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THE BURLINGTON FttKK PRESS: THURSDAY, MAY 21, 1908.
14 CLOSE OF FIRST E Governors of All the 46 States Adopt a "Declaration of Co-operation." PERMANENT ORGANIZATION Kxecullrei Ileolilr lt I'orm One Time Is .Needed o lineal I'll II Import nnff of Hie Mretlnjc Set Pro gram Ijcnored during Hie hnni Dny'a Semlon Washington. May 15. The llrsl conter rnoe of the governors of tlio Slates of the American Union ended to-ilay Like many of the important events of history, time k neodeil to reveal the epoch which the President ami the gmornors believe has heen marie. Tile accomplishment of the conference, which has heen in pro gress at the White House for three days, cannot he set forth with mathematical precision That Its Immediate results lire more than simple Is the expression of President Hoosevelt, who brought It bout, and of the governors who partlcl- ated, The printed record of the conference, which will later he available to every American home, will he a compilation of farts, startling In their tnraiilng, convinc ing In their universal conclusion that the States must net, and thai the States and the nation must co-operate to the end that to the whole people nf the nation maj uccrue the lasl.ng hcncllt of Its natural resource-. Besides the compilation of facts by the jvperts and the frccly-e.xpres.sed opinion if the governors, the conference leaves 1 its permanent record a thousand word? of "declaration" not a "doclara tion of independence" but a "declaration of co-operation." GARDEN 1'ATITY INSIDE. T ie desire of Mrs. Roosevelt to enter tain tin1 gn ernois was not thwarted even by the tain which fell drearily ti roughout the day. A garden party had been planned by her to be held in the south grounds of the White Mouse dur Inp tlie late afternoon. The parden party was brought inside the White House and lost none of its '.est hy the trans formation. More than fifteen hundred Sliests were present. Afternoon and evening (rains from Washington took many of the distln pulshed puests from the city, and the Hrst conference of the nation on the conservation of its natural resources passed Into history. Perhaps prcator In Importance than all else wa.s the determination of the pov ernors of the States to perfect a permanent organization, whereby a here tofore unknown Intimacy may he de veloped among the executives of the 40 soverelpn State-, made strong by a com mon purpose, and made potent hy pro nouncements which may not lishlly be disregarded. DAY OF MANY FF.ATURFS. Of the last day the story is one of many features. The set propram was swept aside The President presided throughout. He Interjected remarks and speeches, He brought to the platform rw n who made plain the prevailing feeling that thought and car must be c.NcreiW for the future. The prepared jcipers were not presented, tut they will be printer! in the permanent records. Their plate was taken by the "declaration" whle 1 was adopted after discussion which brought to light no serious ob jection to Its affirmations Then William J Bryan was presented hy the President. He touched the same chords which hail produced the vibration of harmony and -o-operation. A governor?-' discussion brought many State executives to the platform but the product was altogether thai of harmony, and the sentiments ex pressed were applaiirbd alike by all. President Hoosevelt himself answering the one criticism that of fiovernor folk of Missouri to the declaration, aroused the conference to Its warmest demonstra tion of approval. He swept aside the "academic" question of where the line of authority should he drawn between the States and the nation, He wanted action, and what he said received ndorsrtnent at each period. It was this: THi: PRESIDENT'S REMARKS. "Just a word of what has been called the 'twlllpht land' between the powers of the federal and State povernments. Mv primary aim In the legislation that I had advocated for the regulation of the great corporations ha been to provide some effective popular sovereign for each corporation. I do not wish to keep this twlllglu land one of large and vague boundaries by judicial decision, that In h given case the State cannot act. nnd then a few years later by other decisions that In practically similar cases the na tion cannot act either. 1 am trying to find out where one or the other can act w there shall always be some sovereign power that on behalf of the people can hold every big corporation, every big In dividual, to an accountability so that Its or his acts shall be beneficial to the people as a whole. In matters that re late only to the people within the State nf coin se the State Is to he sovereign and It should have the power to act. If the mntter Is such that the State Itself cannot net, then I wish on behalf nf nil the States that the national gov ernment should act, RENT FOR WATER POWER. "Take such n matter aa charging a rent for water power. My position Is simply that where n prlvllei which SICK HEADACH PositiTelr currd ? thene Little Pills Thejr also relievo 1)1 tress from Dyspepsia, 1 digestion and Too Hew' Xatlag. A perfect ren edy for Usrtoes. Natrcr . DrcwitaeiB. Bad Tost In the Month, Ooitt Tacgue, Pain in tits 8id TORPID IJVHR. Tbfc. CARTERS llTTLC IVER PILLS. rtfulate tbn Bcwtls. Purely Vegetable. SMALL PILL SHALL DOSE. SMALL rW. Genuine Must Bear Fac-Similo Signature conic m I CARTERS m IEFDSE SUISTITUTES. CHRONIC 8 TROUBLE Another Case in Which the Tonic Treatment Was Successful After Other. Mcthodn Had Failed. A very tlclicult' stoincoli roqr.irrn ensily dipcstnl fonil Inn nature never iutonded tint! tin' '1 slintilil iKMlifrctPcl before il. is ratmi, Tlin MomaHi nirist lio stronRtlicut'il to Miffonn its own work and wluit it iipinN is not food nlftidy difrcslcd liuf ti tonic The processes of digestion are controlled by the lilood nnd nerves, mid medical hc.ieneo lias produced no better d'Restivo tonic than Dr. "Wil liams' Pink Pills. Tli's is shown by tlio statement of Mrs. Amos Holers, tho wife of h prosperous I'nnner, of Syca more, Dr-Knlb comity, 111. She sny: "I w n sufferer with stomach trouble for many eiirs and was only able, to cat liquid foo.'l. I tried all kinds of medi cines and ! lie nirwt nkillful doctors but they did nut help ni". One doctor said I hrtd rancr of the stomach; another ulcers, and others sail it was my heart. "Dtirinp a visit, to relatives nt Oxford, N. Y., I wit surprise 1 to find tilts great benefit they had leco ved from t ho usoof Dr. Williams' Pink Pills and began to tako them myself. At the end of a feW vookn I wm eating solid fond and con tinued to improve until cured. Iliad forgotten what refreshing sleep -was until after using the pills, bnt. now I sleep well every night. My general health has been good nnd I alwavs keep Dr. Williams Pink Pills in the house." The pills am guaranteed to be safe and harmlos--, to the most delicate consti tution. They contain no morphine, opiate, narcotic nor anything to rntise a drng hahit. They do not act on the bowels bnt theyaetnally make new blood and strengthen the nerves. If you want good health yon must have good blood Every dyspeptic should have a copy of our free diet book, "What to Kat and How to Kat.' It contains mnch useful information. pclrl todav for a copv. Dr. Williams' Pink Pills are sold by all druggists. orsent, postpaid, on receipt of price, fiOo. jier box six boxes for $2.50, by the Dr William? Medicine Co., Schenectady, K Y. may be of untold value in (he future to the Individual grantee, Is itsked from the federal government, then the federal government should put Into the grant a condition that It shall not he a grant In perpetuity If there is necessity for the grant then there must be power to attach conditions to the grant. Make It long enough so that the corporation shnll have an am ple matorfal reward. The corporation deserves it. Glvr an ample reward to (he captain of industry; but not 'in ndetermlnate nnd Indefinite reward. Put In a provision that will enable, the nest generation, that will enable our children at the end of a certain speci fied period to sav what, In their judg ment, should then be done with that great natural power which Is of use to tho grantee only because the peo ple as a whole allow him to use It. It Is eminently right that he should he allowed to make ample profit from his development of It; but make him pay something for the privilege, and make the grant for a fixed period, so that when the conditions change as In all probability they will change, our chil dren, the nation of the future, shall have the right to determln- the condi tion upon which that privilege shall be enjoyed In these cases the State has not acted or cannot act, therefore, I hold the nation should act. Where tho policy of advocate can be cnrrled out best by the State let It be carried out by the S'ate; where It can be car ried out best by the nation, let It bo carried out by the nation. My concern Is not with the academic side nf the question. 1 deal wilh the matter prac tically from the standpoint nf tnio popular Interest; and therefore, mv desire Is to employ indifferently e.ither the principle of States rights, or the principle of national sovereignty. whichever In a driven case will best conserve the needs of the people" Th declaration, upon which the Presi dent's remarks were predicated, worn presented to the conference hy Governor Hlanehard of Louisiana, at the opening of the session. After readlpp It Mr, Rlnnehard stated that It proceeded upon broad lines, and purposely avoided mak ing specific endorsments of desired pro jects or legislation. it was upon the suggestion nf fiovernor filenn of North Carolina that future con ferences should depend upon the ex pressed desire of two-thirds of the gov ernors, that fiovernor Folk m ide the criticism which called forth the Piesl drnt's remarks above quoted The declaration was adop.ed without dissen', after which the President Intro duced William J, Hryan, who received a mot enthusiastic reception. There are two old adges, "Haste makes waste" and ".Make haste slowly," that every one should employ when they un dertake to cure a cough In a few minutes with preparations containing Morphine, Opium, Chloroform or other opiates. They may stop the cough and cause sleep quickly, hut they also dry up the secere- tlons ami constipate leaving oft-times far worse trouble, Ilydale's Cough Kllxlr Is Guaranteed under the Pure Food anil Drug I.aw to control no opiates or harm f n 1 drugs of any kind or character. Think about It when you or one nf the children have a cxmgti. J. W, O'Sulllvan, Shanley & lfetry of Wlnooskl. (illtt Actiiii thn ti . govern n ployrni'i The c i.UUIIAI'lir.HS IN INIMA. , in the recommendation of apli committee, tho Indian at has Just authorized tho em- of women operators, mdldates must he between IS and 30 years of age, and they must bo unmarried or widows. They must tin dergo a training nf twelve months In tho telegraph training clauses, during which time they will receive $4.ffi a month, tin same allowance that Is drawn by male learners. Selected candidates on leavinn the training clasies will be an probation for one year. Upon appointment they will reeelva salaries varyinr from 111 to $S.. -which are very large upon the scale of living expenses In India, There will be pensions, with no ll.hlllty to transfer; but resignation will be oompul iiory In the event of marriage, Harper's Weekly CON8IDBRATR CENSORSHIP. "Des your father know I love you "No. Papa Isn't very well, and we've, kept It trora him." Harper' Weekly L WASTE A D FORES! DEPLETION Startling; Warnings Given Con ference of Governors at Washington. ' SOIL IS BEING ROBBED. leld Is llecomlna Less Ilrcnilxc of Improper Culllt allnn. I. ,1. mil Trlls of Disappearing Itesoiirrrs .Nrvt York Will lime So Timber l,cf( In 22 Years. Washington, .May 1-1. Startling was the warning sounded to-day nl the conference of the governors at the White House, of the danger the nation confronts In soil wasle and forest depletion. The governors listi'iu d and talked and applauded hut look no action. This Is left for to-ninrnnv, the last day of the conference. The resolutions committee was in session all da nnd will retort to-morrow. President lioosevelt opened the morn ing and afternoon sessions, which were thereafter presided river by Gov. Johnson of Mlnnc-ola, and Gov, Pcncon of Illinois, respectively. James J. Hill of the Great Northern, who led a long list of speakers, dealt with the depletion of the nation's re sources. He presented conditions respect ing mineral, mil and forest, showing wanton waste in each instance, and urged prompt remedial action. Soil waste anil forest conservation re ceived expert treatment by Prof. T. C. t'hamherlaln of Chicago and R. A. 1ing of Kansas (tty. Former Governor Pardee, of California, read a paper on graxInR and stock raising and a paper was rearl for H. A. Jastro of California, who was taken 111 during the day. Secretary Wilson met a hearty res ponse to a talk on the mistakes In fanning, and the. remedies. The same crop each year In the land, he declared was ruinous. "What New York State has and Is doing for her forests," was set forth hy J. S. Whipple forest, fish and game com missioner of that State, In twenty two years, he predictid not a singlo sawing stick of timber would be standing In that State, unless a halt was callerl on cutting. This notwithstanding that the State was planting more trees than all other States and the nation combiner!. Several more addresses were made dur ing III' day. Gov, filenn of North Caro lina elicited considerable enthusiasm In his advocacy of cooperation between tha States and the nation in the matter of forest protection. Gov. Glenn demanded that the conference leave no doubt on the mind of Congress of what was want ed, and as an entering wedge he wanted resolutions Indorsing the pending bill creating the White Mountain and Ap palachian forest reserves. Issue was squarely joined as to some of the methods pursued hy the govern ment in Uie Improvements of waterways and the regulation of forest reserves, by several governors fiom thn Northwest, Gov. Hrooks of Wyoming said It was not just to Wyoming, with one sixth of her area in forest reserves to be taxed to support the national forestry organization which did work in all other btntos, many of which made no revenue return to the organization. A general icply to these criticisms was made by Secretary Garfield. State lines mean much, he ;ulmlttcJ, but State lines had been overpassed by the men and women of the country. Hy the same process trade and commerce had wiped out State lines, "but" he added, "that does not for one moment mean that thnse great political sovereigns are losing any of their rights or that the powera of the federal government shall Infringe upon political Industrial or personal rights, hut It docs mean that in the pro gress of onr country those powers which are latent must lc developed." At a meeting of governors called immedi ately after the end of the session Gover nor Folk outlined the advantage which would result from an organization of governors independently of the present conference. As but 12 or 15 of the gov ernors were present, Governor Johnson suggested that the matter be taken up nt another meeting to be rajled nt the close of the session to-morrow which was concurred In. ' EXHAUSTION OF SOIL. .1. J. Hill Miottm an .Approaching Short age of Tillable Laad. In his address James J. Hill spokr of the rapid exhaustion of our mineral ro- sources and then turned to the only re maining resource of man upon this earth, which is the soil itself. He said In part; How are we caring for tliat, ami what possibilities does It hold out to the peo ple of future support? We are only be ginning to feel the pressure upon tlio land. The whole Interior of this contl nent, aggregating more than fXO.OOO.OOO acre, has been occupied by settlers with in the last Ml years. What is there left for the next M years? lOxcludlng arid and Irrigable area.s, the latter limited by nature, nnd barely enough of which could be made habitable In each year to furnish a farm for each Immigrant fam ily, the case stands as follows; In 190G the total unappropriated public lands In tho t'nlted States consisted of "(C.OUO.OO) acres. Of this area the divisions of Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico and Wyoming contained i;tr.,ilO,CH) acres of surveyed and aOO.umyiW acres of unsur veyed hind. Utile of Alnskn Is lilted for general agriculture, whlln practically all of the rest Is semi-arid land, available only for grazing or Irrigation, We have, subtracting these totals, 5n,flHO,000 acres of surveyed and M,ri0,000 acres of unrur veyed land as our actual remaining stock. And 21,flfl0,orto acres were disposed of In 1W7 How long will the remainder last? No longer can we say that' "Uncle Sam has land enough to give ua all a farm," QUAMTY IS FAILING, ICrjually thteatenlng Is the changro In quality. There are two ways In which the productive power of the earth is lessened; first by erolon and the sweep ing away of the fertile) surface into streams nnd thence, to the sea, and sec ond by exhaustion through wrong methods of cultivation. The former process has gone far. Thousand of acres In the Hast and South have iwen made unfit for tillage. North Carolina wxm, a century aso, onn of the grout agricultural States of the country and nno of the wealthiest. To-dav as vnll ride theanrll j tho South you kcu cvury where land gulHod by torrential rains, red nnd yel low clay banks exjKised whore once were fertile fields, and agriculture re duced because Its main support has been washed away, .Millions of acres, In placea to the extent of one-tenth of the entire nrable area, have hern so Injured that no Industry nnd no carp can restore them. Far more ruinous, hrcausc universal and continuing In Its effects, Is tho process of soil exhaustion. It Is creeping over the land from liist to Went. The abandoned farms that are now the play thltiRs of the city's rich or the game preserves of patrons of sport, bear wit ness to the melancholy change. New Hampshire, Vermont. northern New York, shrnv long lists of them. In western Massachusetts, which once supported a fiourl.fhlng agriculture, farm properties are now for sale for half the cost of Im provements, Professor Carver of Har vard, has dcclari-d after a personal examination of the country that "agri culture as an Independent Industry, able In itself to Hiipport a community, does not exist In the hilly parts of New llng- latid." AGltlCUI.TirilAI, DF.CAT. The same process of deterioration Is affecting the farm land- uf western New York, Ohio and Indiana. Where prices of farm.q should rise by Increase of population, In many place they are fall ing. Iietween IfcfO and 1fi"0 the land values of Ohio shrank JCfl.nnn ikm. Official in vestigation of two co'iiities in central New York disclosed a rendition nf agri cultural decay. In one laud was for sale for about the cost of Improvements and I.V) vacant houses wen counted in a limited area. In the othn tho population In i:ij was nearly 4,0" less than In Practically Identical soil conditions exist In Maryland and Virginia, where lands i.t.11 at from $11 to 30 an acre. In hearing liefore an Industrial commis sion, tho chief of the b', re.au of soils of the department of agrk-.lture s.ild: "One of the most Impon.int cauf.es of deterioration, and I thnk I should put this firt of all. Is the method and sys tem of agriculture that prevails through out these Slat s. I'n.iur tionably the soil hn.s V'oii ,'itmsod." The ricltest region of the West Is no more exempt than New lOngland or the South. Tho soil of the West is being reduced In agricultural potency by exactly the same processes which have driven th. f armor of tho Mast, with all his advar'agc of ncarnes.s to markets, from the field. DKCTRBASTNG VIKT.DS. Within the last 40 yr irs a great part of the richest land In the country has been brought under cultivation. Wo should, therefore. In ihe same time. have raised proportion itely the yield of our principal cro-s per acre; be- i-atrse tho yield of old lands, if proper ly treated, tends to increase, rather than diminish. The year 1S0fi was nno if large crops and can scarcely bo taken as a standard. We produced, for example, more corn that year than had ever heen grown In tho United States In a single yar before. Hut the average yield pe' acre was less than It was In 1R72 We. are barely keeping the acre product stationary. The averajre wheit crop of the country now ranges from 12'4, In ordinary years, to in bushels per acre in tho best seasons. And so It is on down the line. nut tho fact of sni' waste hecomes tartllngly evident when wo examine the record of some States where single cropping and other agricultural abuses have been prevalent Take the case of whvat, tho malnst-iv of single-crop abuse. Many of us can remember when New York was he great wheat producing State of the Union. The average yield of wheat per acre In Now York for the la.st 10 years wa-s about IS bushel?. For the first five vears of that 1"-year period it was IS. 4 bushels, nnd for the last five 17.4 bushels. In the farther West, Kansas takes high rank as a wheat producer. Its average yiel 1 per acre for the last 10 years was 14 If! bushels. For the first five of thoso yoars It was in 14 and for the last fivo IS. IS. Up in the Northwest, Minnesota wheat has marlo a name all over the world. Her aver age yield per aero for the same 10 years wns 12.DG bushels. For the first five years It was 13.12 and for the last five 12.S. We p-rcelve hern the work ing of a uniform law, independent nf location, soil or climate. It la the law of a diminishing return duo to soil de struction. Applv thlr to the country at large, and It reduces agriculture to the condition of a bank whose deposi tors are steadilv drawing out more money than the put In. U NF AV On A 1 ! I , K COM PA U I SON. What Is true n this Instance is true of our agriculture as a whole. In no other important country in the world, with the exception of Russia, Is the in dustry that mum be the foundation of every State, at so low an ebb a.s in our own, According to the last census the average annual product per acre of tho farms of tho w.iole United Stales was wortli fll.SS. It 1- little moie than a re spectable renUU in communities where the soil Is properly cured for and m.ido to give a rcaaoiuble return for cultiva tion. There were but two States In the Union whose total value of farm products was over $.10 jr aero of Improved land, Thn great State of Illinois gave but J12.4S, and Minnr.soLa showed only $."4. No discrimination attaches to thee figures, where all are so much at fault. Nature has given to us the most valuable possesion over committml to man. It can never he duplicated, because there is none like it upon the face of the earth. And wo aro racking and linproverislnng it exactly as wi are felling the forests and rifling the mines, Our soil, once the envy of every' other country, the attrac tion which draws millions of immigrants across the fcea, gae an average )cld for the whole United States during tho 10 years beginning with JSiiti of n.r, bu-shels nf wlieut per acre. Austr'a and Hungary each produced over 17 bushels per acte, France l'.i.S, Germany 27.11 and the United Kingdom hushtd.s per acre. For tho same decade our average yield of o.ils iva-s less than ." bushel, while Germany produced 4i! and Great Hrltain 42, For barley the figures are against XI and 34.6; for rye 15.4 against 24 for Germany and for lieland. In the United Kingdom, lielglum, tho Nether lands ami Denmark a yield of more than 30 bushels of wheat per aero has been the average for the past live yearH. noinuNo T1IK SOIh. When the most fertile land in the world produces so much leas thun that of (Wiorer quality elewhete, and this low yield shows a tendency to steady decline, the situation becomes clear. We are robbing the soil, In an effort to get tho largest cash returns from each acre of eround In the shortest possible time and with thn least possible labor. This boll is not mere dead matter, subject to any sort of treatment with Impunity Chemically, It contains elements which must be present In certain proportions for the sup port vegetation, Physically, it Is made up of matter which supplies tho prln clpal plant food. Tills food, with its chemical constituents In proper ad mixture, is tumlslinl by the docompnsi Hon of organic matter ami tho dis integration of mineral matter that pro m Soda Crackers that crackle as good Sod W m Crackers should m I Une?da Biscuit I m With meals for meals between meate W I Svitft Jn du$t tlgfit' I I moisture proof packages. I H Neper sold in bulk. I H NATIONAL BISCUIT COMPANY M eeerl together. Whatever disturb either factor of the process, whatever takea out of the soil an excessive amount of one or moro of the chemical elements upon which plant growth depends, ends in sterility. Any agricultural methods that move In this direction moan soli Im poverishment; present returns at the cost of future loss; the exhaustion nf the land exactly as the animal system Is en feebled by lack of proper nourishment. TWO CIItBF AlHJSKS. Our agricultural lands have been abused In two principal ways; first by single cropping, and i-econd by neglecting fertlltzal inn. It is fortunate for us tliat nature is slow to anger, nnd that we may arrest the consequence of this ruinous policy before it Is too late. In all parts of the United States, witli only Isolated exceptions, the system of tillage haft bee.n to select the crop which would bring in irwst money at the current market rate, to plant that year after year, and to move on to virgin fields a.s soon as the old farm rebelled by lowering the quality and quantity of its return. It Is still the practice; although diversification of industry and the rotation of crops have been urged for nnarly a century anil are to-day taught In every agricultural col lege in this country. The demonstration of the evils of single cropping Is mathe matical in Its completeness. At the experiment station of the agricultural collego of the University of Minnesota they have maintained 41 cxperimentaj plots of ground, adjoining one another, and a.s nearly Identical In soil, cultivation and care as scientific handling can make them. On these have been tried and compared different methods of crop rota tion and fertilization, together with sys tems of single cropping. The nwults of ten years' experiment are now available. On a tract of good ground sown con tinuously for 10 years to wheat, the aver age yield por acre for Ihe first five years was 20.22 bushels and for the next five jfi.HJ bushels. Where corn was grown continuously on one plot while on the plot beside it corn was planted but once in live years in a system of rotation, the average yield of the latter for tho two years It was under corn wa.s 1S.2 bushel per acre. The plot where corn only was grown gave 20.fi bushels per acre for the first five and 11.1 bushels for the second of these years, an average of 1C bushels. rho difference in average of thoso two plots was 32.2 bushels, or twice the total yield of the ground exhausted by the ingle crop system. Tho corn grown nl the end of the 10 years was hardly hip high, the ears small and the grains light. Hut the cost of cultivation remained the y.uno. And the same Is true of every' other grain or growth when raised continuously on land unfertilized. We frequently hear It said that the reduction in yield Is due to the wearing out of the soil as if It was a garment to be destroyed by the wearing. The fact is that soils either increase or maintain their productivity Inileflnltclv under proper cultivation. If the earth, the great mother nt human mil animal life, is to "wear out," wnat is to become of tho race? TI I K TWO RUMF-niFS. The two remedies are as well ascer talned as is the evil, notation of crops and the use of leitilUci's ait as tonics upon the soil. We might expand our re-sources and add billions of dnllarw to our national weaitn ny conserving sou re-.source.s, inste-ad of exhausting hem as we have the forests ami the contents of tlio mines. For there Is good authority for the assertion that the farmer could take from tho same area of ground In four years' grain crops out of a total of seven years as much in the while seven now gle him; leaving the pro ducts of the other three yetirs when the land rested from grain as a clear profit due to better methods, lie can do far more than that by Join ing stock raising with grain raising. Na ture has provided the cattle to go with the land. There Is ,IS much money In live stock as then' Is In grain. Ixiokerl at in any way there Is money In li s-tock; money for dairy products, money for beef, money for the annual increase, and most money of all for the not year's crop when every particle of manure is saved and applied to the land. We need iol consider at present really Intensive farming, such as Is done by market gardeners with high profit, or such culture as' In France, In Holland, In llclgium and In the M.md of Jersey produces financial returns iwr acre that Mem almost beond belief. What our people have to do Is to cover less ground, cultivate smaller farms so as to make the most of them, Instead of getting a scant and uncertain yield from several hundred acres, and raise productively by Intelligent treatment to twice or three times its present level. GREAT OPPORTUNITY. I havo dwelt upon the conservation of farm resources because of the com manding Importance of this Industry and because of Its relation to our fu ture. Nearly 30 por cent of our people aro engaged directly In agriculture. Hut all tho rest depend upon It. In tho lust analysis, commerce, manufactures, our home market, every form' of ac tivity runs back to tho bounty of thn earth by which every worker, skilled and unskilled, must ho fed and by which his wages arc ultimately pnld. The farm products of tho United States in liior, were valued at $6,794,000,000 and in 1!07 at $7,412,000,000. All of our vast domestic commerce, equal In value to the foreign trade of all the nations combined, Is supported and paid for by the land, fit our farm areas only one-halt is Improved. It does not produce one-half of what It could be made to yield; not by some complex system of Intensive euturo, but merely hy ordinary care anrl In dustry Intelligently applied. It is tho capital upon which alone we can draw through aJl the future, but the amount of the draft that will be honored de pends upon the care and intelligence given through all the future, but given to Its cultivation. Were any statesman to show us how to add $7,- 000.000.000 annually to our foreign trade, It would he the sensation of the hour. The way to do this In agricul ture is open. Our share in the in crease would not be the percentage of profit allowed by successful trading, hut the entire capital num. On tho other side stands the fact that th. un appropriated area suited to farm pur poses Is almost gone, and that we have been for the last century reducing the producing power of the country. No where in the range of national pur poses Is the reward for conservation of a national resource so ample. No where. Is the penalty of neglect so threatening. WII-I. NOT I3U SRI-F-SUPPORTING. Hy tho fixed rate of Increase In the past, wo must count upon a population of over 2nn.Oi0.0O0 in the United States in tho vear The annual Increase from natural growth Is about one and one-half tier cut. each year. Adding for inimi- gratlon 73O,0iX) a year, which Is less than f hrr....nti.-irters of the figures rrnched in recent years, we shall have about 1"0,ron, C00 people in IIM". and nt least 2Oj,0m,oi,) hy the middle of the century. Whore are they to go, how are thev to be employed, how fed, how enabled to earn a living? The pressure of all nations upon the waste places of the earth grows more In tense as the last of them arc occupied. Wo are approaching the point where all our wheat product will be needed for our own issue, and we shnll cease to be in exporter of grain. There Is still nino room In Canada, but it will soon be filled. Tho relief will bo but temporary. Our own people, whose mineral resources w II by that time have greatly diminished, must find themselves thrown back upon the soil for a living. If continued abue of the land should make the next ,V1 years as It has the last, what must be our out look? Kven the unintelligent are now coming to understand that we cannot look to our foreign trade for relief from future em lurrassmcnt. Our total exports, about one-fourth in value of the products of our farms, consist to tlio extent of more than 70 per fcnt. of articles grown on the soil or directly sustained hy It. such a? 11 v i-tock. or made from soil products, such as flour. Of all the materials used In manufacture in this country, 42 per cent, are furnished hy the so 1 We hnil have less and less of this agricultural Buy Your Stationery At the Free Press Store. Here are a few of the many things we carry in stock: Paper, Envelopes, Box Paper, Lead Pencils, Penholders, Compass and Dividers, Pencil Pockets, Ink, Mucilage, Paste, Glue, Blank Books, Menu Books, Letter Books, Note Rocks, Composition Sooks, Receipt Books, Pads, The School Supplying luslntss Housas With Thalr Most Compatant Help 1 10 Church St., Burllnaton, Vt, V. D. Blake, Prn. wealth to part with as population Ir ci eases And as to enlarging greatly oir wile of manufactured products In th world's markets, It Is mostly a dream We cannot finally compete there, except In a few selected lines, without a mate, rial lowering of the wace scale at homo and a change in the national standard of living which our people are not ready to accept without a struggle. When enpltai cannot find a profit there will be n money for the payrolls of an unprofitable business. Doubtless as we grow we shall buy more and sell more; but our main dependence half a century aheal must b" upon ourselves. The nation can no more escape the operation nf that law than can the man. It Is time to set our house in order KILLED COW AND SELF. Peculiar I'entore to Suicide of lmy llnr,?n of SiTfinton. Swanton. Mav 14. Ixrov Hazer of Swan-tnn Center committed sutc.ldc by hanging earlv this morning-. lie had been acting somiwhat strangely all winter and his mental trouble of late had be come moro marked. Certain business mat ters had weighed upon h'.m and his wtfi had watched him closely for several months. This morning he went to ht.t work, as usual, and not returning at 'ho accustomed time, Mrs. Hazen went to look for him. She found tliat ho had hanged himsrlf with a rope in the barn. A peculiar circumstance, showing the condition of Mr. H.izen's mind, was thn fiwt tliat he killed his cow, nnd the body nf the animal was found dead in 'h barn with him. Mr Hazen was 35 years old anrl i survived by a wife and , four small children. The family came from North H-ro on what Is Mast fall anrl were llvin known as the old Uurnell farm. PREACH UKS' MUUTINO IN JUNK. St. Albans, May II. The annual St. Albans pnachers' district meeting will tie held t!i!s year in Johnson, Juno 2'J and 30. The Rev. II. F. Lwo of this city, the Rev. "William Shaw of Knosburgh Falls, the Rev. W U. Douglas of Rlchford and the Rev fl. AV. Hurke of Fairfax are the com mittee in charge and are arranging a program which wi'l include addresses by the Rev. Dr. J. P. Bru.hingham and Prof. II. W. Hill of Chicago. Special evangelistic services will be held In this district from July 13 U ID, Inclusive. Not lion- Cheap Ilut How- Good. A brick front painted with U A M. Paint 21 years ago anrl not painted slnco may be seen at 472 Hergen St.. Brooklyn, New York. Paint with I.. & -M. Bril liant Red and trim with Shaker Green o:- White. Tho body won't need paint ing in 2J years. R. U. Brown. No-th Williston, S. K. Wilson, Fairfax; II M. Hull, Hincsburg; F. K. Bigwood, Winooski, F II. Flage & Son, Richmond. W. S. Nay &. Co. Underhill, C. 1. Hatch & Co., Water bury . Tablets, Postal Card Albums, Wedding Cake Boxes, Letter Files, Fountain Pens, Paper Clips, Rulera, Scrap Books, Ink Stands, Microscopes, Pencil Sharpeners, Ey9 Shades, Letter Scales, Toilet Paper, Paper NapKins, Playing Cards, Ink Eraser, Pencil Erasers. i