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CHASi O* MOREAU, Editor and Publisher*
VOL, I. , CHURCH DIRECTORY. Our Lady op tub Gui.f Church— Catholic—Sundays, first mass 7 a.m.; hi(?h mass 10 a.m. Evening service at 4:30 p.m. On week days mass at 0:30 a.m. Rev. Henry Led'uc, pastor; Rev. Father Alphonse, assistant pastor. Mkthodist Episcopal Church, South —Pleaching second and fourth Sunday* In each month at II a.m. and 7:30 p.m. Sunday-school at 0:30 a.m. Prayer meek Ing evening Wednesday at 7 o’clock. Seats free. Rov. W. O. Forsythe, pastor. Christ Episcopal Church—Preach ing every second and fourth Sunday morning at 11 a.m. Sunday-school at 0:30 a.m. The public is cordially invited to attend. Rev. Nelson Ayres, pastor. SCHOOL AND CHURCH. —Three of the four Old South prizes, given to graduates of the Boston high schools for t)ie best essays on historical ■objects, were awarded to girls. —The cottage in which George Fox, the founder of the Society of Friends or Quakers, was born, in Leicestershire, iSngland, is being taken down to be re erected in Chicago. —Among the instrumental resources of the Johns Hopkins university is a thermometer valued at *IO,OOO. The graduations on the scale are so fine that a magnifying glass is required to read them, —Asheville normal and collegiate in stitute is anew institution, located at Asheville, N. C., under the control of the woman's executive committee, in connection with the board of home mis sions of the Presbyterian church. I —There are about 3,200,000 Presby terians in Scotland. There are 1,(550 places of worship in connection with the church of Scotland, and 1,573 in connection with the Free and United Presbyterian church—in all 3,235, or more that one church for each 1,000 ol the population. —The first subscription for mission purposes in modern days was made by Sir Walter Raleigh, in 1589, when he gave one hundred pounds to the mer chants to whom he resigned the Vir ginia patent “in special regard and zeal of planting the Christian religion in those barbarous places.” —There are now opened in India 18,- 000 miles of railroad; 28,000 miles of common road; 34,000 miles of telegraph line; and 71,000 miles of post roads with more than 8,000 post offices. There are 93,000 government schools of all grades, in which are more than 3,000,000 pupils; besides 40,000 private schools, with 500,- 000 scholars. —There recently left New York a re markable family named Sessions, who are on their way to set up an indepen dent mission on the Congo. The family numbers six, and comes from Conrec tionville, la., where they recently sold their home and all their possessions, de voting the proceeds to material for the establishment of their mission. —The cathedral of Upsala is the most imposing church edifice in Sweden. In the interior it is 359 feet long, 103 to 136 feet broad and 90 feet high. The new Gothic spires rise to a height of about 890 feet. In this cathedral lies the body of Gustavus Vasa. The other two lions of the North, Gustavus Adolphus and Charles XII., are buried at Stockholm. —There are eight societies doing mis sionary work in Mexico; the M. E. Church South, M. E. North, Presbyte rian, Presbyterian South, Southern Bap tist convention, American board, Re formed Presbyterian synod and Cum berland Presbyterian. In all, these societies employ 51 male and seventy eight female missionaries, with 128 or dained natives and 199 other native helpers. In the 201 churches are 13,203 members, and 6,363 pupils in the 145 schools. OBJECTED TO PICKLES. Oliver Wendell Holmes and His Fanny Literary Criticism. A lady who has the good fortune to be a friend of Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes relates a little anecdote of the first time she asked a favor of him as an author. She had just completed a book for children, and Dr. Holmes kindly consented to read the manuscript. When it was returned to her after his perusal she naturally looked it over with eagerness and anxiety, in haste to see what criticisms or corrections her dis tinguished friend had made. She turned page after page, but found no erasure, mark nor marginal note, until at length, nearly at the end of the story, she came to a single neatly-penciled line in Doctor Holmes’ fine handwriting. It was placed against a passage upon which she had rather prided herself, a vivid description of the picnic feast of a group of children in a grove. First reading the paragraph to see if she herself could find anything amiss, she next read what he had written. It was this: “ Don't let those children eat pickles /” Much relieved to find that it was the •doctor, not the author, who found fault with her work, the lady at onoe drew a line through the offending viands, and when the story of the picnic appeared in print, pickle* were omitted from the bill of fare.—Youth's Companion. The Nervou*. Golightly—Girls make me weary. Quidnunc—Why, what’s the matter? Golightly—They’re so nervous and ex citable. Quidnunc—How do yon mean? Golightly—Why, 1 was engaged to a girl awhile ago, and the night before the wedding 1 went around and told her we'd better let it drop; and hang me it she didn’t get positively fidgety.— ton Courier. NEIGHBOR JONES. I’m thinking, wife, of neighbor Jones, the man with a stalwart arm— He lives in pence and plenty on a forty-acre farm; When men are all around us, with hearts and hands a-sore, Who own two hundred acres, and still are want ing more. He has a pretty little farm, a pretty little house; He has a loving wife within, as quiet as a mouse; His children play around the door, their father’* heart to charm, Looking just as neat and tidy as the tidy little farm. No weeds are in the cornfield, no thistles in the oats; The horses show good keeping by their fine and glossy coats; The cows within the meadow, 'neath the beech cn shade, Learn all their gentle manners from a gentle milking maid. Within the fields on Saturday he leaves no cradled grain To he gathered on the morrow for fear of com ing rain; He lives in joy and gladness, and happy arc his days; He keeps the Sabbath holy; his children learn his ways. He never had a lawsuit to lake him to the town, For the very simple reason there are no fetces down; The barroom In the village for him has not a charm: I can always find my neighbor on his forty-acre farm. His acres are so few that he plows them very deep; 'Tishis own hand'hat turns the sod; 'tis his own bands that reap; He has a place for everything, and everything its plsce; The sunshine smiles upon his fields, content ment on his face. May we n6t learn a lesson, wife, from the prudent neighbor Jones, And not sigh for what we haven't got—give vent to sighs and groans? The rich aren't always happy, nor free from life's alarms; But blest are those who live content, though small may be their farms. —Atlanta Constitution. “SO, fIU-SUTOJ U I \ j [qARY,” said Mr. ” Benson? from ~'gs : *~~* the closet, ~ “where is that old checked coat of mine?” “Why, John,” began Mrs. Benson, timidly. “Mary, have you given that away?” asked Mr. Benson, coming into view. “Why—yes, John, 1 did. You haven’t had that coat on your back for three years and—and the man had such— lovely—” here poor Mrs. Benson relapsed into the safe refuge of tears. "Peddlers,” exclaimed Mr. Benson, contemptuously. “Why can’t a woman be satisfied with buying what she wants at a decent store and not be pick ing up a lot of worthless articles from sneak-thieves because they are ‘cheap!’ You’ll be sorry for it some day, Mary, you mark my words.” Mr. Benson went out and shut the door vigorously. He walked down the street with a preoccupied frown upon his face. “I must cure Mary of that.” he thought, seriously. “Sometime she will have something valuable stolen. I’ve got it!” he exclaimed, after a pause. He fitted his key to the door of his private office, opened the door and then turned back. , “Jenning,” he said, “I shall be very busy for an hour or two, possibly ail the afternoon. See that I am not dis turbed by anyone.” He entered his office, and locked the door after him. It was a very easy mat ter to open a back window,drop into the alley and hasten to an obscure cos tumer’s, where detectives and jail-birds were impartially disguised to play at hide and seek with one another. Heft alone, Mrs. Benson cried a little while repentantly to herself, and then remembered that she had intended to wash the delicate bric-a-brac that was her pride and joy. To do this she must get her dainty white apron and her dear little new pan that she had bought of the last peddler—here she sighed a lit tle. She slipped off her rings, moved out a little table and left the room for the necessary articles. Little matters detained her and it was fully an hour before she again en tered the room, bearing the pan. Just as she set it down a peal at the bell startled her. “I wonder who it can be—and Jenny is ironing,” she thought. She opened the door herself, and then almost shut it again in her momentary dismay. Certainly it was a disreputable look ing object, even for a peddler, that stood on the doorstep. “I’ve come, mum, to see 'f ye didn’t Want to exchange some old clo’es ter somethin’ rale vallyble.” He edged his way past her and established himself on a hall chair. “Whvt have you, my man?” Mrs. Henson asked, hesitatingly. “l’v some of the harnsomest lacc ye * ®*3D. BAY ST. LOUIS, MISS., SATURDAY, JUNE 11, 1892. ever saw." He produced a piece as a sample. It was just what she had been want ing to complete the dainty spring cos tume she had just finished. ‘•Mr. Benson doesn’t like to have roe buy of peddlers,” she said, hesitat ingly. “I'm sure 'eed say 'twas all right, mum, ef "ee was here. .lust look around an' see ef thar ain’t an old coat you can spare.” Mrs. Benson hesitated a few moments longer, then rose and went slowly from the room after a long ago cast off coat that she remembered. The temptation had proved too much tor her. At the foot of the stairs she paused. “John wouldn’t like it,” she thought. “No, I’ll S° without the lace till 1 can afford to buy it. J ’ She turned back just as the sound of a closing door caught her car. The peddler was gone! Instinctively her eyes flew to the table where she had left her rings; they, too, were gone. Without a moment's thought she rushed to the door and screamed: “Po lice!” at the top of her lungs. Strange to say, her call was immediately an swered. for around the corner of the square appeared a blue-coated guardian, dragging the unwilling person of the identical peddler. “He’s stolen my rings!” screamed Mrs. Benson. “Don’t let him come near me, sir!” “I thought he’d stole something when I see him come away on the dead jump,” said the policeman, “an’ 1 thought I’d just run him in and see about it.” Dur ing this speech he had been rapidly emptying the peddler’s pockets, despite his vehement struggles. “Here they be. ma'am. They’ll give them to you at the police station when I’ve sworn to them. Come along here, my beauty!” “Mary!” screamed the peddler, wheu he could free himself enough to speak, but Mrs. Benson had sunk in a heap on the hall floor with the closed door be tween them, and the peddler was dragged off with a motely procession following. To the statement that he was John Benson, a well-known and respectable lawyer, only laughter and the reply; “That won’t work here,” was returned to him and he accordingly found him self in a very narrow cell with every prospect of a night to be spent in it. Mrs. Benson waited for her husband’s return that night with inward dismay, but a brave determination to tell him the whole story. Supper time came and passed with out him. She ate her lonely meal and waited. Nine o’clock came, ten, and still he did not come. Visions of possible murders, acci dents, or elopements haunted he. and she started with a little scream as the door bell suddenly rang. Old Jenning’s face appeared in the frame. “Is he dead?” she cried; “where is he?” “He gave orders that he was not to be disturbed, so I waited all the after noon and when closing-up time came he hadn't come out yet. Then I went out and got my supper and when I HE ESTABLISHED HIMSELF IX A CHAIR, came back he hadn’t come out still; so I got uneasy and when he didn’t answer. I got help and we broke in the door— and he was gone.” Mrs. Benson gasped. “Be calm, ma’am, for I fear I’ve worse to tell. Shortly after he had given his orders not to be disturbed, there was a man came from the police station asking for Mr. Benson, but I told }iim Mr. Benson was engaged. He said there was a man just arrested, dressed as a peddler, who claimed to be Mr. Benson, but—” He stopped with astonishment, for Mrs. Benson was half-way up the stairs after her bonnet and cloak. “Police station. Take me—quick!” she gasped, incoherently. “Oh, mv poor John!” Mr. Benson was sitting disconsolate ly on the edge of a very hard bunk, wondering what poor Mary was think ing of his absence, when there was a murmur of voices, a sound of feet, a jingle of keys, and in another moment peddler and victim were in each other’s arms. “I’ll never buy another thing of a peddler again as long as I live, John, if you’ll only forgive me!” cried Mrs. Ben son, tearfully. And it is safe to say she never did. Kate A. Bradley, in Detroit Free Press. —Cheap Wit.—Bond— “What is your definition of cheap wit?” Scrawl (the editor)-“Well, uncredited clippings comes about as near it as ani thinr J reckon,”—M Y. Herald. IN AlXjlj THINOB.” IN THE ELECTRICAL WORLD. —England and Prance are now con* nected by a double system of telephonic communication. —What is believed to be the highest electric central station in the world is located at Pontresina. in the Swiss Alps, the altitude being 6,000 feet above the sea level. —Mayor Latrobe, of Baltimore, re cently signed the ordinance authorizing the Central Passenger railway of that city to use electricity as a motive power, instead of horses. —Samuel B. F. Morse graduated at Yale without giving special attention to electric studies, but gave his mind chiefly t portrait painting. His fame as an electrician was the product of an interest in electricity acquired subse quently while traveling" and studying art in France. —Manganin, which is an alloy of cop per, nickel and manganese, has remark able electrical properties. Its resistance hardly varies at all even through a range of temperature varying from 15 to 97 degrees centigrade. It thus be comes a superior metal for the construc tion of artificial resistances. —The most powerful electric light house in Europe is said to be the new one erected at Hantsholm, on the Scaw. The total height at the lighthouse is 190 feet, and the strength of the light is equal to 2,000,000 standard wax can dles. Even in rainy weather the light may be seen 00 miles distant. —An elaborate and extensive tele phone arrangement has just been com pleted in Woodsidc Established church, Glasgow, Scot., whereby the subscribers to the system are enabled to hear the entire service of the church at their homes, and with the utmost distinctness and ease. A large number of English churches are said to have a similar ar rangement, but of less extent. —Complaints have been made by sev* era! of the large banks in New York and other places of the large number of light-weight twenty-dollar gold pieces which have lately been shipped from California. Tt is believed that the coins have been subjected to a “sweating process” by electricity, by which as much as seventy-five cents or a dollar is extracted without material defacement of the coin. —A statistician has computed that there are at present in the world, under state management, 13.179 miles of sub marine cables, with 19,426 miles of wire, and in the possession of private com panies 112,937 miles of cable, with 113,- 885 miles of wire, being a total, there fore, of 126,116 miles of cable, with 133,- 311 miles of wire. Those cables are all in operation, besides which there are several long and short lines in course of construction. —M. Gustave Trouve, the inventor of flying machines, has been making a large number of experiments with a new electric boat. It has two side pad dles made into the form of wheels with hollow rims to act as floats, and also provided with vanes like a mill wheel. At the stern there is a third, but small er, wheel of the same sort as a steerer. The tricycle principle has been adopted. These combined wheels and floats are driven by electric motors, and the elec tricity is derived from a battery of zinc and copper plates, floating in the water and towed astern. With this arrange ment there is no need for charged ac cumulators on board. —Electric welding is nßw applied to the work of manufacturing iron wheels. The process of welding the hub, spokes and tire of a wheel is accomplished in thirty seconds. First the tire is laid on the machine, then half of the hub, which contains notches in which the spokes lit. The latter are laid in the hub and inserted in the tire, and then the other half of the hub is laid on top of the lower half, These are held to gether by hydraulic pressure. The electricity is turned on, the iron be comes heated to the proper degree and welds. The pressure is removed, the now compact wheel taken from its rest ing-place, lifted aside and allowed to cool. The work is done in very much less time than it took by the old process. Every Inch a King. “I’ve seen royalty in almost every sit nation in which the public is permitted to gaze on it,” said a veteran globe-trot ter, “and the most impressive sight t ever saw I think Was the czar of Russia at a court reception. The courtiers con veyed every mode of expression, by word and gesture, thair reaped and veneration for their ruler. He seemed to fully appreciate it. He stood unmoved through all these demonstrations of loyalty and fealty. He seemed to fully realize the fact that he held absolute power of life and death over millions of people, I do not think I could meet another man so manifestly conscious of his own authority and power and so en tirely careless of others.”—Chicago Post. 6 ' The Household Partnership. At the, time a woman marries, her husband theoretically takes her into partnership. She has as much right in the joint assets of the firm as he has. It is true that he earns the money, but It would be of lib tie use to him in making and maintain ing a home without the aid of his wife. By wise administration and prudent management she makes it go as far as possible, and greatly increases its pur chasing capacity. We do not need Ben jamin Franklin to remind us that a penny saved is a penny earned. She may justly be considered a direct oontrib utor to the resources of the Jim. La dies’Home J ouruah RELIGIOUS AND EDUCATIONAL. —The devil fights not against the dead but the living.—Farindon. —The university of New York in augurated a law course for women re cently. —A bill was introduced in the Vir ginia house of delegates to tax dogs at their true value, the tax thus derived to go to the state school fund. —Prof. A. C. Reese, of Carrollton, Ga., has been teaching school for fifty-six years. He says he has taught nearly 5.000 pupils and never hud but two to die in school time. —Abbott Academy, the school for young ladies at Andover, secures as its new principal Miss Laura S. Watson, in place of Miss Philena McKeen, who resigns after long service. —On the Malsbar coast of India is a community called Syrian Christians, numbering some 300.000, who claim to have been converted by St. Thomas, whose tomb they point out south of Madras. —We can not always be doing a great work, but we can always be doing something that belongs to our condi tion. To be silent, to suffer, to pray, when we can not act is acceptable to G od. —Fenelon. —A gentleman has offered to place twenty-five dollars at Laboucherc’s dis posal as a prize for the best suggestion for a scheme of punishment for chil dren, which shall exclude “the rod” and yet be adapted to every emergency. —A movement has been started among the members of the Young Men’s Chris tian Association of the University of Illinois to raise a fund with which to erect a V’. 51. C. A. building on the uni versity grounds at Champaign, 111. The sum to be raised is *25,000. —Unbelief does nothing but darken and destroy. It makes the world a moral desert, where no divine footsteps arc heard, where no angels ascend and descend, where no living hand adorns the field, feeds the birds of heaven, or regulates events. —Krummachcr. —Rev. Geo. Gunfell, of the Baptist Congo mission, says that in Central Africa there is an area of 4.000 square miles still unoccupied by a single mis sionary; that the center of Africa can not be permanently evangelized by white men, and that the natives are showing themselves well fitted for the task. —Mrs. Tel Sono, the enterprising lit tle Japanese woman who is visiting this country and trying to interest American women in a school which she wishes to found for the high-class women of J apan, who are seldom reached by mis sionaries, has addressed several large representative audiences in Washing ton, D. C., and awakened considerable interest in her plans. WIT AND WISDOM. —“That galop I composed myself.** “Certainly not with soothing syrup.” —Nothing destroys a people so speed ily as a low moral standard.—Cardinal Manning. —When moral courage feels that it is in the right, there is no personal daring of which it is incapable.—Leigh Hunt. —When a young man thinks he knows more than his father knew, he gets the idea that the world is progressing.— N. O. Picayune. —lf the parlor rocking chair could talk it would put a stop to much of the grumbling about crowded street cars.— Binghamton Republican. —The fellow who steals fuel from his neighbor's woodpile and finds some of the sticks charged with dynamite may be said to strike a responsive cord.—Oil City Blizzard. —The average man never reads down the column of “Personal Notes About Well-Known People” without a vague feeling that he shouldn’t be surprised if he saw bis own name printed there some day.—Somerville Journal. —Censure and criticism never hurt anybody i If false, they can not hurt you unless you are wanting in manly character; and if true, they show a man his weak points, and forewarn him against failure and trouble.—Gladstone. “-The Sarcastic Giraffe,—“l want a collar, said the giraffe, going into a col lar and cuff store. “Here is the latest New York style,” said the salesman. “Dear mil” cried the giraffe, “That is too high. How much neck do you suppose I’ve got?”—Harper's Young People. —Mrs. Spleeny—They says it’s an ill wind that blows nobody good. What would you doctors do were it not for sickness? Dr. Bulus—Ah there you make a great mistake, Mrs. Splceney. It is the people who think themselves sick who enrich the doctors.—Boston Transcript. —Wildly Improbable—Dimling (look ing up from the newspaper)—When mendacious reporters concoct stories they ought at least to make them some what probable, Toiling—Well? Dim ling—.Here's a paragraph which say* that a poet in Omaha has been poisoned by handling a SIOO bill. A poet, mind you.—Jester. —Friendship Is generally abused by those who profess it. It is too often suppose to carry with it an official right to that kind of candor which is always insolence. There can be no greater mistake. The more intimate our rela tions are with any one, be it in friend ship or love, the less should we strain the opportunity to say impertinent or disagreeable things. Intimacy does not absolve from courtesy, though it is so often separated from it by unwisdom and the impetuosity of human nature —Ouidq* > TERMS: SI.OO Per Annnm in Advano USEFUL AND SUGGESTIVE. _— Clean piano keys with a soft rag dipped in alcohol. —To make good, sticky fly paper mix by heat three and one-half ounces molasses. Apply to paper while warm. —lf the wick of a lamp does not move easily in the holder, draw out one or two threads from one side. The wick should be as large a one as the holder will receive. —When going from a warm atmos phere into a cooler one always keep the mouth closed, so that the air may lie warmed by its passage through the nose ere it reaches the lungs. —A good tonic for the hair is of salt water; a teaspoonful of salt to a half pint of water, applied to the hair two or three times a week. The effect at the end of a month will be surprising. —Kye Puffs.—Beat together until well mingled, one pint of thin cream and the yolk of one egg. Add gradu ally, beating meanwhile, four cups of rye flour. Continue to boat vigorously for ten minutes, then add the stiffly beaten white of the egg. and bake in heated irons.—Good Health. —Ocehn Cake.—Two cupfuls white sugar, one-half cup of butter, one cup sweet milk, three cups of sifted flour, three teaspoonfuls baking powder, and beaten whites of live eggs, two tabic spoonfuls lemon juice. This makes an excellent layer cake but it is meant to be baked in a loaf.—Detroit Free Press. —A Good Calcimine.—To make a good calcimine soak one pound of white glue overnight, then dissolve it in boiling water and add twenty pounds of Paris white, diluted with water, until the mixture shall be of the consistency of thick milk, to this any tint may be given that is desired—Ladies' Home Journal. —Fricasseed Tripe.—Cut the tripe into .‘•mall squares, place it in a little milk or water, and when boiling add a table spoonful butter rubbed smooth with as much flour, and salt and pepper to taste. Cover closely and let it simmer slowly for an hour or more. When very tender, serve with finely chopped parsley strewn over the top.—Orange Judd Farmer. —Park House Graham Muffins.—Four eggs, one teacupful of brown sugar, two tablcspoonfuls of melted butter or lard, one-half teacupful of good yeast, a pinch of salt, ■ two quarts of graham flour, milk enough to make a stiff batter. Mix and let it rise over night. In the morning, fill the muffin rings haTf full, and bake in a quick oven. —Boston Bud get. —Shirred Eggs with Cheese.—For six people take one pint of cream, four ounces of Parmesan cheese, a little cay enne and six eggs. Put the cheese and two-thirds of the cream and the dash of cayenne together in a saucepan and cook them till they are thoroughly in corporated and quite smooth, then pour the mixture on a buttered dish and put over it the rest of the cream which has been warmed. Break the eggs into this, sprinkle with a little more cheese and cook in a hot oven until the whiter, of the eggs are firm; it will take about four minutes. Serve at once.—House hold Monthly. A BIG STONE. A Mighty Bowlder nncl the Superstition Concerning It. On a heather-clad mountain side, which slopes downward to the bed of the Kemnare river, in the beautiful county of Kerry, lies a fragment of rook weighing more than a hundred tons. Keing quite unlike the rocks in the environing hills, it excites more or less curiosity among persons who are inclined to scientific study. The superstitious peasantry regard it with wonder not unmixed with awe, and relate legends of the giants of old who played ball with such huge frag ments, and of one in especial, who, in a moment of sport, tossed this particular piece a matter of a few miles, leaving it where it fell when flung from his hand. Hut he must, indeed, have been a powerful giant to handle the (Togb vorra stone, as it is called, when it would tax all of the powers of our very best available machinery to move it even a single inch. Hut it is to no fab ulous or supernatural agency that this stone owes its transportation to its pres ent bed from the point, miles above, which was its original home. Thousands of years ago, when the British Isles were in the iron grasp of an icc age, this bowlder was carried on the bosom of a glacier and cast upon a mountain side, there to remain as one of the finger posts set up by nature to guide tbe student in the labyrinths through which she loves to lead him; And the study of the earth, its mount ains and meadows, its plains and val leys, and the fathomless depths of ocean, all tel,l a wondrous and most enchanting story of changes, evolution, growth, disintegration and restoration. In its silent embrace are clasped the fossil re mains of beasts beside which those of our own days are as pigmies to giants. The naturalist takes a single bone, and gives ns a sketch of the creature almost as perfect as though photographed by the most approved camera of to-day. It is a mattef for congratulation that the study of geology has been stripped of the dry husks of technical terms which have for so long enveloped it, and is now given to us in simple lan guage and in a style so fascinating that eyon a child need not weary of it. And what could be more interesting than the study of the earth, the rocks, the coal formations, the miperals and the exhaustless treasurers of oceans’ depths?—JJ. Y. Ledger. NO. 22.