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THE BURLINGTON FREE PRESS AND TIMES: THURSDAY, MAY 22, 1919.
BAN ON BEER AND LIGHT WINES IS LIKELY TO REMAIN President Wilson's Suggestions in Message that War Time Prohibition Be Repealed Does Not Seem to Meet with General Favor in Con gress Other Recommendations in Message, First Ever Sent by Cable, Are for Early Re turn to Private Ownership of Railroads, Telegraphs and Telephones, for Woman Suffrage, Retaliatory Tariffs, Protection of ' Dyestuff Industry and Labor and Employ j ment Measures. Washington, May 20. President Wil son's cabled message outlining legislation tor the extra session of tho now Con gress was read separately In tho Senate and Houso to-day by clerks and arrange ments were mado by congressional lead ers for Immediate consideration of the vast legislative program with the equal BUffrago resolution to como up to-morrow In the House. Mnjor recommendations of the Presi dent were for early return to private ownership of railroads, telegraphs and telephones, for repeal of wartlmo pro hibition Insofar as applying to beer and wines, for woman suffrage, retaliatory tariffs, protection of the. dyestuffs In dustry and labor and employment meas ures. Tho President announced his Inten tion to turn hack tho railroads at tho end of tho calendar year. Republican leaders met tho President's proposals for early return of public utilities by statements that such legisla tion already was planned. As to tho pro hibition recommendation both republican and democratic "dry" leaders Joined In vigorous statements dissenting from tho President's suggestions and predicting that no beer and wine repeal would be passed. Opinion in both Senate nnd House 'as ascertained by leaders was general that the ban on beer and wlno would not be lifted. Presentation of the President's mes sage tho first ever transmitted to this country by cable was the principal busi ness of to-day's session. Neither the Senate nor Houso wero in session much more than an hour, tho former adjourn ing until next Friday and tho Houso until to-morrow. Before tho President's message was read, the Houso arranged to take up to-morrow tho woman suf frage resolution. Its adoption beforo adjournment is planned. Senate leaders have promised prompt action in the upper body, probably early next month. The flood of bills and resolutions opened In the Senate to-day whllo scores more' were thrown Into tho Houso hopper which yesterday received about 1,200, Tho principal measures In the Senate asked for copies of tho peace treaty, for definition of tho American policy in Russia, adoption of woman suffrage, establishment of a federal budget sys tem and repeal of tho luxury taxes and fho daylight saving law. All wero re ferred to committees, democratic sena tors objecting to all requests for Im mediate consideration. Republican plans for many Investiga tions wero launched In a resolution by Chairman Greene of tho House merchant marine committee proposing Inquiry Into operations of the Shipping Board and Emergcnc Fleet Corporation. Repre sentative Welty of Ohio asked for an Investigation by a non-partisan commit tee on "Irregular and unlawful expendi tures." Organization of Senate and Houso was pushed forward to-day at a committee conference of House republicans, a meet ing of the republican steering committee with Speaker Olllett and an Initial meet ing of the republican senators' committee on committees. The democratic senators' steering committee will meet to-morrow to consider minority changes. On tho recommendations In tho Presi dent's message, those for return to pri vate ownership of railroads and wires and repeal of war-time prohibition against beer and wines drew most comment from congressional leaders. It was agreed,' that legislation dealing with the public utilities virtually Is assured at tho present session. Leaders also were Interested In th President's statement that If ho was familiar with administrative questions affecting telegraph and telephone systems lie could "namo the exact dato for their ' return also." In, proposing tho beer and wine repeal measure, the' President said that "demo bilization of the military forces. has proceeded to such a point that it Beems to me entirely safo now to remove the ban upon manufacture and srlo of wines and beers." Legislation Is neces sary to reinovo tho prohibition provisions, the President said ho had been Informed by his legal advisers. Senators Sheppurd of Texas, democrat, and Representative Randall of Califor nia, prohibitionist, champions of the war time "dry" law, and other prohibition advocates, issued statements announcing determined opposition to repeal legisla tion. They declared a largo majority of CongrcES favors prohibition and pre dicted tho repeal measure would not bo enacted. Some republican leaders charged the President with shifting re sponsibility to the republican Congress and said that all he would gain would be criticism of prohibitionists. Washington, May 20. President Wilson, in his meseago to Congress to-day, recom mended repeal of the wartime prohibition law so far as It applies to wine and beer only; announced definitely that he rail systems and telegraph and telephone lines would be returned to private owner ship; urged a revision of war taxes, particularly to abolish the manufacturers end retail sales excess and outlined gen erally a program respecting labor. These wero tho "high spots" of the President's message cabled from Paris. Besides that he again urged enactment of the woman suffrago constitutional amendment; recommonded that tho tariff laws be supplied with teeth to protect 'American Industry against foroign at tack, spoke for legislation to faclllate American enterprise ahrough tho expan sion of shipping, ana backed Secretary Lane's program for land for returning soldiers. Of tho Paris peace conference and tho League of Nations tho President merely eaid It would bo premature to discuss them ' or express a Judgment. He also avoided discuss of the domestic legislation at length because of his long absence from Washington, UNIQUE DOCUMENT Congress heard an unique document; tho only ono of Its kind over transmitted 'across tho ocean from a president on a -.foreign shore, for tho first time In six years It heard a presidential message road by a reading clerk Instead of as sembling to hear tho President deliver an addrcsa In jierson. The recommendations for tho repeal of wartlmo prohibition and for return of tho railroad and wire systems, while not un expected by some, contained the great est clement of surprise and provoked tho most widespread comment of tho many tasks set before Congress by tho Presi dent. In his reference to prohibition, tho President did not enter extensively Into tho considerations involved. Demobiliza tion ho said, merely, has progressed to such a point that it seems to me entirely safo now to remove the ban upon tho manufacture and sales of wines and beers. This ban laid several months ago to be come effective on July 1, could be re moved, tho President said, only by con gressional enactment. His recommendation regarding return of tho railways and wlro lines wa3 tho first authoritative declaration by tho administration of its future policy and greatly surprised (many members who had Interpreted tho developments of thu last few months to mean that Mr. Wil son eventually would propose somo form of permanent government operations. On the contrary tho directness of tho Presi dent's declaration on that point left no doubt that he was through with any possible scheme of permanent control. "The telegraph and telephone lines," said the message, "will of course bo .re turned to their owners as soon as tho transfer can bo effected without adminis trative confusion . "Tho railroads will bo handed over to their owners at tho end of the calendar year." In the case of each tho President asked for legislation to make easier tho read justment necessitated by tho change. In his recommendation for readjustment of taxation tho President mado It clear that ho did not oxpect a fundamental readjustment of tho democrat tariff rates that have been operative for the last six years. Ho asked for tariff changes only to protect special new Interest like tho dyestuffs Industry. Somo reductions wero advocated In wartime excess profits taxes, and tho present taxes on retail sales, the Prsldent thought, could be dispensed with entirely. HOW WILL REPUBLICANS REPLY? What will be the reply of the republi can Congress to tho proposals becamo at onco the topic of discussion every where about tho Capitol. In roturning tho railroads, It generally was concoded, the republican leaders will readily give 'tho President their co-operation. But as to prohibition and tariff and Internal revenue taxation, tho case was more doubtful. Those are problems on 'Which no very clear sentiment appar ently has been formed In either of tho great parties. The recommendations regarding labor wero general, but the President called attention to tho need for a partnership between capital and labor and a genuine "democratization of industry." On tariff revision the President said the United States should havo the means of properly protecting Itself whon there was danger of discrimination against It by ' foreign nations. "Though we are as far as possible from desiring to enter upon a courso of re taliation," he said, "we must frankly face tho fact that hostile legislation by other nations Is not beyond the range of possibilities, and that It may have to be met by counter legislation. "Although the United States will gladly and unhosltantly Join In tho program of International disarmament, It will, never theless, bo a policy of obvious prudence to make certain of the successful main tenance of many strong and well equip ped chemical plants." THE MESSAGE The President's message follows: "Gentlemen of the Congress: "I deeply regard my Inability to bo present at the opening of the extraor dinary session of the Congress. It still seems to bo my duty to take part in tho counsels of tho peace conference and con tribute what I can to tho solution of tho Innumerable questions to whose set tlement It has had to address ltsolf : For thoy are questions which effect the peaco of the whole world and from them, there fore, the United States cannot stand apart. I deemed it my duty to call the Congress together at this time becauso It was not wise to postpone longer tho provisions which must bo made for tho support of the government. Many of the appropriations which are absolutely necessary for the maintenance of tho government and tho fulfillment of Ita varied obligations for the fiscal year 1919-.1920 havo not yet been made; tho end of the present fiscal years Is at hand; and action upon these approprla tlons can no longer bo prudently de layed. It is necessary thereforo that I I should immediately call your attention to these critical needs. It Is hardly i necessary for me to urge that It may J receive your prompt attention. "I shall tako the liberty of addressing you on my roturn on the subjects which havo most engrossed our attention and tho attontlon of tho world during theso last six months since tho armlstlco of last November was Blgncd, the interna tlonal settlements, which must form tho subject matter of tho present treaties of peaco and of our national action In tho Immedlato future. It would bo pro mature to discuss them, or to express a Judgmont about them beforo they nro brought to thjilr cwnpleto formulation by the" agreements which are how being sought at tho table of tho conference. I shall hope to lay them beforo you In their many aspects so soon as arrangemonts havo been reached. "I hesllato to .venture any opinion or express any recommendation with regard to domestic legislation while absent from tho United States and out of dally touch with Intimate sources of information and counsel. I am conscious that I need, after so long an absence from Washing- THE NEW GERMANY AS DETERMINED BY PROVISIONS OF THE PEACE CONFERENCE '' C ? kforf Metltbr k 'CZECHO - SLOVAKIA. F R A 3 Stuttgart gjjgg Loai toGetrmar h" - cJ f In tern at to naiiz ecG ' Zurirh )"y'jS ' statu wui.eo "' r nB-Z s drawn mwp oeht; , NATIONAi- GEO&RAPH4C SOCIETY F I SWITZE'RIiANiN' ASHWOTOM . D.C. T.nM Areas Include: Alsace nnd Lorraine. 5.600 square mile, restored to France; West lni'hlii, 37,08(1 squure mlleN, uwn riled to Poland. Internationalized Areas Include: Dnnrlff region, 729 square miles nnd finar Bnsln, oi animus nenclln.T n plebiscite 15 yennt lienrc. Plebiscite: Parte of Schleswip, 3,787 square mile (three successive plebiscites in In connection with the accompanying map, prepared by tho National Geograph ic society, showing tho territorial losses of Germany, as Indicated In tho olllclal summary of the peace treaty and In tho subsequent .ofllclal statement Indicating tho boundary delimitations, the society has Issued a bulletin explaining the ex tent, Importance and peoples of tho areas Germany must forfeit. This bulletin states: "To vlsunllzo moro clearly what Ger many lost in territory take a map of the United States and from tho area of Tex as deduct that of Michigan. This may ho done, roughly, by eliminating the pan handle and that western rectanglo be yond the Rio Grande, which has El Paso In the northwest corner. The result will be an area approximately tho size of tho continental German cmplro before ttio armistice was signed. "From this area Germany loses out right her Ill-gotten Alsace-Lorraine, parts of Silesia, Posen, nnd West Prus sia, the Danzig area, Eupen and Mal medy. This aggregate loss In territory is about equivalent to the area of tho State of Maine. "But that Is not all. In addition thero are areas In which a plebiscite Is to be taken. Their total extent Is about equiv alent to tho area of tho State of Now Hampshire. They include the south eastern third of East Prussia, part of Schleswlg, and tho Saar valley. Even beforo tho war It Is likely that a pleb iscite would havo found strong anti-German support In each of these areas. ton, to seek tho advlco of those who have remained In constant contact with do mestic problems and who havo known them close at hand from day to day; and I trust that It will very soon be possible for mo to do so. But there are several questions pressing for consideration to which I feel that I may and. Indeed must, oven now direct your attention, If only In general tenns. In speaking of them I shall, I daro say, be doing little moro than spealc your own thoughts. I hope that I shall speak your own judgment also. LABOR, THE BIG QUESTION "Tho question which stands at tho front of all others In every country amidst tho present great awakening Is the question of labor; and perhaps I can speak of It with as great advantogo whllo engrossed In tho consideration of Interests which affect all countries alike as I could at home and amidst tho in terests which naturally most affect my thought, because they aro tho interests of our own people. "By tho questions of labor I do not mean tho question of efficient industrial production, tho question of how labor is to bo obtained and mado effective In tho great process of sustaining popula tions and winning success amidst commer cial and industrial rivalries. I mean that much creator ana more vital thing. How oro the men and women who do the dally labor of tho world to obtain pro gressive Improvement in tho conditions of their labor to bo made happier, and to be served better by tho communi ties and tho industries which their labor sustains and advances? How aro they to bo given their right advantage as citizens and human beings? MUST CEASE QUARRELING "We cannot go any further In our present direction. Wo have already gono too far. We cannot live our right life as a nation or achieve our proper success as on Industrial community If capital and labor are to continue to be antagonistic Instead of being partners; If they aro to contlnuo to distrust one another and contrlvo how they can get tho better of one anothor or, what per haps amounts to the same thing, calcu late by what form and degree of coer cion they can manage to extort on the ono hand work enough to make enter prise profitably, on the other Justice and fair treatment enough to make llfo toler able. That bad road has turned out a blind alloy. It Is no thoroughfare to real prosperity. We must find another, leading in another direction and to a very different destination. It must lead not merely to a convention, but also to a genuine co-opcratlon and partnership based on a real community .of interest and participation In control, "This Is now In fact a real community of interest between capital and labor. but it has never been mado evident In action. It can be mado operative and manifest only In a now organization of Industry. Tho genuls of our business men nnd tho sound practical sense of our workers enn certainly work such a part nership out when once they realize ex actly what it is that thoy seek and sin cerely udopt a common purpose with re gard to It. CHIEFLY A STATE MATTER "Labor legislation lieu, of co.urse, chiefly -with tho states; but the now After tho war, when the choice Is be tween taxburdened Germany and some othor power, thero would seem to bo lit tle doubt but that tho Saar regions will prefer France, Schleswlg will revert to Denmark, and the East Prussian area to Poland. "Of courso these comparisons do not mark tho complete losses of Germany, for thoy do not tako Into account the col onies which are taken from her. Henco forth other nations, as mandatories, will administer Kamerun, Togoland, German Southwest and German East Africa, Tslngtau, German New Guinea, tho Car olines and the Marshall Islands, Samoa and Pleasant Island. "If you are moro familiar with east ern States than with Texas, It may make the comparison more vivid to note that tho post-war Germany will And her place under the sun to be about equal to the territory comprised In tho New England States plus New York and Pennsylvania, or that contained In New England and Oregon. "On her pre-war area equal to Texas minus Michigan, or Texas minus oil tho New England States except Connecti cut, Germany supported somo seventy million people, nearly two-thirds the to tal population of tho United States of America. How much of this population Is removed from her it Is difficult to say becauso the splitting of territory does not correspond to units of census meas urement. "But It Is possible to arrive at a fairly accurato estimate of her reduced popula tion. For Germany's citizens wero dis tributed well over her former empire, spirit and method of organisation which must be effected are not to be brought about by legislation so much as by tho common counsel and voluntary co-operation of capitalist, manager and work man. Legislation can go only a very little way in commanding what shall be done. The object of Industry Is a matter of corporate and Individual initia tive and of practical business arrange ments. Those who really desire a new relationship between capital and labor can readily find a way to bring it about; and perhaps fundamental legislation can help moro than state legislation could. MUST DEMOCRATIZE INDUSTRY "The object of all reform In this essentinl matter must be the genuine democratization of industry, based upon a full recognition of the right of those who work, in whatever rank, to parti cipate In some organic way in every direction which directly affects their wel fare or the part they are to play In in dustry. Some positive legislation Is practicable. The Congress has already shown the way to one reform which should be world-wide, by establishing tho eight hour day as tho standard day in evory field of labor over which It can se cure control. It has sought to find tho way to prevent child labor, and will, I hope nnd believe, presently find It. It has eerved tho wholo country by leading tho way In developing tho moans of pre serving and safeguarding llfo and health In dangerous Industries. It can now help In the difficult task of giving a new form and spirit to Industrial organization by cordlnatlng tho several agencies of conciliation nnd adjustment which have been brought Into existence by the difficulties nnd mistaken policies of the present management of Industry, and by setting up and developing now fedoral ngenctes of advtso and Information which may servo as a clearing houBe for tho best experiments and the best thought on theso matters, upon which evory thinking man must be aware that the future development of society directly depends. Agencies of international counsel and legislation are presently to bo created In connection with the League of Nations In this very field; but It Is national action nnd tho enlightened policy of Individuals, corporations and societies within each nation that must bring about the actual reforms. The members of the committees on labor In the two house will hardly need suggestions from mo as to what means they shall seek to make the fed oral government the agont of tho wholo nation In pointing out nnd. If need bo, guiding the process of reorganization and roform. MUST ASSIST SOLDIERS "I am suro that It Is not necessary for mo to romlnd you that thero Is ono Imme dlato nnd very practical question of labor that we should meet in tho most liberal spirit, Wo must Beo to It that our roturn lng soldlors aro araslstcd In every practi cable way to find tho places for which they aro fitted In tho dally work of tho country. This can be dono by developing and maintaining upon an adequate ecalo tho admirable organization created by tho development of labour for placing men seeking work; nnd it can also bo dono, In at IcnBt one very great Held, by creating new opportunities for Individual enter prise. Tho secretary of t!i interior tw pointed out the way by which returning BOldlera may bo helped to find and tako up Courtesy National Geographic Society, Copyright 1519. Eupen and Malmerty. 3R3 square miles, ceded to Hclelum;. parte of Posen, SUesla. and , , , . . . . .,, T 738 squn.ro miles, the Snnr region to be governed by a commission appointed by the League . three areas a- Indicated) nml southeastern and countless small cities and towns, and a dense rural population, rather than nu merous large cities, mado her iverago density of population high. "This average density was about 300 to tho square mile in 1014, and tho total number of square miles cither lost out right or subject to plebiscites at some future date approaches 43,000 square miles. Therefore It Is not far from tho mark to estimate that Germany loses a number of persons equivalent to the combined populations of Now York State and Massachusetts, including those giant new world cities. New York nnd Boston. "Grievous as may havo been the part ing to her, Germany expected to lose Al sace and Lorraine If she lost the war. But to pay for her capital crimes against civilization with tho Saar valley area must seem a heavy price. For In that region, not so largo as Rhode Island, were contained coal flleds rated among tho richest In Europe. In this historic area of natural bounty the earth has borne grapes for raro old wines since Roman days. Then tho surface was pierced for its yield of black truisurc, though wood ed hills, crowned with ancient abbeys and castles, Btlll look down on busy fac tories and bustling towns. It was the eastern Pennsylvania of Germany only with tho Pittsburgh left out-for Saar brucken, metropolis of the area, has only about 30,000 population. "Not only was tho Saar coal of Indus trial Importance to Germany, but somo of It was diverted to Italy and Switzer land, a sort of 'underground propaganda' against tho day whon Germany should need their support. land in tho hitherto undeveloped regions of tho country which tho federal govern ment has already prepared or can readily preparo for cultivation nnd also on many of tho cut-over or neglected nreas which lie within tho limits of tho older States; and I onco more take the liberty of rec ommending very urgently that his plans shall receive tho Immedlato and substan tial support of tho Congress". FUTURE OF COMMERCE "Tho peculiar and very stimulating con ditions await our commerco and Industrial enterprises In tho Immediate future. Un usual opportunities will present them selves to our merchants and producers In foreign markes and largo Holds for prof itable investment will bo opened to our freo capital. But it Is not only of that I am thinking; It Is not chiefly of that I am 'thinking. Many great Industries pros trated by tho war wait to bo rehabilitated in many parto of tho world whero what will bo lacking Is not brains or willing hands or organizing capacity of experi enced skill, but machinery and raw ma terials and capital. I hcllovo that our business men, our merchants, our man ufacturers and our capitalists, will have tho vision to sco that prosperity In ono part of the world ministers to prosperity everywhere; that thero Is In a very true sense a largo demand throughout tho world of enterprise nnd that our dealings with the countries that have need of our products and our money will teach them to deem us more than ever friends whoso necessities wo seek. In tho right way to servo. OUR NEW MERCHANT SHIPS "Our new merchant ships, which have In somo quarters been feared ns destruc tive rivals, may prove holpful rivals, rather, and common servants, very much needed nnd very welcome. Our great ships new and old, will bp. so opened to the uso of tho world that thoy will prove immensely serviceable to every maritime peoplo In restoring, much more rapidly than would otherwise havo been possible the tonnago wantonly destroyed In tho war. I havo only to suggest that there are many points at which we can faclltnte American enterprise in foreign trade by opportune legislation and malto It easy for American merchants to go where they will be welcomed as friends rather than as dreaded antagonists. America' has a great and honorable service to perform In bringing the commercial and Industrial undertakings of tho world back to their old scope and swing again, and putting a solid structure of credit under them. All our legislation should be friendly to should plans and purposes. "And credit and enterprise nllko will bo quickened by tlmoly and helpful legislation with regard to taxation, I hopo that the Congress will find It possible to undertake an early reconsideration of federal taxcB, In order to make our sys tem of taxation moro simple and easy of administration nnd tho taxes them selves as llttlo burdensome as thoy can bo mado and yot sufficient to support tho government and meet all its obliga tions. The figures to which those obliga tions have arisen nro very great Indoed, hut thoy nro not so great as to make It difficult for tho nation to moot them, and meet them, perhaps, in n Blnglo gen eration, by taxes which will neither crush nor dlsoourago. These .jir not so great as they seem, not bo Great as the ,,- ,, third of East Prussia, 5,7Rj miles. "Danrlg has been a port of major Im portance since tho days when It was ono of four principal centers of tho Han seatlc league. Not far inland Is Marlen burg, onco tho capital of tho Teutonic Order of Knights. Formerly tho grain of fertile Silesia and Poland poured through Danzig, but more recently the city has been a center for ship building and manufacture of munitions. "Ever since tho nrmlstlco Germany has carried on an assiduous propaganda to keep from losing her rich Posen and Slleslon mining districts. Zinc, Iron and potash, tho very life blood of her vaunt ed Industrial organism, came from the area adjoining Poland which Germany now Is called upon to forfeit to that newly created nation bo long debarred from this rightful Inheritance. Hard coal also came from this region in con slderable quantity. "By granting a plebiscite to Schleswlg (which is to be taken successively in three areas as indicated on the map) Germany is likely to lose a province which has not the industrial Importance of tho Saar or Slleslan districts, but which has a naval value relating to both the North and Baltic seas. Moreover Germany prized this region becauso It was so hard to acquire. No Balkan protj lem Is moro complex, nor did the Al-sace-Lorralno issue cause more irrita tion than did the so-called Schleswlg Holsteln question in years gone by. One historian remarked that only throo men ever understood tho points at issue and ono was dead, another Insane, and a third had forgotten what It was all about." immense sums wo have had to borrow, added, to the immense sums we have had to raise by taxation, would seem to in dlcate; for a very large proportion of thoso sums wercralsed In order that they might be loaned to tho governments with which wo wero associated in the war, and thoso loans will, of courso, constitute assets, not liabilities and will not have to bo taken care of by our taxpayers. TAXATION DELICATE SUBJECT. "Tho main thing we shall havo to care for Is that our taxation shall rest as light ly as possible on the productive resources of tho country, that its rates shall be suit able and that It shall be constant in Its revenue regulating power. We havo found tho main sources from which It must be drawn. I tnko it for granted that Its mainstays will henceforth bo the Income tax, tho excess profits tax and tho estate tax. All theso can so be adjusted to yield constant and adoquate returns and yet not constitute a too grievous burden on tho taxpayers. A revision of the Income tax has already been provided for by the act of 1918, but I think you will find that further changes can bo made to advantage i both In tho rates of tho tax and In the methods of Its collection. Tho excess prof ' Its tax need not long bo maintained at tho rates which wero necessary whllo the enormous expenses of the war had to be borne, but It should be mado tho bases of a permanent system which will reach un 1 due profits without discouraging the enter I prise and activity of our buslnoss mon. J Tho tax on Inheritances ought, no doubt, !to be reconsidered In Its relation to tho I fiscal systems of the several States, but It certainly ougnt to remain a permanent part of tho fiscal system of the federal government. MINOR TAXES MUST GO you will agreo are tho excess upon vari ous manufacturers and tho taxes upon re tall sales. They are unequal In the Inci dence on different Industries and on dif ferent Individuals, their collection Is diffi cult and expensive Those which are lev led upon articles sold at retail are largely evaded by the readjustment of retail prices. On tho other hand I should as sumo that It Is expedient to maintain a considerable range of Indirect taxes nnd the fact that alcoholic liquors will pres ently no longer afford a source of revenue by taxation makos It the more necessary that tho field Bhould be carefully restudied In order that equivalent sources of rev enuo may be found which It will be legiti mate, and not burdensome, to draw upon. But you havo at hand In tho treasury de partment many experts who can advise you upon the matters much better than I can. I can only suggest the lines of a per manent and workable system, and the placing of tho taxes whero they will least hampor the llfo of the people. "Thero Is, fortunately, no occasion for undertaking in tho Immediate futuro any general revision of our system of Import duties. No srlous danger of foreign com petition now threatens American Indus tries. Our country has omerged from the war less I disturbed and less weakened than any of the European countries which are our competitors In manu facture. Their Industrial establishments havo been subjected to greater strain than ours, their labor force to a more Borlous disorganization, and this Is clear ly not tho tlmo to seek an organized ad vantngo. The work of mero construction will, I am afraid, tax the capacity and tho resources of their people) for years) to como. So far from thero being any" danger or need of accentuated foreign compeUtlon, it Is likely that conditions) of next fow year's will greatly facilitate; mo marKoling of American mnnn. facturors abroad. Loast of all should w dopart from tho policy adopted In the tariii act. or 1U13 of pormltine tho fre entry Into tho United Statos of tho raw materials needed to supplement and enrich our own abundant supplies. TARIFF NEEDS REVISION "Nevertheless thoro nro parts) ot our tariff system which prompt attention. Tha experiences of tho war havo made It plain that In Homo cases too great reliance on foreign supply Is dangerous, and that in determining cortain parts of our tariff policy domestic considerations must bo borno In mind which aro political as well as economic. Among tho industries to which special consideration should bo given is that of the manufacturo of dye stuffs nnd related chemicals. Our com ploto depondenco upon German supplies tho war made tho opening of trade ncaso of exceptional economic disturbance. Tho closo relation between tho manu facturer of dyestuffs, on tho ono hand and of explosives nnd poisonous gasoa on tho othor, moreover has given tho In dustry an exceptional significance and value. Although tho United States will gladly and unhesitatingly Join' In tho.pro gram of International industry it will, nevertheless, bo a. policy of obvious prudenco to mnko certain of tho success- ' ful maintenance of many strong and well- 1 equipped chemical plants. German cheml- .' cal Industry with which wo will ba brought Into competition was and may well bo again a thoroughly knit monopoly capablo of exercising a competition of a peculiarly Insidious nnd dangerous kind. U. S. SHOULD PROTECT ITSELF "Tho United States should, moreover, havo tho means of properly protecting Itself whenever our trado Is discriminated against by foreign nations, in order that wo may bo assured of that equality of treatment which wo hopo to.nccord and to promoto tho world over. Our tariff laws as they now stand provldo no weapon of retaliation In case other governments should enact legislation hostile In its bearing on our products as compared with tho products of other countries. Though wo aro as far as posslblo from desiring to enter upon any course of reallatlon, we must frankly face the fact that hostllo legislation by other nations Is not beyond tho range of possibility and that It may havo to bo met by counter legislation. This subject hns fortunately, been exhaustively In vestigated by tho United States tariff commission. A rccnt report of that com mission has shown very clearly that wo lack and that we ought to have the Jn struments necessary for the assurance equal and equitable treatment. "Tho attention of Congress has been called to this matter on past occasions and tho past measures which are now recommended by the tariff commission are substantially tho samo that have been suggested by previous administrations. I recommend that this phase of the tariff question receive tho early attention of tho Congress. WOMAN SUFFRAGE IMPERATIVE "Will you not permit mo, turning from theso matters, to speak once more and very earnestly of tho proposed amend ment to tho constitution which will ex tend the suffrage to women and which passed the House of Representatives at tho last session of tho Congress? It seems to me that every consideration of Justice and of public advantago calls for tho Immediate adoption of that amendment and its submission forthwith to the legislators of the several States. Through out all the world this long delayed exten- , slon of the suffrage is looked for; In the United States, longer, I believe, than any whero else. Tho necessity for It, and the Immense advantago of It to tho national life, havo been urged and debated, by women and men who saw tho need for It and urged tho policy of It when it re quired steadfast courage to be so much bcfoie hand with tho common conviction; and I, for one, covet for our country the distinction of being among the first to act In a great reform. WIRE LINES RETURNED SOON Tho telegraph and telephone lines will be returned to their owners as soon as tho transfer can bo effected without adminis trative confusion, so soon, that Is, as the change can bo mado with least possible inconvenience to tho public and to tho owners thcmsolves. Tho railroads will be handed over to their owners at tho end of tho calendar year. If I weroiln immediate contact with tho administrative questions which must govern tho retransfer of, tho telegraph and telcphono lines, I could name the exact dato for their return also. Until I am In direct contact with tho prac tical questions Involved I can only suggest that In the caso of the telegraphs and telephones, ns In tho caso of the railroads, It 13 clearly dcslrablo In-tho public Inter est that somo legislation should bo con sidered which may tend to make of theso indispensable instrumentalities of our modern life a uniform and co-ordinated system which will afford those who use them as complete and certain means of communication with all parts of tho coun try ns has longecn afforded by the pos tal system of tho government nnd at rates as uniform and Intelligible. Export advlco, Is of courso available In this very practical matter, and tho public interest is manifest. Neither the telegraph nor tho telephone Bcrvice of tho country can be said to bo In any senso a national sys tem. Thero aro many confusions and In consistencies of rates. Tho scientific means by which communication by such Instrumentalities could bo rendered more thorough and satisfactory hns not been made full use of. "The minor taxes provided for In the revenue legislation of 1917 and 1918, though no doubt mado necessary by the pressing necessities of tho war time, can hardly find sufficient Justification under tho eas ier circumstances of peace and can now happily be got rid of. Among these, I hopo "A study of tho whole question of electrical communication and of the means by which the central authority of tho nation can bo used to unify and Improve it, If undertaken, by tho ap propriate committees of tho Congress would certainly result Indirectly, oven if not directly, in a great public ben efit WOULD REPEAL "DRY" LAW "Tho demobilization of tho military forces of the country has progressed to nuch a point that It seems to me ontlrely safe now to remove the ban upon the manufacturo and sale ot wines and beers, but I am advised that without further legislation I havo not the legal authority to remove the present restriction. ' I thereforo rec ommend that tho act approved Novem ber 21, 1918, entitled "An act to enable tho secrotary of agriculture to carry out, during tho fiscal year ending Juno 30, 1919, tho purpose of tho net entitled " An net to provldo further for tho national security nnd defense by stimulating agrlculturp and facil itating tho distribution of agricultural products" ' and for other purposes, bo amended or repealod Insofar as It ap plies to wines and beers. "I sincerely trust that I shall very soon bo at my post In Washington again to present reports upon tho mat ters which mado iny presonco at the peaco table apparently Imperative, and to put myself at tho service of tha Congress Jn evory matter of adminis tration or counsel thnt may socm to domand oxecutlvo nctlon or advice, (Signed) "WOODROW WILSON. "May 20, 1919."