings. Lav; Should Be Explicit. A combination should not bo tolerat ed If It abuse the power acquired by combination to the public detriment. No corporation or as' delation of anv kind should be permitted to encage In foreign or interstate commerce that Is 1 formed for the purpose of or whose 1 operations create a monopolv or gen- ' oral control of the production, sale or I distribution of any one or more of the nrlmo necessities of life or nrtldnu nt general use and necessity. Such com binations are against public policy. They violate the common law. 'I he doors of the courts are cloyed to those who are parties to them, and 1 believe the congress can clo-e the channels of Interstate commerce against them for its protection. The law should make its prohibitions and permissions as clear and definite as possible, leaving tlio least possible room for arbitrary action or allegation of such action 011 the part of tlio executive or of diver gent interpretations by the courts. Among the points to bo aimed at should be the prohibition of unhealthy competition, such as by rendering sorv- ice at an actual loss for the purpose of crushing out competition, tho prevon tlon of inflation of capital and the pro hibition of a corporation's making ex clusive trade with Itself a condition of having any trade with Itself. Iteasou nble agreements between or combina tions of corporations should be per mitted provided they are first submit ted to and approved by some appro priate government body. Congress' Power. Tho congress has the power to char- ter corporations to engage in Interstate and foreign commerce, nnd n general law can he enacted under (ho provi sions of which existing corporations could take out federal charters and new federal corporations could bo cre ated. An essential provision of such a law should Ihj a method of predeter mining by some federal bonrd or com mission whether tho applicant for a federal charter was an association or combination within tho restrictions of tho fedeial law. Provision should also bo mado for complete publicity In all matters affecting the public nnd com plete protection to thu Investing public and (he shurchoidets In tho mntlcr of Issuing corporate securities. If nn In corporation law Is not deemed advisa ble, n license net for big Intcrstato cor porations might bo enacted or a com bination of tlio two might bo tried. The supervision established might be analogous to (hat now excrcbed over nntlonul banks. At least tho anti trust net should be supplemented by Kpcelflc prohibitions of tlio methods which experience has shown hnvo been of most service in enabling monopolis tic combinations lo crush out competi tion. Tho real owners of n corporation should be compelled io do business In their own namo. Tho right to hold stock In other corporations should here nfter bo denied to interstato corpora- Uon3...unlf ss on approval by the propee Kovcrnnirnt ofliclnla, and n prerequisite , l" BUt'" "iM'iwni mio.hu he 1110 iisuuk wlt1' ,t,l(' Kovcrninent of nil owners nnd Htkliohlors, both by (ho corporation , "wnlnK sucli stock and by the corpora. , tlHU lu B"d t-k is owned. 1 Lessons of Roc:nt Crisis. I To confer upon the national govern- 1 mont in couiieetlon with the amend- i tnent I advocate In the antitrust law power of supervision over big business eoncerns engaged lu Interstate com- ' merco would benellt them as It has benefited the national banks. In the recent business crisis It Is noteworthy 11 1.t..t. i..lt nsUlutloll9 whlcll wm, not mk.r , supervision nnd control of the national government. Those which were under mitional control stood the test. National control of the kind above advocated would be to the benefit of I is need lor uic invesunciu 01 money ' which will provide for all thee tilings wlilie at the same time securing as far ns jB ,,.,.,, ,,..,. v.n(.s ,, M,r!or hours for their omp ojew. Therefore, , ,, ., . , , . , Whl o there must lie Jus and reasona- , " n.... ... J"- 1,1,. regulation of rales, we should be flu. final In iifn1iti( .i.-iiltif nnv .irlilfrn. ry and unthinking movement to cut them down without the fullest and ' most careful consideration of all Inter ests con-erncil anil of the actual needs of the situation, duly a I'peclnl body of men aeling for the national govern- tl10 workings of interstate common car luirjii:; n Kreai .111e1 icon iiiiiosu.v. Two llaV( ""t tluP!-(,(1. rondy It has become evident that the 1 S,vnt ,,0M,,m ,ho law i'OIlfp'- "P0" 1110 l""'"c ls nwompnnleil by an equal ben- ' " the reputable packing establish. wnt- lh" '""f nro "ml" nw Uian ,th(C'V "p"' witl".Mlt IL The benellt to interstate common car- 1 ill 1 ium UUMIiri concerns from tlio lesislati'-u I advocate would bo equal- '-v n,",'' Pure Food Law. Incidentally in the passage of the I V" f0'1 tll( !lt'lio r ,ho vnr- 1 notion of these state commissioners that we owe the enactment of this law. for they aroused the people, tirst to demand the enactment and enforce ment of state laws on the subject and then the enactment of tin; federal law, without which the state laws were largely Ineffective. There must be the closest co-operation between the na tional nnd state governments In ad ministering the?e laws. Currency Legislation Needed. I again urge on the congress the ",p(1 ,,f immediate attention to this mutter. We need a greater elasticity 1,1 ollr currency, provided of course (,1!lt wo recognize the even greater of n si'r an(1 secure currency. Provision should be made for an emergency currency. Tlio emergency issue should of cor.r.-e be nude with nn effective guarantee and upon condi tions carefully prescribed by the gov ernment. Such emergency Issue must be based on adequate securities ap proved by the government and must be Issued under a heavy tav This would permit currency being i-'Micd when the demand for it was urgent, while secur ing Its retirement as the demand fell off. It Is worth investigating to de termine whether otlicers and directors of national banks should over be al lowed to loan to themselves. Trust companies should he subject to the same supervision as banks, Legisla tion to this effect should ho enncted for tho District of Columbia nnd tho ter ritories. Vet we must nio remember that even (ho wisest legislation 011 the sub ject can only accomplish a certain amount. No legislation can by any possibility guarantee the business com munity against the results of specula tive folly any mor! than It can guaran teo an Individual against the results of Ills extravagance. When an Individual mortgages his house to buy an auto mobile he Invites disaster, and wheu wealthy men or men who poso ns such or nro unscrupulously or foolishly eager to become such Indulge In reckless speculation, especially If it Is accom panied by dishonesty, they jeopardlzo not only their own future, hut the fu turn of all their Innocent fellow citi zens, for they expose the whole busi ness community to panic and distress. Can't Revise Tariff Now. This country ls definitely committed (o tho protective system, and any ef fort to uproot It could not but cause widespread Industrial disaster. In other words, the principle of the pres ent tariff law could not with wisdom he changed, nut In a country of such phenomenal growth as ours It Is prob ably well that every dozen years or so tho tariff laws should bo carefully scru tinized so as to see that no excessive or Improper benefits nro conferred thereby, that proper revenue Is provid ed nnd that our foreign trade Is en couraged. There must always be ns a minimum a tariff which will not only allow for tho collection of an ample revenue, but which will ot least make good the difference In cost of produc tion hero and abroad that is, tho dif ference in tho Inbor cost here and abroad, for tho well being of tho wo go worker must ever bo n cardinal point of Amerlcnn policy. The question should bo auuroached purely from a ! miriness standpoint, both u,0 time and the manner ol the ch-mgn being such as to arouse the minimum or agitation and disturbance lu (he btislnesn world and (o give the least play for selfish and factional motives. The solo con-' sldeintion should be (o oo (hat Ihn sum tolal of changes represents the public g"'d. Tills menus that the sub ject cannot with wisdom be dealt with In the year preceding a presidential election, becaus'e as a matter of fact experience lias conclusively shown that at such a lime It ts Inqwslliio to get men to treat it from the standpoint of the public good. In my Judgment the wise lime to doll with the matter Is Immediately after such election. Income Trx and l.ilic.-ltsnos Tax. When our b'X laws are levhiod the question of an liicotne Ins and an In- . heritance la should receive the care ful attention of our legislators. In j my judgment, both of those taxes ' should lie p'tii of oar system of fed- . oral taxation I spenk diilldently about the Income u. because one Hellenic for an Income ta ns declared unconsti tutional by I'.c supreme court, while In addition It Is a dilllcult tax to admin ister In Its p: ;ical workim;. and great care would li n' to be excrci.-ed to see that It was 1 1 evade 1 by (he very men whom I; was most desirable to have taed. N .'ert hole's a graduated Income tax of the proper type would bo a desiral.l" feature of federal taxa tion, and It ;s to be hoped that one may be devlsi d which the supremo court Will declare constitutional. The Inheritance tax, however, Is a far better method of taxation. Tho government Iris tho absolute right to decide as to the terms upon which a man shall receive n bequest from an- 1 other, and this point In the devolution of property is especially appropriate for the Imposition of a tax. Laws Im posing such tn-e have repeatedly been t placed upon the national statute books 1 and as repeatedly declared eonstltu- ' tinnal by I he courts, and these laws 1 contained the that Is. after a rd the beipu si is increasingl rogt essivo principle I'taln amount is reach r gift in life or death ' urdened and the rate , of taxation is in reused in proportion to the remote- 1 - of blood of (he man receiving the I" ,nest. These principles ' are recognized . ready lu tho leading 1 civilized nations .,f the world. Germany's Inheritance Tex. The German .aw Is especially Inter- 1 est lug to us hi ausc it makes the In- ' heritance tax . a Imperial measure ! wlilie allotlrg to the Individual states ! of the em;Ni a portion of tlio pro- ! coeds and per' . "Ing them to impose j taxes in addition to those Imposed by tho Imperial go. rnment. Small inher- Itances are oxen.pt, but tho tax Is so i sharply progrcs-' .e that when the In heritance Is sti'.i not very large, pro- j vlded it Is not an agricultural or a for- -est land, it Is l.red at the rate of '.'5 ! per cent If It poe- to distant relatives. There Is no rc.-.s.ei why in tlio United j States the nation i1 government should not Impose inher mice taxes in addi- 1 tlon lo those In . sed by the states, 1 and when we las' imii an Inheritance 1 tax about ono-ha': of tho states levied such taxes concuii 'ntly with tlio na tional government, mr.king a combined maximum rate In somo cases as high as '-T) per cent. To Tax Nonresidents Higher. The tax should If possible be mado (o bear more heavily nnon (hose resid ing without the country than within It. A heavy progressive t;' upon a very large fortune Is in no v ay such a tax upon thrift or Industiy ns a like tax would be on a small tortune. No ad vantage comes cither to the country as a whole or lo tho Individuals Inher iting the money by permitting tho transmission In their mtirely of the enormous fortunes win. h would be af fected by such a tax, and as an Inci dent to Its function of revenue raising such a tax would he'p to preserve 11 measurable equality of opportunity for the people of the gem-rut ions growing to manhood. Wo have not (ho slightest sympathy with that socialistic idea which would try to put laziness, thrlftlessness and Inefficiency on a par with Industry. thrift and efnoloney, which would strive to break up not merely private property, but, what Is far more Impor tant, the home, the chief prop upon whlcll our whole civilizntlon stands. .Such 11 theory If evi r adopted would menn the ruin of the entire country, hut proposals for legislation such ns (his herein advocated are directly op posed to this class of socialistic the ories. Enforcement of the Law. A few years ago (hero was loud com plaint that the law could not be in voked against wealthy offenders. There Is no such complaint nni. The courso of the department of justice during tho last few years has been such as to make it evident that 110 man stands nbovc tho law, that no corporation is fo wealthy that It canimt je held to nc count. Everything that can bo done under the existing law and with tho existing state of public opinion, which so profoundly inlluences both the courts nnd juries, has been done, but the laws themselves need strengthening. They should be made more deilnlto, so that no honest man can bo led unwittingly to break them nnd so t hat the real wrongdoer can ho readily punished. Moreover, tliere must bo tho public opinion back of tho laws or tho laws themselves will he of n-j avail. The two great evils In tho execution of our criminal laws today are seutlmcntnlity and technicality. Kor the latter the remedy must come from the hands of the legislatures, the courts and tho law yers. The other must depend for Its cure upon tho gradual growth of 0 sound public opinion whl. h uluill Insist that regard for the law and the de mands of reason shall control all other Influences and emotions in (ho Jury box. Iloth of these evils must bo re moved or public discontent with the criminal law will continue. Injunctions. Instances of abuse in the granting of Injunctions In labor disputes con tinue (o occur, nnd tlio resentment In tho minds of those who feel (hat their rights are being Invaded nnd their lib erty of action ami of speech unwar rantably restrained continues likewise to grow. Much of the attack on tho uso of the process of Injunction Is wholly without warrant, but I am con strained to express tho liollef that for uome of it there is warrant. This ques tion is becoming one of prlmo Impor tance, and unless the courts will deal with It In effective manner it ls cer tain ultlmnlely lo demand some form of legislative action. It would bo most unfortunate for our social welfare If wo should permit many honest nnd law abiding citizens to feel that they had Just cause for regarding our courts with hostility. I earnestly commend to tho attention of the congress tills matter, so that somo way may bo de vised which will limit the uhuso of In junctions and protect thoio rights whlcll from tlmo (0 time it unwarrant ably Invades. Moreover, discontent Is often expressed with (lie use of tho process of Injunction by (he courts, not only In labor disputes, but whole state laws aro concerned. I refrain from discussion of this question as I am Informed that It will soon receive the consideration of (he supremo court. Tho process of Injunction Is an es sential adjunct of the court's doing Its work well, and as preventive measures aro always belter than remedial thu wise uso of thU process Is from every standpoint commendable. I5ut where it ls recklessly or unnecessarily used tho abuse should be censured, ahoe all by tho very men who m properly anxious to prevent any ofMut to shear tho courts of this necessary power The court's decision miet b" Dual. Tli" protest is only against the c induct 01 Individual judg-s in needles!) a'ltlci patlng such llniil decision or in the tyrannical uso of what Is nominally a temporary injunction to accomplish what Is In fact a permanent decision The president urges tho passage of a mold employers' llnbillty act for tie District of ( 'olumbln and (lie territ"i i' -lo encourage corporations to ti 'al In jurod wagev. orUers better. He r:n phaticaily Indorse.! the eight hour da. The president urges the slates to tight the child nnd woman labor 1 tie says: The national government ins as an ultimate resort for control of ehil 1 l.i bor tlio use of the Interstate cmimei. clause to prexent the products of chl, labor from entering Into Interstate imii merco. ttut bet ore using this It out1 certainly to enact model laws un subject for the territories under 1 own Immediate control. Presidential Campaign Expense;. Under our form of government Ing ls not merely a rlglii, hut a dir. und, moreover, a fundamental and 11. essary duty If a man is to be a g'K , citizen. It is well to provide tii it cor poratlons shall not contribute to presi dential or national campaigns and, fur thermore, to provide lor the publica tion of both contributions and expendi tures. There ls, lioweer, always dan ger In laws of this kind, which from their very nature are difficult of en forcement, the danger being lest they he obejed only by the hor.c-t and dis obeyed by the unscrupulous, so as to act only as a penally upon honest men. Moreover, no such law would hamper an unscrupulous man of unlimited means from buying his own way into ofllce. There is a very radical meas ure which would. I believe, work a substantial improvement lu our sys tem of conducting a campaign, al though I am well aware that It will take some time for people so to famil iarize themselves with surh a proposal r.s to be willing to consider Its adop tion. The need for collecting largo campaign funds would vanish if con gress provided an appropriation for tho proper and legitimate expenses of each of the great national parties, an appro priation ample enough lo meet the ne cessity for thorough organization and machinery, which requires a large ex pfiidlturo of money. Then the stipu lation should be made that no party receiving campaign funds from tho treasury should accept more than a 1 fixed amount from any individual sub scriber or donor, and the necessary publicity for lecelpts and expenditures , could without dilllculty be provided. j The Army. I , The president recommends legisla tion to Increase the number of otlicers In the army, especially in the medical corps. Tho rate of pay of otlicers should lie greatly Increased, ho de dares. There should be .1 iclatlvely even greater Increase in (he rale of pay of enlbied men If we are to keep the army In shape lo be effective In tln.d ot need. The president recom mends severe examination of olilcrra for promotion up to the rank of major. Uroni that point promotion should bo purely by selection. He speaks of the recent physical test of army otlicers with emphatic approbation nnd recom j mends n bill equalizing tho pay of I officers mid men of the army, navy, marine corps and revenue cutter serv ice. I The Navy. J Concerning the navy tho president says: In my Judgment, we should this year provide for four battleships. Ilut It Is Idle to build battleships unless, in addition to providing t lie men and tho means for thorough training, we pro vide the auxiliaries for them unless we provide docks, the coaling stations, tho colliers and supply ships that they 1 need. We are extremely deficient In coaling stations and docks on Iho Pa- 1 tide, and this deficiency should not ; longer be permitted to exist. Plenty of torpedo boats and destroyers should bo built. Hoth on the Atlantic and Pa cific coasts fortifications of tho best I type should he provided for all our ! greatest harbors. ' Until our battle fleet Is much larger I than at present It should never bo split j into detachments so far apart that they I could not In event of emergency ho I speedily united. Our const line ls on tho Patillc Just ns much as 011 the At lantic. Tho battle fleet should now nnd then be moved to tho Paclile, Just as at other times It should be kept in the Atlantic. When the Isthmian canal ls built the transit of the battle fleet from one ocean (o the other will bo tompurutlvoly easy. Until It Is built I earnestly hopo that the battlo fleet will he thus shifted between tho two oceans every year or two. The battle fleet is about starting by the strait of Magellan to visit the Pacific coast. Sixteen battleships are golug under tho command of Hear Admiral Evans, while eight armored cruisers and two other battleships will meet him In San Fran cisco, whither certain toipcdo destroy ers aro also going, No fleet of such steo has ever mado such a voyage, nnd it -will bo of very gieat educational uso to all engaged in It. Tho only way by iv-iu to teach otlicers nnd men how HEMORRHOIDS Accompanied by Terrible Itching A Complicated and Most Distress ing Case Well-known Remedies Failed to Cure Doctor Thought an Operation Necessary Then CUTICURA PROVED ITS WONDERFUL EFFICACY "I am now eighty years old nnd ono morning, thrc? years oko, I was taken -with a hard p.nn in my right sil". In two days I had nn nttsck of piles (hemorrhoid), bleeding and protruding. Tho doctor gave mo somo madiHno nnd nn ointment for them which helped mo uomo but I bad to keep uslns them all tho liino. Thn I changed to the V remedy; but If I did not u?e it ovory day, 1 would got worse. Tho doctor said tho only help for mo was to go to a hospital and bo operated on. At this time, about n year ago, t vent to using tb S remedies. I tried thera for four or nvo mr.ntln but did not ntt, much help for my piles. During thu tlmo uores would romo on a fle.diy part of my bodv. Tlwy bothered mo all tho time. I would "p-t on- healed nnd another would como. The fores changed to ecema, accompanied by a terriblo itching. It seemed rs If I could not keep my hands from tenting my flesh. This nnd tho pilo troublu brought on sn inflamed condition. Then I got tho Cuticuin Komediofl. I wa-shed tho n fleeted parts with Cutlcura Soap and warm water In tho morning, nt noon, nnd nt night, then ued Cutl cura Ointment, on tho irritated sur faces and injected a quantity of Cutl cura Ointment witli u Cutieurn Sup pository Syringe, I also took Cutl cura U'osolvont Pills thrco times a day. It took a montli of this tieatment to get mo in a fairly healthy ttnto and then 1 treated myself once a day for tliroa months and, after that, once or twico a week. It is furtnnato that 1 ud Cn'i cuin. Tho treatments I had tried took a lot of money thtt I would have saved by using Cutlcurs. ItcmedUs sooner, but. I am v,is,er now. I am "uppliod with fx full Fet of tlm Cuticurn Itomedioe and would not feel tafo without them. J. II. Henderson, llopkinton, St. Law rence Co., N. V., Apr. 2(5, 1007.,' CVsiEplf'e EitirnM r"l Inti'fnul Trpaur'nt ti f!cry lluTiorot Infant. CUlltlrfn. and Adulwron W ol CutlruM Sotn (2ic ) 10 rifan-o tU Skin, C'uOriirt Ointment (V)c to HpI Ihf Skin, nnd Cmlrd IMlls 2.V p.r rill of 60) lo 1'urlfr the Blood; utifiirA iiMniventione ) forininprormorcnopoiRto i.'jod; Sold a o the CntlriirA P'lnnotory svrlnKB ( l.r, throiKhnut tbf world Totter Jiruj? A Chra. forp.. Bolf l'rnns . Ilnston. Mim as-MiiiM Free, Cutlcuii Boat on axui Dlscouv lo handle the feet so as to meet every possible strain nnd emergency in linn of war is to hive them praclro under -imilar conditions in time of peace. The prcidont recommends the In creased pay for both ofllccrs and enlist ed men and advises promotion by se lection above the grade of lieutenant commander. Foreign Affair:. In foreijn affairs, the president snys, this country's "toady policy Is to he !mc toward other nations as a strong and self respectins man should behave toward the other men with whom he i- brought Into contact. In other word", our aim Is disinterestedly to help other nation'. where fucli help can be widely gltcn without the appearance of med dling with what di.es not concern us, to be careful to act nv a good ncishbor u.id at the same time in good natured fj.shion to make It evident that we do not Intend to be Imposed upon. The president refers at lentrth to The Hague peace ''..inference. lie believes it accompll-hed much good work. Post-il Oavi-is Sinks. The provide:.! ":i po--tal affairs: U ktM IK I jhver get nunsrv lor a bows ol mm I oid-iasliioi Crackers and Hk? i Nothing like it- ii there? J list t he foo I (hat plea.si's. s s 3 U And if it's H-A-N-O-V-E-R Crackers Howry ono you're doubly satisfied. nil The Plow Woman BY ELEANOR GATES A talc of the dangers encountered and the hardships endured by a little family in their efforts to hold a valuable quarter-section in North Dakota, being A Vivid Picture of Frontier Life In her sacrifices lo enable her to care for her helpless father and timid younger sister the Plow Woman re veals a new type, of heroine, an American heroine, the product of our country and our times. The Plow Woman Illustrated by Parker Will Be Printed in This Paper I commend to the fnvornblo consid eration of tho congress a postal sav ings bank system as recommended bv tho postmaster goncrnl. Timid deposl tors have withdrawn their savings for tho tlmo being from national banks, trust companies and savings banks, In dividuals havo hoarded their cash and the worklngmen their earnings, all of which money has been withheld and kept in hiding or in tho sHfo de posit box to tho detriment of prosper Ity. Through tho agency of tho postal savings banks such money would bo restored to the channels of trade, to tho mutual benefit of capital and Inbor I further commend to tho congress Iho consideration of tho postmaster general's recommendation for an ex tentdon of tho parcel post, cspeela'ly on tho rural routes. It would he a most desirable thing to put the fourth class postmasters In the classlDed serv bo. Other recommendations are: Iiei'penlng of the Inland waterways, especially of the Mississippi river sys ttrn, to make them great national high wayp. The repeal of tho taiifT on forest products, especially tho duty on wood pulp. Tho amendment of tho public laud laws to make them more effective against land grabbers and more favor able to bona fldo settlers. Helen! ion of the government's tdlo to public coal nnd other mineral lands. Intension of tin; national forest re- I .'I Vi'V. i'iu7en!h1p for tho people of Porto I'.i.-i. 1 local Felf government for Mas- ' ra rnment of the merchant r: n- h oa.-'l'Ularly of an ocean mai. 1' io :' 'V! Amo'ien. Kc: i;-", mi of th" Horer h rlerr' ' 'if u'ry for Chinese 1 r ' I tl A '1H'"' v:i(Uo.vr tvo.Mi:.v K.wi-urnv. "rcent Issue of the Amcrli t r p.ivc a l?ood sketeli of ft j hi fane r " Unrllneti.ti, 'i 1 Ht. : r i.i quite :i - I ' ' . with ho ' -,.'-r i ' ' ' ;i Calkins. Mi.ii.ii'ts ono of ". l.i l.iry plants in tlio Stat". I 1 t larir" r.trma rnnlntnlnir " ' ', upon whleh are kept tv . li cotvn, of which about t . '.! in milk. They supply I v'.u -'.i-nlll-s w'th ..no thousand q'i ' '. inn hundred quarts ot wtileh ; " ' "ivrtUlcd" order, ami alt 1b of ir--. 1 pin Ity and sweetness. The barne. stables and milk '.m ' ' furnished with the latest mor i-. I atirei for health of nock, th u- i? and hottllnR of the milk, etc. '' -abb- cream Is uIbo furnished m:si. The headquarters are at River -I . of the Walker homestend l'.ui -where nre five hundi'r 1 n. i " ' r 1 the larcer barns, nr.! t r'e In-- . ' '0 tons capeelty each. At Shelurne, Vt . T HM M -s Tt i'.h A. ,T. Reed has for fif'-'-i ycus beet, k r -cessfully maniLlnc her ;-.vr fa n without a Fupeilnur.de'.t rth-r far. r -stlf. Tho farm promt. 'cs r'wut si ven -live tons of hav. tbr. e hundred bus ic-li of oats. sevent-fl'. i 1 of narkj, one hundred hush. Is f-rn. flf'eon c' buckwheat, three lmml.- I ' JshrH . ' no- tatoes. rlmvs from fifteen to tv. niv acres ycarl. About twenty lia.l " stork Is kept on the place w fi ' r horses: swine, from six to twer,-"-ve, prove a RWid side Issue. Uonr m- i'. ' r tlbzers are used only on potato s A' though twent.v-ftve tons of hav nr. 1 off ann'iillv. ,nd but very l.'i i Ix-ictiht. ye' Mi's Rpr 1 man ices J,r p the farm In as ?ond prn1i"t'e - 101 a In f nner p'-nr.'ii.i-s. Shclburne, Vt. H. M. PortTKR. a .M whiui .'ill cl.vo f;iils. - n tunc .vounped on HANOVER CRACKERS are best tor nil uses. Don't try to keep house with out thorn !Vlade only by Smith & Son, at White River Junction, Vt