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P AMERICAN FARMER.
GUV ELLIOT MITCHELL. ' Secretary Wilson’s report to the the highest value ever before reached. President on the present condition of h * le only one crop, corn, reached its . , , , , .. highest production this year, four Ihe American farmer and Oi the vo cro p hay, wheat, and rice— Of his Department is the most remark- reached their highest value, able statement of a great people’s pros- . perity which has probably ever been Value of .he Dairy Cow. Issued since time began. The Secre- No crop but corn produces the in- SECRETARY WILSON, OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. tary says that it is a most grateful task to present to his Chief and thus to the" American people a pen picture of the American farmer as he is to daj', to make clear the pre-eminent position of the farming industry, its wonderful productiveness, and its large contributions to the general prosperity of the country. His report also points out some of Ihe more important work by which his department seeks to benefit the farmer. DR. WILEY, Chief of the Bureau of Chemistry. IThe same is two-fold. It seeks to add to the knowledge of the man and to increase the productive capacity of the acre. Mr. Wilson does not, how ever, lay back upon his oars and inti mate that everything is being done that is necessary, for, great as has been the work undertaken and accomplished, and gratifying as has been the re sults as shown in the first few pages of this report, be it remembered, re marks the Secretary, that we are still at the threshold of agricultural develop ment and that the educational work which has led to such grand results has only been extended as yet to a portion of our agricultural population. I‘Unprecedented Prosperity of Farmer f A year of unequaled prosperity has been* added to the most remarkable aeries of similar years that has come to the farmers of this country. Farm crops have never before been har vested at such a high general level of production and value. Corn has reached its highest production, over 2,700,000,- 000 bushels, of a total estimated value of $1,216,000,000. Hay comes second, with a value of $605,000,000. Cotton is expected to yield $575,000,000. The DR. MOORE. OF TEE BUREAU, short wheat crop of last year is fol- the financial history of the South, de lowed by one of 684,000,000 bushels posits in the banks of that region now and Its value, 1625,000,000, overtops exceed 11,000,000,000. These remark- come that the dairy cow does. The estimate of the value of dairy products for 1905 reaches $665,000,000. The farmer’s hen competes for precedence with w'heat, poultry products aggre gating half a billion dollars in value. Value of Farm Animals. The value of horses and mules on farms exceeded last winter $1,452,000,- 000. Milch cows are advancing in numbers and are worth $482,000,000. The value of all other cattle is esti mated at $662,000,000. Great Amount of Exports. During the last fiscal year, exported domestic farm products were valued at $827,000,000. During the last sixteen years the domestic exports of farm products have amounted to $12,000,000,- 000, or $1,000,000,000 more than enough to buy all the railroads of the country at their commercial value, and this DR. MELVIN. 'Chief of the Bureau Animal Industry, with the mere surplus for which there was no demand at home. Farmers as Bankers* One of the most notable outgrowths of savings by farmers is the great multiplication of small National banks in recent years. As many as 1,754 banks, each with a capital of less than $50,000, were organized from March, 1900, to October, 1905. These were dis tributed mostly throughout the South and the North Central States, in rural regions. In the South 633 of these banks were organized, and In the North Cen tral States 792. For the first time In able Increases in bank deposits in ag ricultural States and the increase in the number of small country banks are directly and indirectly because of the profits that have come to the farmers. Weather Bureau Work* The report presents the work ac complished by the Weather Bureau for ASS T. SECRETARY HAYS, the benefit of the farmers, mariners, and manufacturers, and points out that with all the development of this work the average per annum increase in the cost of the service for the past ten years is but 4.41 per cent. Suppression of Diseases of Animals. Of the Bureau of Animal Industry the Secretary says that the work of fighting contagious diseases of animals has been unremittingly carried on. The report refers in detail to the principal diseases which have been made the subject of study, and concludes that in every case the efforts of the Bureau have been attended with a more sat isfactory control or complete eradica tion. He commends highly the skill MR. PINCHOT, CHIEF OF THE BUREAU OF FORESTRY. and energy which characterized the suppression of foot-and-mouth disease in the New England States in 1902 and 1903. Plant Diseases and Plant Breeding. The Bureau of Plant Industry is or ganized into eleven offices and employs over 500 persons, about 60 per cent, of whom are engaged in distinctly scientific work. In its systematic work in securing new plants and seeds from foreign countries the Bureau of Plant Industry has been highly successful. Success has also attended its ■work in cotton breeding, undertaken with the view to obtaining new sorts combining im proved length of staple with produc tiveness. The Secretary records the production of anew citrus fruit, the citrange, several varieties of which — the Rusk, the Willets, the Morton— have been developed. Another inter esting product is the new tangSlo, a hybrid of the pomelo or grape fruit, and the tangerine orange. Very considerable importance is re corded in Che manner of seed distribu tion, A special feature has been the encouragement of school-garden work thereby. Growth of the Forest Service. An important achievement in For estry during the past few years has been to enlist the sympathy and co operation of lumbermen and forest owners, and the Secretary urges that the work of education continue until B H 9Pk jjtLfis ''? fl / tty sKSEmir /f/M vjtV^M ■ LCfMWSr Wffim&k W Wfr r SBEa&£ ’B' > i X>X*Ejrm ' *- WAI/j £SSBs& -'.'>^[^BSBl fi HSII.’-' 'ffiwiiffipiffi j / wrr m|H9k > <£3n^K ; 4MHp\ iVi fie/ \ ,VVf. /&7 - IvclUff gßltewigrg vi&Bmm. A u ffir/ nffßW - -——- • - f A Vv*vy fl - aßßfe \|Q i7u/ EsBBBb r '- ~3S *■• tvm\ DR. HOWARD. Chief of the Bureau of Entomology. public opinion will not tolerate heed less waste or injudicious loss. In the saving of waste the Service has added vastly more to the National wealth than its total expenditures during its entire history. The control of the for est reserves, embracing property worth in cash at least $250,000,000, has been transferred to the Forest Service. The Service continues to afford important aid to private forest owners. Chemical Investigations. The Bureau of Chemistry has con ducted Important investigations relat- ing to our cereal products and pre pared meats. The latter included a systematic examination of canned goods. Its practical experiments have developed the fact that, without excep tion, the addition of the ordinary pre servatives to foods is prejudicial to health. The Secretary argues the need |of protecting the public from these evil effects by legislation. Soil Surveys and Soil Studies. In spite of the activity of the Bu reau of Soils, there are on file at the present time requests for mapping 215 counties in 40 States and territories. The surveys already made aggregate 63,000,000 acres in 44 States and ter ritories. The soils adapted to spe- PROF. GALLOWAY, Chief of the Bureau of Plant Industry. cial crops such as the grape, the apple, citrus fruits, the sugar beet, alfalfa, rice, corn, cotton, etc., have all been made subjects of special study based on the field surveys. The Investiga- tions of the Bureau into the question of soil fertility and manorial require ments have attracted general atten tion and much comment. The Cotton 801 l Weevil. In the work of the Bureau of En tomology considerable space is de- PROF. WHITNEY, Chief of the Bureau of Soils, voted to the Mexican cotton boll weevil. The subject of dissemination of the weevil through cotton gins has been very carefully investigated, and DR. MERRIAM. Chief of the Bureau of Biological Survey. Important results have been obtained, resulting in recommendations to the glnners calculated to greatly reduce this danger. Beneficial Insects Introduced. Work has been done by the Bureau of Entomology in the introduction of the fig fertilizing insect of South Eu rope, the introduction of a parasite of the black scale so injurious to citrus and olive crops in California from South Africa, and the introduction with success in the Southern States STOP YOUR RUNAWAY NONE GENUINE y bil Can Do It EVERY TIME UNLESS STAMPER „.... . df“SI!“V) SWOWm PEER safety rein f eUC To LCS Jl PRICE. COMPLETE, $5.00 I cww PIECE M ' Expreaaage Prepaid V •RiNX'^f/-* ——*r ' No more Smaah-upa; No more 4 n v •/ Lives Lest; Can be buckled \i • on. In a minute, to any Bridle: WORKS INDEPENDENTLY OF THE DRIVING REINS. Write for descriptive circular, free on application, to THE* GEER MAXUPACTURIXQ CO., A1 EXCHANGE PLACE, NEW YORK. Will Stop any Horae or Money Refunded, of a parasite of the San Jose scale from China. Life Zones and Crop Zones. The work of the Bureau of Biolog ical Survey includes the determination of the boundaries of the natural life zones of the United States and the corresponding crop zones. The chief purpose is to ascertain the bounda ries of natural life zones with a view to aiding the farmer in selecting crops best adapted to his locality and in avoiding crops unsuited to it. Studies of Birds. One section of the Biological Survey is engaged in the study of birds and their various relations to man, espe cially to determine whether birds damage crops, whether they protect insects either injurious or beneficial, and to what extent they feed upon weed seeds. Thousands of birds’ stomachs are examined in gathering facts on this subject. Publications of the Department. In the Division of Publications more than twelve million copies of publi cations have been distributed by the Department during the past year, nearly 45 per cent, of w r hich were dis tributed through the Senators and Representatives in Congress. Need of Government Crop Reports. Referring to the work of the Bureau of Statistics, the Secretary says that the development TE>f organizations to fix prices, and in some cases to force temporary changes giving unnatural advantages to price manipulators, has led to the need of a strong and im partial agency to make comprehensive reports of actual facts relating to prospective crops and yields, that all concerned may know how to buy and sell. The Improvement of Public Roads. The work of the Office of Public Roads is primarily educational in character. Its province is to detail experts to give information and ad vice. In many communities it Is found advisable to supplement advice by practical demonstration of effect ive road building. These roads have been built in thirty-eight States. Speaking of the growth of the De partment, the Secretary reports the number of persons on the rolls July 1, 1905, to be 5,446. Of these, 2,326 are rated as scientists and scientific assistants. This shows an Increase since July 1, 1897, of 3,003 persons on the rolls of the Department. Gleanings in Bee Culture teaches yotx about bees, how to handle them for honey and profit. Send for free copy. Head it. Then vou ’ll want to subscribe. 6 b trial 20c. I>on’t delay but do it to-dav A. 1. Rest Cos., f/.cuina, Ohio. Kirk’s AMERICAN, CROWN SOAP *s a green soap, consistency of paste, a perfect cleanser for automobile machinery and al* Vehicles; will not injure the most highly polished surface. Made from pure vegetable oils. If your dealer does not carry American Crown Soap in stock, send us his name and address and Ve will see that your wants are supplied. Put up in James S. Kirk& Company CHICAGO a 111 . International Harvester Cos. GASOLINE ENGINES When equipped with an I. H.C. gasoline engine, the farm, the dairy, the tnill the threshing machine, or the busker and shredder can be operated more economically than with any other power. Farmers who have water to pump, wood to saw, feed to grind, or corn.to. shell, can do this work at a minimum cost with I. H. C. engines, I. H. C. HORIZONTAL ENGINE I. H. C. gasoline engines are made in the following sizes ; 2,3 and 5H- P., vertical type, stationary; 6, 8, 10, 12 and 15 H. P., horizontal type, stat ionary; and 6, 8,10, 12 and 15 H. P., horizontal type, portable. WRITE FOR GASOLINE ENGINE BOOKLET. International Harvester Cos. of America (lacormntedj 7 Monroe Street Chicago, 111., U. S. A* m A§AAiA§o|ff§ftff9fivt99l* •What More Acceptable* : CHRISTMAS : •I REMEMBRANCE j •Could you send to your friends?. : It Costs Ten Cents : •It is Worth Ten Dollars: | why? j J BECAUSE ; J Every Woman’s Life is aProblem • • of I :how to make a living! • or • j HOW TO MAKE A HOME \ • and J :OHE HINT OR SUGGESTION; • from • : ONE WHO KNOWS ! • is oftentimes • •OF VALUE incalculable: J to the ! WORKER OR HOUSEWIFE j I How to Save Time • I How to Save Steps J How to Make a Home* • What it ougEt to be I J IS TOLD BY • • ONE WHO KNOWS • • in I MAXWEIX’S I iHomemaker Itelne! • An Illustrated Monthly • Edited by (imy Clisbec flaxVdl I J which will be sent to you • iONE WHOLE YEAR I FOR ONLY | TEN CENTS j • Send a dime or five two-cent e • stamps to S ! MAXWELL’S j ! HOMEMAKER \ ! MAGAZINE : ; 1405. Fisher Building : IcH IC AGO, ILL. j