THIS KUItLlNWTON K RIO 10 IM110SS: THURSDAY, DHOISMIWK, 5,11)1)7.
J'ho president in I1I3 message to con
Ijrci s snys:
No n. Hon lins greater resources than
ours, and I think it can l)e truthfully
raid Hint the citizens of no nation pos
sess greater eneruy and industrial nbll
Ity. In no nation nro tlio fundaniental
business conditions rounder than in
ours at this very moment, nnd It Is
f ii llsli when such Is the case for poo-
pic to hoard mono instead of keeping
t .a u...... ......u. 10. u , such noani-
ing that Is the Immediate occasion of I
money stringency. Moreover, ns a
rule, the business of our people Is com !
ilucted wPh honesty and probity, and 1
this applies alike to farms and Cue
t'irles, to railroads and banks, to all
our legitimate commercial enterprises.
In any large body of men, however,
there nro certain to bo some who are
dishonest, nnd If (he conditions are j ,nPnt so long ns It Is properly managed. . ,.n(e nn,i speedy transportation faelll
so U that these men prosper or commit , H la profoundly Immoral to put or tn() are oven 'more necessary than
tclr mb-deeds with Impunity their j keep on the statute books a law muni- J cheap transportation. Therefore there
example ts n very evil thing for the
ron.nuntty. Where these men are
buaui' "lea of gruii? sagacity and o'
tempeim nt both unscrupulous and !
, . , ., ....
reckons, nn' where he condll Ions are
1. J1...1 .1 i ...III . I
or cr re' and at first without effecttvo
cheek from public opinion, (hoy delude cess. To aim af (ho accomplishment
1 'i.v innocent people Into making in- of too much umal means the actum
c onus or embarking in kinds of plishment of too little and often the do
li'is uiss that are really unsound. When . lug of poslthe damage.
Cie 1 .i.-uUviIm of these successfully ills- Not Repoal, but Amendment.
I101 1 t 1 i'-u nro discovered, suffering
iv s not only upon them, but upon ' ,,,(, mt It should be made both meiit under authority conferred upon It
the li 'lucent whom they have misled, inure elllcleut and more In harmony '' 'I'1' congreM, Is competent to pns
IMi a p.' Infill nwnkenlng, whenever It , Wlrh actual conditions. It should he Juucment 0:1 such a matter. ,
on i- 1 nil naturally when It does oc- f0 amended ns to forbid only the kind 'J lmse who fear from any icnson the
rur thisy who suffer are apt to forget t 0r eomlduatlon which does harm to the extension of federal aoiivlty will do
11 at the longer it was deferred the enCral public, such amendment to be' "ell to study tlio history n.it only of
tin re p uful it would he. In (he effort ' accompanied by or to be an Incident of the national hanking act, but of the
top . h the guilty It Is both wise and j n R1-ant of supervisory power to the Pre iood law, and notably the meat
pp prr to endeavor so far as possible government over these big concerns Inspection law recently enacted. The
to 1 .lumt;:e the distress of thosa who engaged In Interstate business. This pure food law was opposed so violent
ly e been misled by the entity. Yet it , should lie accompanied by provision ly that Its passage was delayed for a
Is nit poi-Mblo to refrain because of or th0 compulsory publication of ac- decade, yet It lias woihed unmixed and
.inch iVtross from striving to put an J counts anil the subject ion of books and Immediate good. Tim meat Inspection
ri d to the misdeeds that are the ultl- papers to the Inspection of the gov- ,!lw W!,s L'vt'n more violently assailed,
ti 'tc (..use- of the suffering and, as a eminent ollicials. A beginning has al- m"' ",c s!"11( '"f" v,'ll( 11,u' denounce
ircnns tJ ihls end, where possible to ; ,eady been made for such supervision 1,10 attitude of the national govern-1
pun'sh those responsible for them. ti( establishment of the bureau of nitnt hi neeking to oversee and control I
T1 ere l.iav be honest differences of 1
"i ai to many governmental pon
lnt i -ely tliere can be no such
1 1 os :is to (he need of untllncli
1 , s er.inre In the war against
pi 1 f 1 ! honesty.
Ni ma. I part of the trouble that we
li,ie cornea from carrying io an ex
treme the national virtue of Folf rell
ni'ce, of Independence in initiative
nnd nr 'on. It is wise to conserve tills
virtue and to provide for its fullest
rxrn e compatible with seeing that '
3i icrty does not become a liberty to
wring others. Unfortunately this Is
the kind of liberty that the lad; of all
effective regulation inevitably breeds.
The fenders of the constitution pro
kled that the national government
f-lo"ld Lave complete and solo control
of interstate commerce. Tliere was
llicn nr.'irtlc.illv no Interstate business
pre si'-li as was conducted by water,
an 1 Ibis the national government at I
01, proceeded to regulate in thorough-
gj'ng and effective fashion. Conditions
have mw so wholly changed that the
i'lterstate commerce by water ls insig
nificant compared wfih the amount
tl f t goes by land, and almost all big
1 1. 1 '.s concerns are now engaged in
li tfi'oiiitu commerce. As a result It can
be but partially and imperfectly con
ti died or regulated by the action of
fii.v one of the several stales, such ac
tion ineitribly tending to be either
t-io drastic or else too lax and in either
case ineffective for purposes of Justice.
Only the national government can in
thoroughgoing fashion exorcise the
neede 1 control. This does not mean
that (hue should be any extension of
l'c derm authority, for such authority
nlnady exists under the constitution
in ampl"t and most far reaching form,
but it lies mean that there should bo
nu exten Ion of federal activity. This
is not aJoiatlng centrali-'.atlon. It ls
merely looking facts in the face and I
rca 'zi g that centralization In business I
has aiready come and cannot be avoid-
ed or undone and (hat the public at
largo an only protect Itself from cur-
to1 1 fin ffnets nl' Ihls business enn-
trnllznt'-ui by providing better methods
for the exercise of control through the
iiilthorl'j already centralized In the
national gn-ernuient by the constitu
tion it (. f There must bo no halt In
the heailhy constructive course of ac- j
tlon whl a Ihls nation has elected to
pin-' 110 ami has steadily pursued dur
ing the last six years, as showu both
In the legi-hitlou of the congress and
tho adm'nl -tratlon of the law by the
drpartn cut of justice.
National Lieenso For Railroads.
The mo: f llal need is in connection
with ti e railroads. As to those, in my
Judgment, there should now be either
u n t ri a incorporation act or a law
U-'or " v.iiiuny companies lo engage
In ln'c t 1
commerce upon certain
'OIUlll 'liN, 1 111 HIIV Miuilill IJU no
rni 1 a 10 gao 10 uiu miersuuu
'oniuierce commission power lo pass
ipon the future issue of securities,
... . . . .ii ..1.1 .1
o enable the commission v heiiecr In
ts Judgment It Is necessary to make a
ihy h al valuation of any railroad. As
si'it ( in my message to the congrc-s
i year ago, railroads should be glon
lower t enter lulu ntrrccincnls sub-
ect to Ihf o agreemunts being made
ml if in miiuito detail and to the con
ent of the Interstate comineice com
nlsslon being first obtained. Until
he national government assumes prop
r control of Interstate commerce In
he exerclne of the authority It already
iosl-esKf'S It will IK! impossible el'lier
o give to or to get from the railroads
nil justice. The railroads and ail oth
r great corporations will do well to
ecngnlze that this control must come,
'ho only questiou Is as to what gov
rmwnlnl body can most wisely exer
Ise It. The courts will determine the
mlts within which the federal author-
y can exorcise 11, ami mere win stiu
;nii In ample work within each state
r tin railway commission of that
ate, and tho national Interstate com
icrco commission will work In bar
mny with tho several slate coinmls-
om, en"ii within Its own province, to
:hleve the desired end,
The Antitrust Law.
Moreover, In my Judgment, fhero
(should bo additional legislation looUIng
to the proper control of (ho urcat bust-
ness concerns engaged In Interstate
business, this control to bo exerel-ied ;
for their own bencflt and prosperity
no less than for tlio protection of in- 1
vestors and of the general public.
I have repeatedly said In messages to
congress and elsewhere, experience has
definitely shown not merely the nnwi-i-
dom, hut the futility, of endeavoring to
put a stop to all business combinations,
Modem Industrial conditions are such
flint ttn-t1ttttl t litl la lifif ndti iiiioiutoim
,Hll lllc.v,,nl,, u , K0 , (ho worll, of
lmsncss jst as it Is so In (lie world
0f labor, and It Is as Idle to desire to put
an end to all corporations, to all big
combinations of cnpltal, as to desire to
put an end to comiilnations ot labor.
Corporation ami labor union alike have every well managed railway. Prom
come to stay. Kuch If properly man- the standpoint of the public tiiete Is
aged Is a source of good and not evil. ncod for additional (racks, additional
Whenever In either there Is evil it. ' terminals and improvements in the nc
should bo promptly held to account, j tual handling of tlio railroads, and nil
hut It should receive hearty encourace- M,ie nc mntiiir m nnitiiin Amnio
nally lu the Interest of public morality
that really puts a premium upon pub
lie Immorality by undertaking to for-
"'t "onest men from doing what must .
be done under modern business condl-
(l , ,,,,,, ,., ... u,,f ,.,,,.i,t,w
tlons so that Hie law Itself pun ides
. . . ' 1
jthat lis own Infraction must be the
i P,iinlitlon iireiedcnt uiion business sue-
The nntllrust law should not bo re-
The antitrust law should not prohibit: ami misiness concerns men as
combinations that do 110 injustice to "t'''t1 ,llllt w'' "(,,v ""wwlltlng and
tlio ntilille Ktlll lpss tlioho llii exlstnneo
of whlcll is on the whole of benellt
to the public. Hut oven if this feature
or the law were abolished there would
remain as an equally ohleetlonable fea-!
ture the ditliculty and delay now IncI-,
dent to lis enforcement. The govern- ,
incut must now submit to Irksome and i
.,, ,i..i.,,. i.f i,i.,ii, t,,i I
decision of the courts upon proceedings
InMItiued, and even a favorable do
an empty victory. 1
free may mean
Moreover. In ntteinol: Io control fliese
corporations bv lawt-ults means to Im-1
nose nnon both the denartment of !
J.istice and the courts an impossible "lls s,!ll f,",rl ,li,h'-v wnimisslon
burden. It is not feasible to carrv on 1 l'rs " striking fashion how
more than a limited number of such mwU porul or tl,p wlloIe l),,f,',lu ,0MlHs
suits. Such a law to he really effoc- i fro,n ,llc Il,,ar,-V -operation of the
five must of course bo administered f0'11''"' al"5 y,nU' n'"inls 1,1 erlvs
bv an executive bndv nn.l not merelv , !l reform. It Is primarily to the
by means of lawsuits. The design
hiiouiq ue 10 prevent 1110 anuses incl-
dent to the creation of unhealthy and
Improper combinations Instead of wait
ing until they are in existence and
then attempting to destroy them by
civil or criminal proceedings.
Lav; Should Be Explicit.
A combination should not bo tolerat
ed If It abuse the power acquired by
combination to the public detriment.
No corporation or as' delation of anv
kind should be permitted to encage In
foreign or interstate commerce that Is 1
formed for the purpose of or whose 1
operations create a monopolv or gen- '
oral control of the production, sale or I
distribution of any one or more of the
nrlmo necessities of life or nrtldnu nt
general use and necessity. Such com
binations are against public policy.
They violate the common law. 'I he
doors of the courts are cloyed to those
who are parties to them, and 1 believe
the congress can clo-e the channels of
Interstate commerce against them for
its protection. The law should make
its prohibitions and permissions as
clear and definite as possible, leaving
tlio least possible room for arbitrary
action or allegation of such action 011
the part of tlio executive or of diver
gent interpretations by the courts.
Among the points to bo aimed at
should be the prohibition of unhealthy
competition, such as by rendering sorv-
ice at an actual loss for the purpose of
crushing out competition, tho prevon
tlon of inflation of capital and the pro
hibition of a corporation's making ex
clusive trade with Itself a condition of
having any trade with Itself. Iteasou
nble agreements between or combina
tions of corporations should be per
mitted provided they are first submit
ted to and approved by some appro
priate government body.
Tho congress has the power to char-
ter corporations to engage in Interstate
and foreign commerce, nnd n general
law can he enacted under (ho provi
sions of which existing corporations
could take out federal charters and
new federal corporations could bo cre
ated. An essential provision of such a
law should Ihj a method of predeter
mining by some federal bonrd or com
mission whether tho applicant for a
federal charter was an association or
combination within tho restrictions of
tho fedeial law. Provision should also
bo mado for complete publicity In all
matters affecting the public nnd com
plete protection to thu Investing public
and (he shurchoidets In tho mntlcr of
Issuing corporate securities. If nn In
corporation law Is not deemed advisa
ble, n license net for big Intcrstato cor
porations might bo enacted or a com
bination of tlio two might bo tried.
The supervision established might be
analogous to (hat now excrcbed over
nntlonul banks. At least tho anti
trust net should be supplemented by
Kpcelflc prohibitions of tlio methods
which experience has shown hnvo been
of most service in enabling monopolis
tic combinations lo crush out competi
tion. Tho real owners of n corporation
should be compelled io do business In
their own namo. Tho right to hold
stock In other corporations should here
nfter bo denied to interstato corpora-
Uon3...unlf ss on approval by the propee
Kovcrnnirnt ofliclnla, and n prerequisite ,
l" BUt'" "iM'iwni mio.hu he 1110 iisuuk
wlt1' ,t,l(' Kovcrninent of nil owners nnd
Htkliohlors, both by (ho corporation ,
"wnlnK sucli stock and by the corpora. ,
tlHU lu B"d t-k is owned. 1
Lessons of Roc:nt Crisis. I
To confer upon the national govern- 1
mont in couiieetlon with the amend- i
tnent I advocate In the antitrust law
power of supervision over big business
eoncerns engaged lu Interstate com- '
merco would benellt them as It has
benefited the national banks. In the
recent business crisis It Is noteworthy
11 1.t..t. i..lt
nsUlutloll9 whlcll wm, not mk.r ,
supervision nnd control of the national
government. Those which were under
mitional control stood the test.
National control of the kind above
advocated would be to the benefit of
I is need lor uic invesunciu 01 money
' which will provide for all thee tilings
wlilie at the same time securing as far
ns jB ,,.,.,, ,,..,. v.n(.s ,, M,r!or
hours for their omp ojew. Therefore,
, ,, ., . , , . ,
Whl o there must lie Jus and reasona- ,
" n.... ... J"-
1,1,. regulation of rales, we should be
flu. final In iifn1iti( .i.-iiltif nnv .irlilfrn.
ry and unthinking movement to cut
them down without the fullest and '
most careful consideration of all Inter
ests con-erncil anil of the actual needs
of the situation, duly a I'peclnl body
of men aeling for the national govern-
tl10 workings of interstate common car
luirjii:; n Kreai .111e1 icon iiiiiosu.v.
Two llaV( ""t tluP!-(,(1.
rondy It has become evident that the 1
S,vnt ,,0M,,m ,ho law i'OIlfp'- "P0" 1110
l""'"c ls nwompnnleil by an equal ben-
' " the reputable packing establish.
wnt- lh" '""f nro "ml"
nw Uian ,th(C'V "p"' witl".Mlt IL
The benellt to interstate common car- 1
ill 1 ium UUMIiri
concerns from tlio
lesislati'-u I advocate would bo equal-
Pure Food Law.
Incidentally in the passage of the I
V" f0'1 tll( !lt'lio r ,ho vnr- 1
notion of these state commissioners
that we owe the enactment of this
law. for they aroused the people, tirst
to demand the enactment and enforce
ment of state laws on the subject and
then the enactment of tin; federal law,
without which the state laws were
largely Ineffective. There must be the
closest co-operation between the na
tional nnd state governments In ad
ministering the?e laws.
Currency Legislation Needed.
I again urge on the congress the
",p(1 ,,f immediate attention to this
mutter. We need a greater elasticity
1,1 ollr currency, provided of course
(,1!lt wo recognize the even greater
of n si'r an(1 secure currency.
Provision should be made for an
emergency currency. Tlio emergency
issue should of cor.r.-e be nude with
nn effective guarantee and upon condi
tions carefully prescribed by the gov
ernment. Such emergency Issue must
be based on adequate securities ap
proved by the government and must be
Issued under a heavy tav This would
permit currency being i-'Micd when the
demand for it was urgent, while secur
ing Its retirement as the demand fell
off. It Is worth investigating to de
termine whether otlicers and directors
of national banks should over be al
lowed to loan to themselves. Trust
companies should he subject to the
same supervision as banks, Legisla
tion to this effect should ho enncted for
tho District of Columbia nnd tho ter
ritories. Vet we must nio remember that
even (ho wisest legislation 011 the sub
ject can only accomplish a certain
amount. No legislation can by any
possibility guarantee the business com
munity against the results of specula
tive folly any mor! than It can guaran
teo an Individual against the results of
Ills extravagance. When an Individual
mortgages his house to buy an auto
mobile he Invites disaster, and wheu
wealthy men or men who poso ns such
or nro unscrupulously or foolishly eager
to become such Indulge In reckless
speculation, especially If it Is accom
panied by dishonesty, they jeopardlzo
not only their own future, hut the fu
turn of all their Innocent fellow citi
zens, for they expose the whole busi
ness community to panic and distress.
Can't Revise Tariff Now.
This country ls definitely committed
(o tho protective system, and any ef
fort to uproot It could not but cause
widespread Industrial disaster. In
other words, the principle of the pres
ent tariff law could not with wisdom
he changed, nut In a country of such
phenomenal growth as ours It Is prob
ably well that every dozen years or so
tho tariff laws should bo carefully scru
tinized so as to see that no excessive
or Improper benefits nro conferred
thereby, that proper revenue Is provid
ed nnd that our foreign trade Is en
couraged. There must always be ns a
minimum a tariff which will not only
allow for tho collection of an ample
revenue, but which will ot least make
good the difference In cost of produc
tion hero and abroad that is, tho dif
ference in tho Inbor cost here and
abroad, for tho well being of tho wo go
worker must ever bo n cardinal point
of Amerlcnn policy. The question
should bo auuroached purely from a
miriness standpoint, both u,0 time and
the manner ol the ch-mgn being such
as to arouse the minimum or agitation
and disturbance lu (he btislnesn world
and (o give the least play for selfish
and factional motives. The solo con-'
sldeintion should be (o oo (hat Ihn
sum tolal of changes represents the
public g"'d. Tills menus that the sub
ject cannot with wisdom be dealt with
In the year preceding a presidential
election, becaus'e as a matter of fact
experience lias conclusively shown that
at such a lime It ts Inqwslliio to get
men to treat it from the standpoint of
the public good. In my Judgment the
wise lime to doll with the matter Is
Immediately after such election.
Income Trx and l.ilic.-ltsnos Tax.
When our b'X laws are levhiod the
question of an liicotne Ins and an In- .
heritance la should receive the care
ful attention of our legislators. In j
my judgment, both of those taxes '
should lie p'tii of oar system of fed- .
oral taxation I spenk diilldently about
the Income u. because one Hellenic for
an Income ta ns declared unconsti
tutional by I'.c supreme court, while In
addition It Is a dilllcult tax to admin
ister In Its p: ;ical workim;. and great
care would li n' to be excrci.-ed to see
that It was 1 1 evade 1 by (he very
men whom I; was most desirable to
have taed. N .'ert hole's a graduated
Income tax of the proper type would
bo a desiral.l" feature of federal taxa
tion, and It ;s to be hoped that one
may be devlsi d which the supremo
court Will declare constitutional.
The Inheritance tax, however, Is
a far better method of taxation. Tho
government Iris tho absolute right to
decide as to the terms upon which a
man shall receive n bequest from an- 1
other, and this point In the devolution
of property is especially appropriate
for the Imposition of a tax. Laws Im
posing such tn-e have repeatedly been t
placed upon the national statute books 1
and as repeatedly declared eonstltu- '
tinnal by I he courts, and these laws 1
that Is. after a
rd the beipu si
rogt essivo principle
I'taln amount is reach
r gift in life or death '
urdened and the rate ,
of taxation is in reused in proportion
to the remote- 1 - of blood of (he man
receiving the I" ,nest. These principles '
are recognized . ready lu tho leading 1
civilized nations .,f the world.
Germany's Inheritance Tex.
The German .aw Is especially Inter- 1
est lug to us hi ausc it makes the In- '
heritance tax . a Imperial measure !
wlilie allotlrg to the Individual states !
of the em;Ni a portion of tlio pro- !
coeds and per' . "Ing them to impose j
taxes in addition to those Imposed by
tho Imperial go. rnment. Small inher-
Itances are oxen.pt, but tho tax Is so i
sharply progrcs-' .e that when the In
heritance Is sti'.i not very large, pro- j
vlded it Is not an agricultural or a for- -est
land, it Is l.red at the rate of '.'5 !
per cent If It poe- to distant relatives.
There Is no rc.-.s.ei why in tlio United j
States the nation i1 government should
not Impose inher mice taxes in addi- 1
tlon lo those In . sed by the states, 1
and when we las' imii an Inheritance 1
tax about ono-ha': of tho states levied
such taxes concuii 'ntly with tlio na
tional government, mr.king a combined
maximum rate In somo cases as high
as '-T) per cent.
To Tax Nonresidents Higher.
The tax should If possible be mado
(o bear more heavily nnon (hose resid
ing without the country than within It.
A heavy progressive t;' upon a very
large fortune Is in no v ay such a tax
upon thrift or Industiy ns a like tax
would be on a small tortune. No ad
vantage comes cither to the country
as a whole or lo tho Individuals Inher
iting the money by permitting tho
transmission In their mtirely of the
enormous fortunes win. h would be af
fected by such a tax, and as an Inci
dent to Its function of revenue raising
such a tax would he'p to preserve 11
measurable equality of opportunity for
the people of the gem-rut ions growing
Wo have not (ho slightest sympathy
with that socialistic idea which would
try to put laziness, thrlftlessness and
Inefficiency on a par with Industry.
thrift and efnoloney, which would
strive to break up not merely private
property, but, what Is far more Impor
tant, the home, the chief prop upon
whlcll our whole civilizntlon stands.
.Such 11 theory If evi r adopted would
menn the ruin of the entire country,
hut proposals for legislation such ns
(his herein advocated are directly op
posed to this class of socialistic the
ories. Enforcement of the Law.
A few years ago (hero was loud com
plaint that the law could not be in
voked against wealthy offenders. There
Is no such complaint nni. The courso
of the department of justice during tho
last few years has been such as to
make it evident that 110 man stands
nbovc tho law, that no corporation is
fo wealthy that It canimt je held to nc
count. Everything that can bo done
under the existing law and with tho
existing state of public opinion, which
so profoundly inlluences both the courts
nnd juries, has been done, but the laws
themselves need strengthening. They
should be made more deilnlto, so that
no honest man can bo led unwittingly
to break them nnd so t hat the real
wrongdoer can ho readily punished.
Moreover, tliere must bo tho public
opinion back of tho laws or tho laws
themselves will he of n-j avail. The
two great evils In tho execution of our
criminal laws today are seutlmcntnlity
and technicality. Kor the latter the
remedy must come from the hands of
the legislatures, the courts and tho law
yers. The other must depend for Its
cure upon tho gradual growth of 0
sound public opinion whl. h uluill Insist
that regard for the law and the de
mands of reason shall control all other
Influences and emotions in (ho Jury
box. Iloth of these evils must bo re
moved or public discontent with the
criminal law will continue.
Instances of abuse in the granting
of Injunctions In labor disputes con
tinue (o occur, nnd tlio resentment In
tho minds of those who feel (hat their
rights are being Invaded nnd their lib
erty of action ami of speech unwar
rantably restrained continues likewise
to grow. Much of the attack on tho
uso of the process of Injunction Is
wholly without warrant, but I am con
strained to express tho liollef that for
uome of it there is warrant. This ques
tion is becoming one of prlmo Impor
tance, and unless the courts will deal
with It In effective manner it ls cer
tain ultlmnlely lo demand some form
of legislative action. It would bo most
unfortunate for our social welfare If
wo should permit many honest nnd
law abiding citizens to feel that they
had Just cause for regarding our courts
with hostility. I earnestly commend
to tho attention of the congress tills
matter, so that somo way may bo de
vised which will limit the uhuso of In
junctions and protect thoio rights
whlcll from tlmo (0 time it unwarrant
ably Invades. Moreover, discontent Is
often expressed with (lie use of tho
process of Injunction by (he courts,
not only In labor disputes, but whole
state laws aro concerned. I refrain
from discussion of this question as I
am Informed that It will soon receive
the consideration of (he supremo court.
Tho process of Injunction Is an es
sential adjunct of the court's doing Its
work well, and as preventive measures
aro always belter than remedial thu
wise uso of thU process Is from every
standpoint commendable. I5ut where
it ls recklessly or unnecessarily used
tho abuse should be censured, ahoe
all by tho very men who m properly
anxious to prevent any ofMut to shear
tho courts of this necessary power
The court's decision miet b" Dual. Tli"
protest is only against the c induct 01
Individual judg-s in needles!) a'ltlci
patlng such llniil decision or in the
tyrannical uso of what Is nominally a
temporary injunction to accomplish
what Is In fact a permanent decision
The president urges tho passage of a
mold employers' llnbillty act for tie
District of ( 'olumbln and (lie territ"i i' -lo
encourage corporations to ti 'al In
jurod wagev. orUers better. He r:n
phaticaily Indorse.! the eight hour da.
The president urges the slates to
tight the child nnd woman labor 1
The national government ins as an
ultimate resort for control of ehil 1 l.i
bor tlio use of the Interstate cmimei.
clause to prexent the products of chl,
labor from entering Into Interstate imii
merco. ttut bet ore using this It out1
certainly to enact model laws un
subject for the territories under 1
own Immediate control.
Presidential Campaign Expense;.
Under our form of government
Ing ls not merely a rlglii, hut a dir.
und, moreover, a fundamental and 11.
essary duty If a man is to be a g'K ,
citizen. It is well to provide tii it cor
poratlons shall not contribute to presi
dential or national campaigns and, fur
thermore, to provide lor the publica
tion of both contributions and expendi
tures. There ls, lioweer, always dan
ger In laws of this kind, which from
their very nature are difficult of en
forcement, the danger being lest they
he obejed only by the hor.c-t and dis
obeyed by the unscrupulous, so as to
act only as a penally upon honest men.
Moreover, no such law would hamper
an unscrupulous man of unlimited
means from buying his own way into
ofllce. There is a very radical meas
ure which would. I believe, work a
substantial improvement lu our sys
tem of conducting a campaign, al
though I am well aware that It will
take some time for people so to famil
iarize themselves with surh a proposal
r.s to be willing to consider Its adop
tion. The need for collecting largo
campaign funds would vanish if con
gress provided an appropriation for tho
proper and legitimate expenses of each
of the great national parties, an appro
priation ample enough lo meet the ne
cessity for thorough organization and
machinery, which requires a large ex
pfiidlturo of money. Then the stipu
lation should be made that no party
receiving campaign funds from tho
treasury should accept more than a 1
fixed amount from any individual sub
scriber or donor, and the necessary
publicity for lecelpts and expenditures ,
could without dilllculty be provided. j
The Army. I
, The president recommends legisla
tion to Increase the number of otlicers
In the army, especially in the medical
corps. Tho rate of pay of otlicers
should lie greatly Increased, ho de
dares. There should be .1 iclatlvely
even greater Increase in (he rale of
pay of enlbied men If we are to keep
the army In shape lo be effective In
tln.d ot need. The president recom
mends severe examination of olilcrra
for promotion up to the rank of major.
Uroni that point promotion should bo
purely by selection. He speaks of the
recent physical test of army otlicers
with emphatic approbation nnd recom
j mends n bill equalizing tho pay of
I officers mid men of the army, navy,
marine corps and revenue cutter serv
I The Navy.
J Concerning the navy tho president
In my Judgment, we should this
year provide for four battleships. Ilut
It Is Idle to build battleships unless, in
addition to providing t lie men and tho
means for thorough training, we pro
vide the auxiliaries for them unless
we provide docks, the coaling stations,
tho colliers and supply ships that they
1 need. We are extremely deficient In
coaling stations and docks on Iho Pa-
1 tide, and this deficiency should not
; longer be permitted to exist. Plenty
of torpedo boats and destroyers should
bo built. Hoth on the Atlantic and Pa
cific coasts fortifications of tho best
I type should he provided for all our
! greatest harbors.
' Until our battle fleet Is much larger
I than at present It should never bo split
j into detachments so far apart that they
I could not In event of emergency ho
I speedily united. Our const line ls on
tho Patillc Just ns much as 011 the At
lantic. Tho battle fleet should now
nnd then be moved to tho Paclile, Just
as at other times It should be kept in
the Atlantic. When the Isthmian canal
ls built the transit of the battle fleet
from one ocean (o the other will bo
tompurutlvoly easy. Until It Is built
I earnestly hopo that the battlo fleet
will he thus shifted between tho two
oceans every year or two. The battle
fleet is about starting by the strait of
Magellan to visit the Pacific coast.
Sixteen battleships are golug under tho
command of Hear Admiral Evans, while
eight armored cruisers and two other
battleships will meet him In San Fran
cisco, whither certain toipcdo destroy
ers aro also going, No fleet of such
steo has ever mado such a voyage, nnd
it -will bo of very gieat educational uso
to all engaged in It. Tho only way by
iv-iu to teach otlicers nnd men how
Accompanied by Terrible Itching
A Complicated and Most Distress
ing Case Well-known Remedies
Failed to Cure Doctor Thought
an Operation Necessary Then
CUTICURA PROVED ITS
"I am now eighty years old nnd ono
morning, thrc? years oko, I was taken
-with a hard p.nn in my right sil". In
two days I had nn nttsck of piles
(hemorrhoid), bleeding and protruding.
Tho doctor gave mo somo madiHno nnd
nn ointment for them which helped mo
uomo but I bad to keep uslns them all
tho liino. Thn I changed to the V
remedy; but If I did not u?e it ovory
day, 1 would got worse. Tho doctor
said tho only help for mo was to go to
a hospital and bo operated on. At
this time, about n year ago, t vent to
using tb S remedies. I tried thera
for four or nvo mr.ntln but did not ntt,
much help for my piles. During thu
tlmo uores would romo on a fle.diy part
of my bodv. Tlwy bothered mo all
tho time. I would "p-t on- healed nnd
another would como. The fores
changed to ecema, accompanied by
a terriblo itching. It seemed rs If I
could not keep my hands from tenting
my flesh. This nnd tho pilo troublu
brought on sn inflamed condition.
Then I got tho Cuticuin Komediofl. I
wa-shed tho n fleeted parts with Cutlcura
Soap and warm water In tho morning,
nt noon, nnd nt night, then ued Cutl
cura Ointment, on tho irritated sur
faces and injected a quantity of Cutl
cura Ointment witli u Cutieurn Sup
pository Syringe, I also took Cutl
cura U'osolvont Pills thrco times a day.
It took a montli of this tieatment to
get mo in a fairly healthy ttnto and
then 1 treated myself once a day for tliroa
months and, after that, once or twico a
week. It is furtnnato that 1 ud Cn'i
cuin. Tho treatments I had tried took a
lot of money thtt I would have saved by
using Cutlcurs. ItcmedUs sooner, but.
I am v,is,er now. I am "uppliod with
fx full Fet of tlm Cuticurn Itomedioe and
would not feel tafo without them.
J. II. Henderson, llopkinton, St. Law
rence Co., N. V., Apr. 2(5, 1007.,'
CVsiEplf'e EitirnM r"l Inti'fnul Trpaur'nt ti
f!cry lluTiorot Infant. CUlltlrfn. and Adulwron
W ol CutlruM Sotn (2ic ) 10 rifan-o tU Skin,
C'uOriirt Ointment (V)c to HpI Ihf Skin, nnd
Cmlrd IMlls 2.V p.r rill of 60) lo 1'urlfr the Blood;
utifiirA iiMniventione ) forininprormorcnopoiRto
a o the CntlriirA P'lnnotory svrlnKB ( l.r,
throiKhnut tbf world Totter Jiruj? A Chra. forp..
Bolf l'rnns . Ilnston. Mim
as-MiiiM Free, Cutlcuii Boat on axui Dlscouv
lo handle the feet so as to meet every
possible strain nnd emergency in linn
of war is to hive them praclro under
-imilar conditions in time of peace.
The prcidont recommends the In
creased pay for both ofllccrs and enlist
ed men and advises promotion by se
lection above the grade of lieutenant
In foreijn affairs, the president snys,
this country's "toady policy Is to he
!mc toward other nations as a strong
and self respectins man should behave
toward the other men with whom he
i- brought Into contact. In other word",
our aim Is disinterestedly to help other
nation'. where fucli help can be widely
gltcn without the appearance of med
dling with what di.es not concern us,
to be careful to act nv a good ncishbor
u.id at the same time in good natured
fj.shion to make It evident that we do
not Intend to be Imposed upon.
The president refers at lentrth to The
Hague peace ''..inference. lie believes
it accompll-hed much good work.
Post-il Oavi-is Sinks.
The provide:.! ":i po--tal affairs:
ktM IK I
jhver get nunsrv lor a bows ol mm
I oid-iasliioi Crackers and Hk?
Nothing like it- ii there?
J list t he foo I (hat plea.si's.
U And if it's H-A-N-O-V-E-R Crackers
Howry ono you're doubly satisfied.
The Plow Woman
BY ELEANOR GATES
A talc of the dangers encountered and the hardships
endured by a little family in their efforts to hold a
valuable quarter-section in North Dakota, being
A Vivid Picture of Frontier Life
In her sacrifices lo enable her to care for her helpless
father and timid younger sister the Plow Woman re
veals a new type, of heroine, an American heroine, the
product of our country and our times.
The Plow Woman Illustrated by Parker
Will Be Printed in This Paper
I commend to the fnvornblo consid
eration of tho congress a postal sav
ings bank system as recommended bv
tho postmaster goncrnl. Timid deposl
tors have withdrawn their savings for
tho tlmo being from national banks,
trust companies and savings banks, In
dividuals havo hoarded their cash
and the worklngmen their earnings, all
of which money has been withheld
and kept in hiding or in tho sHfo de
posit box to tho detriment of prosper
Ity. Through tho agency of tho postal
savings banks such money would bo
restored to the channels of trade, to
tho mutual benefit of capital and Inbor
I further commend to tho congress
Iho consideration of tho postmaster
general's recommendation for an ex
tentdon of tho parcel post, cspeela'ly
on tho rural routes. It would he a
most desirable thing to put the fourth
class postmasters In the classlDed serv
bo. Other recommendations are:
Iiei'penlng of the Inland waterways,
especially of the Mississippi river sys
ttrn, to make them great national high
wayp. The repeal of tho taiifT on forest
products, especially tho duty on wood
Tho amendment of tho public laud
laws to make them more effective
against land grabbers and more favor
able to bona fldo settlers.
Helen! ion of the government's tdlo
to public coal nnd other mineral lands.
Intension of tin; national forest re-
I .'I Vi'V.
i'iu7en!h1p for tho people of Porto
1 local Felf government for Mas-
' ra rnment of the merchant r: n-
h oa.-'l'Ularly of an ocean mai. 1' io
:' 'V! Amo'ien.
Kc: i;-", mi of th" Horer h rlerr' '
'if u'ry for Chinese 1 r
' I tl A '1H'"'
v:i(Uo.vr tvo.Mi:.v K.wi-urnv.
"rcent Issue of the Amcrli t
r p.ivc a l?ood sketeli of ft j
hi fane r " Unrllneti.ti,
'i 1 Ht. : r
i.i quite :i - I ' '
. with ho ' -,.'-r i ' '
' ;i Calkins. Mi.ii.ii'ts ono of ". l.i
l.iry plants in tlio Stat". I 1 t
larir" r.trma rnnlntnlnir " '
', upon whleh are kept tv
. li cotvn, of which about t
. '.! in milk. They supply I v'.u -'.i-nlll-s
w'th ..no thousand q'i ' '.
inn hundred quarts ot wtileh ; " '
"ivrtUlcd" order, ami alt 1b of ir--. 1
pin Ity and sweetness.
The barne. stables and milk '.m ' '
furnished with the latest mor i-. I
atirei for health of nock, th u- i?
and hottllnR of the milk, etc. '' -abb-
cream Is uIbo furnished m:si.
The headquarters are at River -I .
of the Walker homestend l'.ui -where
nre five hundi'r 1 n. i " ' r 1
the larcer barns, nr.! t r'e In-- . ' '0
tons capeelty each.
At Shelurne, Vt . T HM M -s Tt i'.h A.
,T. Reed has for fif'-'-i ycus beet, k r -cessfully
maniLlnc her ;-.vr fa n
without a Fupeilnur.de'.t rth-r far. r -stlf.
Tho farm promt. 'cs r'wut si ven -live
tons of hav. tbr. e hundred bus ic-li
of oats. sevent-fl'. i 1 of narkj,
one hundred hush. Is f-rn. flf'eon c'
buckwheat, three lmml.- I ' JshrH . ' no-
tatoes. rlmvs from fifteen to tv. niv
acres ycarl. About twenty lia.l "
stork Is kept on the place w fi ' r
horses: swine, from six to twer,-"-ve,
prove a RWid side Issue. Uonr m- i'. ' r
tlbzers are used only on potato s A'
though twent.v-ftve tons of hav nr. 1
off ann'iillv. ,nd but very l.'i i
Ix-ictiht. ye' Mi's Rpr 1 man ices J,r p
the farm In as ?ond prn1i"t'e - 101
a In f nner p'-nr.'ii.i-s.
Shclburne, Vt. H. M. PortTKR.
whiui .'ill cl.vo f;iils.
- n tunc .vounped on
HANOVER CRACKERS are best tor
nil uses. Don't try to keep house with
!Vlade only by Smith &
Son, at White River
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