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—■ ■■■ _ . CHAS. G. MOREAU. EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR. ‘WORTHLESS TREES. ■w . Worthless and decaying trees in th ©v -bard are and only harbors breed Jng places for the insects which prej upon the fruit trees, and their fruit It is a good idan to grub out all suet tn root and branch if the sound auc Lvalihy fruit Is expected? GRAFTED APPLES. R •! - : i♦'•p that undesirable varieties O; appb* trees may be grafted ovei Edo other ,-orts, but it will take sev < i veins for grafted trees to conn iniu full bearing and they are nol .satisfactory as nngraftef tree.-. -The Garden Magazine. ... /-kx A PEAR EATING RUG. Mr. M. 11. Shaw, of Boone County pends us spe -linens of an insect h< finds ;u some of bis pears. It has no i > :non name, that we know of, but 1’ "> I- igolugL'S call it I lie Indian Ce* i . a pro! ahjy because it was first dis < ;v< -d in India. It is about half an -.mb ; . id nearly as wide, is a dirty i a < i.’<,r, and mottled, with red j li i <>iii - in two broods. April i y i)ie;ji! -r. The latter brood feeds < u fruits burrowing into ripe pears, Inn : to the middle, and destroy* limni. They also cat grapes and . :;-■ iin s leaches. They are not •>. •-a mm , uis, and the thing to do wi h tl: a is to catch and mash them in • . foot. The spring brood feed on the s: |i of trees that are bruised; u with coal oil emulsion.— Im.wna Farmer. A USEFUL FRUIT PICKER. A (’ohuvido fanner lias patented a iiniqn-; fruit picker, in illustration ol which avi- show here. It consists of a pair of sic ars or sai-sors for severing the stems of the fruit in combination with a receptacle into which the individual fruit drop as their stems a;v connected with the receptacle. The latter has an enlarged top, com posed of metal, with inclined sides, t- • ming a hopper-shaped mouth, rings Ji* ng aita-Led on opposite sides. Other rings are connected with these rings, v- ideh pass through orifices in a blade of a pair of scissors, the openings be ing of such size that the rings can move fri- ly. This device, while capa ble of use in picking fruit generally fr ni 1r s. is more especially intend is a < herry picker. In pick ■ s it is <1 sirable that a por tion of the stem be left upon each ac rry. sitc-e the fruit will keep longer ft I.j .... MW pjf ; I] i i) . .J TICKS AND GATiIEUS THE FRUIT. than when the stem is pulled out. Moreover, it is not desirable that the full length of the stem should remain, but by the use of this apparatus any desired portion of lit * stem may be left upon the fruit. The blade of the s ussors being movable upon the rings, the position of the scissors can bo changed from the horizontal to the vertical, or to any position between (lie two extremes, so that the stem of the cherry can bo cut regardless of the position it occupies. As the stem is cut the cherry falls into the receptacle, and when the latter is full it may be emptied and the operation continued. The .-ize of the receptacle is such that it can easily be supported by the hand holding tlie scissors, the user reach ing into and through the branches of the tree*.—Philadelphia Record. Br DDIX G AXI > GR AF TI NG. Some fruit growers graft and bud Cions on the saute tree. I hud budding most satisfactory, la grafting, cions from choice stock are transplanted upon seedlings of unknown possibili ty's; ami also, cions from plants of naturally weak growth are profitably grafted upon sturdier stock. In bud ding, a single bud with as little wood attached as possible is used; in graft ing. growths of the proceeding year are employed, and these are embedded In the slock in the spring. In bud ding. the lately formed buds of the growing season are inserted, forming a union before the s a son closes, but remaining dormant until spring. In fruit tree grafting, the cions are lietter cut in the autumn and preserved over winter. Grafting is always most successful If it is done upon trees of same spe cies as the bud or cion. I have r.o ticid that on some of our trees which have been grafted, the fruit on one limb will be much different from that on the rest of the tree. Grafting is usually done in the spring, just as the plants are begin ning to grow, although it can be done later and will ho successful. One ad vantage is. if the grafts fail to grow, budding can be done at any time dur ing the summer, when the bark will g sily slip.—M. A., iu Indiana Farmer. Tommy Didn't Know, A t acher in one of New York's pub lie schools, in the course of a lesson on “Natural History,” was explaining to her class of boys the harm that had been done to the trees in the city by worms, and then went on telling how the English sparrows had been im ported to kill the worms, and that (he sparrows had increased so in numbers that they had become as bad as the worms. Noticing the boys were not very attentive, she said lo one of them; “Tommy, which do you think are worst, the worms or the sparrow's?” “I don’t know,” said Tommy; “I never the sparrows.”—New York Globe. FORME-BRINGING DREAMS NUMBERS SEEN IN SLEEP CON SIDERED LUCKIEST OF OMENS. Strange Story That Is Told of Signer Fozzi, a Merchtnt 'of Milan—Pa thetic Story of a Poor, Old Blind Woman of Dublin. Has there ever been a lottery, wo wonder, in which dreams of lucky numbers have not played a romantic part, a* In the case of M. Cousin, who won the second prize of £B,OOO in the recent French lottery? That, for Instance, is a strange story that is told of Signor Fozzi, a merchant of Milan. Not long ago the signor dreamed of Lis daughter, who died several years since, and next morning, with his dream still mourn fully haunting his memory, something brought to his mind that it was one of the days on which the municipal lottery was open. To the lottery ho went, being a man of sporting in stincts, and his dream suggested the venture. His daughter htying died at the age of 2i years 13 days and 4 hours he selected these three uum 1k is to bet upon, and two of the three proved highly luck}'. One, on which he had 1 ild Bs. 4J. brought him 250 times his stakes, or over £IOO, and the other 4,25 J times his stake of £1 j2s. 6d., or nearly £7,000. It was a dream that brought for tune too late for an Italian peasant called Luca. The peasant dreamed one night that ho had been present at the drawing of the great State lot tery, and that the first prize of £B,OOO had fallen to ticket No. 24016. When ho awoke he was so strongly impress ed by his dream that he scraped to gether all the money he possessed, and, after long searching, was able to buy a ticket, not of the number of his dream, but containing the same figures in a different order. Then ho fell on evil days, his wife died of an illness brought on by hardship and starvation, and a few days later he, too, succumbed. Within a week of this double tragedy the ticket he had purchased was awarded the great prize at the lottery drawing. A similar pathetic story is told of a poor blind woman, once a familiar figure in Sackville street, Dublin, where for many years she earned a scanty livelihood by selling laces and other small articles. One night she dreamed of a number which was to win a great prize in a forthcoming lottery, and when she awoke she hur ried to the lottery office to insure it. The number was not drawn; but her faith in it was unabated, and time after time she Insured it, selling her clothes, and even the basket that contained her goods, to raise the nec essary money. At last her small re sources were quite exhausted. One day she was unable to insure the number, and that very day it was drawn. The blow of fortune was too much tor the poor old creature, and, groping her blind way to the Royal Canal, she ended her troubles in its waters. In the early days of lotteries in England to dream a number was al ways looked on as the luckiest of omens. In an old copy of the Post Boy we may still read this advertise ment; “This is to give notice that 10 shillings over and above the market price will be given for the ticket in the £ 1,500,000 lottery. No. 132, by Nath Cliff, at the Bible and Three Crowns, In Cheapside.” Light was thrown on this mysterious notice by a letter which the advertiser wrote to the Spectator, in which he says: “You must know I have but one ticket, for which reason, and a cer tain dream I have lately had more than once, I resolved it should be the number I most approved. My vis ions are so frequent and strong upon this occasion that I have not only possessed the lot but disposed of the money which in all probability it will sell for.” About the same time a footman, on the strength of a similar dream, spent the whole of twenty years’ sav ings in purchasing two lottery tickets bearing his lucky dream numbers, and when the tickets proved blanks wo learn, “after a few melancholy days he put an end to his life.” In a box was found the following plan o? the manner In which he shoul I spend the £5,000 prize, which his mistress preserved as a curiosity: “As soon as I have received Lie money I will marry Grace Towers; but as she has been cross and coy I will use her as a servant. Every morning she shall get me a mug of strong beer, witfif toast, nutmeg and sugar In It; then I will sleep until 10, after which I will have a large sack posset. My dinner shall be on table by 1, and never without a geo 1 pudding. I will have a sock of wine and brandy laid in. About 5 in the afternoon I will have tarts and jel lies and a gallon bowl of punch; at 10 a hot supper of two dishes. If I am in a good humor and Graces behaves herself, she shall sit down with me.”—Tit-Bits. SHE LOVES FLOWERS. • _____ China’s Empress Dowager Has a Passion for Flowers and For Ail Out-of-Dcors. Her Majesty’s love-of flowers was one cf her characteristics which seemed most incompatible with the idea I had formed of her from what I had heard, and her love cf flowers and all nature caused me first to change that idea. It seemed to me no one could love flowers and nature as she did and be the woman she had been painted. She had flowers always about her. Her private apartments, her throne rooms, her loge at the theatre, even the great audience hall, where she went only to transact affairs of state and hold official audiences —qll were decorated with a profusion of flowers cut ami growing, but never, though, of more than one kind at a time. She wears natural flowers in her coiffure always, winter and summer, and how ever careworn or harassed she might be, she seemed to find solace in flow ers. She would hold n. flower to her face, drink in its fragrance, and caress it as if it were a sentient thing. She would go herself among the flowers that filled her rooms, and place, with lingering touchy soin§ fair bloom In a better light, or turn a jardiniere bo that the growing plant might have a more favorable position. The Chinese do not place certain Cut flowers in water, but keep them dry In bowls or vases to get their full fragrance. The Empress Dowager had some quaint conceits about the aiiTangerajent of these. She would have the corollas of the lily-bloom or the frangrant jasmin© placed in shal low bowls in curious, star-like de signs, beautiful to look at, as well as most fragrant. ': y Her passion for flowers being gen erally known among the courtiers, princes and high officials-, they send daily offerings to the palace of all that is rare and choice in the way of pia.nts and flowers; for they know this is one present her Majesty will always accept and appreciate. There are seme quaint customs in the palace as to flowers and fruits the grow within* the precincts. Though the princesses and ladies have the freedom of the gardens and may pull as many flowers and cull as man;, fruits as they wish, it is not etiquette for them to gather the smallest flow ers or to touch a fruit when in the presence of the Empress Dowager, unless they are- specially told to do so. When her Majesty tells them to pull n flower or fruit, the permission is gratefully accepted and that spec ial flower or fruit religiously kept. The first fruits of every tree and vegetable, the first flower of every plant and growing shrub in the pal ace grounds, are considered sacred to their Majesties, and no princess, attendant, or eunuch would touch a flower or fruit until the Empress Dowager had been presented with the first of them. All these apparently trivial marks of respect to the sacred persons of their Majesties were re ligiously observed.' —From Katherine Carl’s “With the Empress Dowager in the Century. LINCOLN’S FOREFATHERS, All Pioneers and a Strain of Tragedy Runs Through Their History. Abraham Lincoln's forefathers wete pioneers—men who left their homes to open up the wilderness and make the way plain for others to follow them. For one hundred and seventy years, ever since the first American Lincoln came from England to Mass achusetts, in 1638, they had been mov ing slowly westward as new settlc ments were made in the forest. They faced solitude, privation and all the dangers and hardships that beset m n who take up their homes where only beasts and wil 1 m n have had homes before; but they continued to press teadily forward, though they lost fortune and sometimes even life lost in their westward progress. Mack i- 1 Pennsylvania end Now Jersey some of the Lincolns had been men of wealth and influence. In Kentucky, where the future President was born, on February 12, ISO 9, his parents liv ed in deep poverty. Their home was a small log cabin of the rudest kind, iind nothing seemed more unlikely than that their child, coming into the world in such humble surroundings, was destined to be the greatest man of his time. True to his race, he also was to he a pioneer—not indeed, like lira ancestors, a leader into now woods and unexplored fields, but a pioneer of a nobler and grander sort, directing the thoughts of men ever to ward the right, and leading the Am erican people, through difficulties and dangers and a mighty war, to pi ace and freedom. The story of this wonderful man begins and ends with a tragedy, for his grandfather, also named Abra ham, was killed by a shot from aa Indian’s rifle while peaceably at work with his throe sons on the edge of their frontier clearing. Eighty-one years later the President'himself met death by an assassin’s bullet. The murderer of one was a savage of the forest; the murderer of the other that far more cruel thing, a savage of civ ilization. —From Helen Nicolay’s “Hie Boys’ Life of Abraham Lincoln” in St. Nicholas. The Longest Lived Fence Pests. “Many years ago,” says Andrew Whilton in Popular Mechanics, “while engaged in running a sawmill in east ern Connecticut I had a lot <f fence n sts to saw from small chesnut logs. The posts were to be sawed taper ing, and to economize in lumber the logs wore first sawed square and then split diagonally. Of course they were to be set in the ground large end down, which waul i bring one-half of them bottom up in regard to the po sition in which they grew. I remem ber hearing an old farmer say that posts sot that way would outlast those set light end up. and I determined to improve the opportunity at hand to test the matter. So I marked all the inverted ones, and as the fence was to be built in the neighborhood I watched the result. Examining the fence about nine years after it was built, convinced me, as the inverted ones were practically sound, while the others showed very much more de cay.” “Bullet-Proof” Armor. An Italian armorer, Eenedittl by name, is in jail, having obtained from a Milan bank an advance of $14,000 on the strength of having invented an alleged “bullet-proof” cuiras.3 for use in the Russo-Jap war. Experts de clare the cuirass worthless. In 1896 a Berlin tailor made a great sensation in the Berlin music halls with public “tests” of a “bullet-proof vest.” He offered to sell his secret to the Government, and the Emperor agreed that it should be bought on this condition: The inventor should stand up with his “vest” on and the Emperor should fire at him three times with a rifle taken at random from those carried by the palace guard. The tailor ac cepted the condition, but the night before the day set for the test he van" ishsd from Berlin! Of course, there is no such thing as “invulnerable” armor, for a man or a warship, says the Chicago Inter- Ooean. The heaviest armored -ship afloat Is “shot proof” only until a suf ficiently heavy gun can be brought rear oa her. The Ugly Work qf Prejudice By the Kev. Thomas B. Gregory. SFTENTIMES one “takes a notion” that this, that or the other person would not pay him for the trouble of making his acquaint ance. It is just a “notion”; he does not know the person, has never even so much as exchanged a word with him; he -only has the “notion” that he does not care to know him; that he would do well, in fact, to have nothing to do with him. In other words, you are governed by prejudice. You are permitting vourself to form an opinion without knowing whether the opinion fs true or false, right or wrong. To come directly to the point, you are doing ore of the worst things that it is possible for you to.do—you are mls J tidging a fellow human being—you are making a picture of the man or woman you have never seen, and you are hating the picture without knowing wnethei it is a true one or a false one. ..... . _ How do we know that people are “commonplace if we ha\e nt\e. c,I*- 1 *- to the trouble of becoming acquainted with them? It is just possible that they are of the opinion that we are commonplace and if we knew they were really of that way of thinking how badly we should about it! ■Commonplace! Why, my dear sir, nobody is commonplace. Every human being is a miracle of wonder —a whole combination of mir acles of wonder! , . ... There was never a poem written, or a romance, or a fairy tale, that was half so thrilling in its interest as the experience of the humblest man or woman, who, betwixt the two eternities, is making the little earhly journey w'e cal! “Life!” . . _ . To know that experience, to become acquainted with its C ursts of Croat Heart” and “Slips in Sensual Mire,” with its Transfiguration Glories and its t: 'thsemane Griefs, its struggles and triumphs and failures, its thoughts ana hopes, its doubts and fears —to know this is to kuow r anything but the com monplace. “1 am a man.” said one of the old Roman poets, “and, therefore, nothing that is human shall he alien to me.” That is the spirit with which one should go out into the ways of men— the spirit not of the cynic, but of the loving brother of all mankind. Xo one is mean, or cheap, or commonplace in the eyes of him who loves his fellow men. Get out among men with the idea that they are your brothers; that they are human to the same extent, and in the same way, that you arc: that you and they live in the same old world of mystery and wonder, of good and evil, of joy and sorrow, of victory and defeat, of hope and despair; that you and they are travelling the same way, through practically the same experiences, to the same strange old jumping-off-place—do this, and you will find no end of interest and entertainment! Crush out the ugly, foolish prejudice that is in your soul, discard the notion that you cannot like this, that or the other person, put yourself in a receptive, friendly mood toward everybody, and the stock of your human happiness will be immeasurably enlarged!—New York American. & Some Physical Advantages One Benefit of Military Training is* trie Exercise it Enforces. By Copt. Charles TP. Boyd. fri ■" wmi tendency among students is to stoop, and it is not surprising | I that ill-health should follow such a habit. In the military 8 training the young man is required to make an effort to stand | _ i , lllll J erect. He is expected to carry his head set squarely on his fepil shoulders, that his outlook on life may be one of directness and consequent fearlessness. His shoulders are required to be iv even um j tj at an q upright, ready to bear responsibilities with resolute will. He is required to carry his chest well up, giving his lungs space in which to live a healthy life and fill themselves with pure nil. Finally the student is required to walk with his legs alone, using neither | bis saoulders, his arms nor his hands to aid his movements in walking. Now, to acquire an erect carriage is no easy matter, unless one has been , Instructed in it from boyhood days; but if being upright in one thing helps a person in being upright in another, should not the being upright in caiiL.ge help a person In being upright in character? And is the result not worth the, effort? In any case, erectness of carriage is one of the results of the military training in the colleges of our country. The trouble with the average American who earns his bread by the sweat of his brain is that he dees not sufficiently exercise his body. He gives himself little or no time in which to get out of the rut of his especial i calling'. His mind frequently becomes narrow, and his body oftentimes be-1 comes diseased. He should, every day, when his work ceases, give his; attention to some form of bodily exercise, entering into it heartily and con taining it steadily. He will then enjoy his food and rest, and will be able , to begin another day’s work with his mind clear and his body alert. For | these Who engage in college uo physical recreation is, of course,! necessary; but for the se who forego athletics, exercise, either in the gym-1 uasium or elsewhere, must lie provided. Habits of ext.cise eailv acquired. are easily continued, and as the mind becomes more vigorous, so will the body; for if the body be weak or diseased it will lessen the faculties of the, mind! and will, as a rule, prevent the accomplishment of th desires of a>- , bition. —St. Nicholas. The Professions Have Propositions*’ 1 iy tlie Editor ot Scribner’s. qt so long ago, the sneer of “un-democratic was wont to gieot • IbbslT I the claim that certain classes of officials who render service of |j S first importance to the community, but of a kind to preclude for money-making—for example, judges and diplo mats should receive salaries commensurate with the social post sition attaching to the office. Now that claim is discussed seriously and sympathetically in the press and in private talk. The public is also coming to appreciate the passing of professional caste or prestige, the “standing” of professional men as such, as entailing no small loss to the community. Beyond question this standing was ence a compensa tion to many men for foregoing what President Porter of Yale used to call “vulgar success.” Probably this passing of professional prestige Is as much due to the inroads of commercialism on the professions as to the general disposi tion to define success in terms of dollars. The fees charged by an eminent doctor or lawyer, the cash value put on the skill of an export engineer or architect, the prices paid to a great painter, the profits received by the author of a successful novel or play, all tend almost steathily to turn professional woik into a “business proposition.” Thus are elimited the few professional men whose work is any sense altruistic or ethical, notably the clergyman, the teacher, the student, the scientist, the essayist, the poet and the publicist. The old doctrine of plain living and high thinking as their own satisfaction doubt less still suffices for a saving remnant. It is a doctrine, however, which loses much of its appeal when intellectual effort of the same quality and a like theoretical interest finds substantial reward if practically applied. g? 8F The Panama Situation, By William Barclay Parsons. BOR the third, and, let us hope, for the last time, a study of the Panama situation has begun. The conditions confronting the United States Government differ radically, however, from those which confronted the French companies, or that would confront any private company that can be organized. For the outlay made by the American Government actual property or a fpll equivalent in work has been obtained, and no unnecessary' capi tal cf wasted money weighs down the enterprise. By the cession to the American Government by the new Republic of Panama of a strip of territory ten miles wide from ocean to ocean, in perpetuity, all question of a conces sion life is permanently removed; and, finally, inasmuch as the American Government will not have to consider ?. canal from the point of view of returning a large profit on an investment, and as it can obtain the necessary funds at an interest charge certainly one-half of what would have to be paid by a private organization, it is obvious that plans can be- considered that will involve a much larger capital investment, and that will- require more time for completion. In short, the American Government is free from ordinary limitations. Therefore the question before the government and its advisers is. What is the test type of canal to construct, and how should it be constructed?—The Century. No Apology Called For. An amusing incident happened the other (Jay at a club which had hos pitably thrown open its doors to two other club;. A certain well-known of ficer in the Brigade of Guards was guilty of the offence cf - smoking in the morning-rocm. Asa matter cf fact he was under the impression that it was the smoking-room. A brother officer told him of his mistake. He went up to the only other occupant cf Lite room —an old gentleman doz ing iu a corner —and apologized for having inadvertently broken one of the rules of the club. The old gen tleman replied, without haste, as fol lows; “My dear sir, pray do not apol ogize. ic vie first place, I am sure you would not have smoked had you known it was prohibited; in the sec ond, I should te the last person to blame you, if you had done so; in the third, I am not a member of the club, and in the fourth, I have just been smoking myself.”—London Globe. No Demand. It was not Mr. Graham’s fault that his vacation began late in the season, but that it was his misfortune was proved more than once. He spent his holiday in a seaport village which has for some years grown in popu larity as a summer resort. He packed in great haste and found on bis arrival that certain pecessary articles had been left behind. He therefore walked to the shop known as “Brown’s Emporium,” and express ed a desire to see their stock of combs. With uplifted nose and leisurely step, the young woman in charge pro" duced two articles, one bright blue and the ether deep red. The material was doubtful. “We’ve got these two,” said the young woman indifferently, but we don’t have much call for summer noveitiea a? late in the season as this when the hotel is getting ready to close.'’—Youths Companion: WHERE BROOMS COME FROM. Crop For 1905 Estimated at 42,000,000, and Worth $15,000,000 lndustry Started by Benjamin Franklin—How It Spreadto Illinois and Oklahoma Areola, 111., Broom Corn Centre—Rich Town. anaaan aana AOK. F it really is true, and long it has been asserted as O T O fact, that anew broom 4 * K sweeps clean, what cun be So>r expected of 42.000,000 new brooms? Forty-two milliotis Is the harvest of 1905, says an Areola, 111., correspon dent of the Indianapolis News. That is ? 15,000,000 worth of brooms. Pile them into cars for shipment—and they pack about 4000 to the car—and you have 10,000 carloads of brooms. Ten thousand cars means 200 long, fifty car freight trains, and 200 such trains, pulled by 200 big mogul engines, means almost 100 miles of brooms —a string of trains reaching from Indianapolis far east or west over the Ohio or Ill inois State line. Lay those 42,000,0(H) end to end and the broom trail would be 40,000 miles long—would reach one and a half times around the world. The broom harvest is just over. It founds like talking Greek, perhaps, to speak literally of a broom harvest. The broom stand back in the coruer behind the door, and it has been a member of your family for a long time, and still you are not on social terms with It. Good, faithful, old servant—a little run down at the heel, perhaps, and the stick worn too shiny, but still faithful and constant —what man’s dog could be more faithful to him than his wife’s broom is to her? And the chances are that she knows less about it than she does about her neighbors. It is, indeed, time to cultivate the interesting ide of the broom, and to realize that, like Topsy, it “just growed;” to know that, like your corn (maize). It Is har vested, and that it Is a crop, and that .there is always a possibility that you are going to be up against a short broom crop. And then, too, your friend—your broom—has an interest ing and historical past. Perhaps Its pedigree Is more interesting even than your own. The nation's broom harvest is just over and it has been a great sight to see 15,000,000 new brooms growing and harvested over in this part of Illinois, which is the home of the fine broom — that Is, the aristocratic broom that you do not buy unless you pay a quarter or more. Another 21,000,000— cheaper ones —have just been taken out of the September weather down in Oklahoma. Those gathering In the sheaves over in Kansas have plucked about 4,000,000 more brooms from nature and another million or two have been gathered in Missouri, Tennessee, Arkansas and from scattering broom corn fields over the country. There in a nutshell Is the summary of the source of supply. The big brooms come from Illinois, Okla homa, Missouri, Tennessee, Arkansas and from Kansas; the whlskbrooms come from Kansas. While the broom grew, yet it didn’t. Jsature does not make brooms with Jjard pine handles and with straws pound with trust wire and decorated with combine tin and monopoly velvet, but nature docs grow beautiful brooms. They are raised like great plumes into the scenery of the broom corn country In August and September, and these plumes are borne ten, twelve and even fifteen feet into the air by graceful bamboo-like stalks. The plumes them selves are heavily laden with a beau tiful golden seed that bends them more gracefully and adds beauty to the ma jestic plant. It Is indeed unfortunate that the man thinks he must Improve on nature's bloom, for he loses much beauty in the process, lie strips the stalk of its graceful plume; casts aside the beautiful seed tassels and, with his bent of genius, be applies machinery, and the result Is the broom that we find standing In the grocery ready for our money. The broom is a corn crop—its stalk, though slighter, more graceful and tall er, greatly resembles that of the In dian maize. It tassels out In the sum mer like the maize; it is cultivated much like corn, and though it bears no ears —nothing but its two foot long graceful plumes—lt has ccyue to be called corn—broom corn. Just exactly where it carao from no one really seems to know, but it Is in teresting to find that the broom —the kind of broom that wo Americans know and have— is an American insti tution, though broom corn came to us from India. Older people In the coun try remember when their brooms wore made out of twigs and bristles, as are most of the brooms used in this day in European countries by the common people. It was during the life of Ben jamin Franklin that a crude whisk broom was brought into bis home, and while he was admiring it ho noticed a few reeds clinging to the fibres or straws. It is recorded that he had the remarkable foresight to see that here was the seed for anew industry in the Colonies. He plucked the seeds from the fibres and carefully planted them in the spring in his garden ami they were tlK> parents of the broom industry in this country. He raised two or three beautiful stalks of broom plant from them and he gathered the seed and [gave it to friends the next year. It was the beginning. Inasmuch as a bushel of broom corn seed is about enough to plant a Congressional township it was not long until the crop of Seed was sufficient to establish the broom mak ing industry in this country. The Quakers and the Shakers took it up and the first extensive cultivation of broera corn was in the Mohawk Valley, where the first broom factories in this country were opened, possibly by the Shakers. The brooms made a great bit, and there was a scramble for them, and the broom corn raisers Received as high as SoOO or ?GOO a ton for their crops. With the opening of the Western country the seed was brought out in the now country by Settlers, and the first extensive culti vation in the West was in Ohio, some where near Columbus, and la the Bouth it was in Tennessee. Irt the early 60s a Col. John Cofer, >n Illinois farmer, living near Areola, prougUt some of the seed i|>to this country from Tennessee and planted it near the Coles-Douglas county line. Cofer found a spot peculiarly adapted to the cultivation of the crop, and with in a few year Illinois beame the broom corn State of the Union. Though at this time it Is second In tonnage to Oklahoma, it is rightfully still regard ed as the national source of our broom supply, for from a limited region ex tending In a radius of thirty miles around Areola, which is the broom corn centre of the country and practically of the world, Is grown the corn from which practically all of the high class and best brooms of the world are made. The cultivation was taken up around Galesburg, 111., and a colony of Swedes there made some success of it. This colony threw off a branch to Kansas and that branch took the seed Into that State, and from there the culti vation has extended down into Okla homa within the last four or five years. While it is a fact that broom corn can be raised with some success in almost every part of tbs country in which good Indian corn can be raised, and while also it is pretty generally de nied that there Is v iiy peculiar quality iu the soil of the Illinois, Oklahoma and Kansas bro<vn corn districts, which, after all, mere pockets, the fact remains that production of the corn is limited to tlifc*?e fields and they are closely defined anti are the national sources of supply. Attempts'to engago lu broom corn raising have been made in Indiana and other big corn States even in other parts of Illinois—but without any success. The secret may, Indeed, bo found Ini the fact that the cost of preparing to engage in the cultivation on a good basis is heavy. In ordex to raise and market broom corn of tha first grade it is quite as necessary to build largd drying sheds as it is to build similan sheds In the tobacco countries In which to dry the tobacco crop. Peculiar thrashing outfits have to be bought. The crop is cultivated much the same as corn, except that it Is a much faster crop than is corn. It is planted Im mediately after the Indian corn crop is planted and is harvested in early September. In fact, it is a ninety day crop. The fields in Illinois are from ten to 100 acreas In area, and are very beautiful. The annual acreage in Illinois runs from 30,000 to 30,000 acres. The harvest Is picturesque. Unlike most other crops, broom corn must bo harvested Just at a certain lime in tho growth of the plant —just when tho seed is in a milk stale. The corn si ill Is green —so is the broom liber, and it contains a certain percentage of oil and moisture and is very tough and flexible. When properly harvested and dried slowly in the shade, it retains these qualities to n great extent and tho liber remains so flexible that ii can. bo twisted and tied Into knots without breaking. It also retains its beautiful green color, and it is this green cedort which the experienced housewife soaks. She knows that such a broom will wear much longer than the yellow, light or red strawed brooms and that the straws will wear down to a stub and will not break off. Practically cil ©f the green straw brooms are Illinois fjtraw brooms. The Oklahoma broom is loss flexible and most cheap brooms are made of It. Such brooms shed Ui great many of their straws. Kansas raises sonic good broom covtj, but tlie bulk of her crop consists of dwarf broom corn—regular band bmshes, which are made up Into whlskbrooms. In fact, practically all of our whlskbrooms are grown in Kan san. The production of broom corn runs about one ton to every two or two and a half or three acres. The market prices in Illinois this year opened around SBO to S9O, and in Oklahoma! from $25 to ?50. The source of supply is no limited that It has been possible in the last few years for men to cornet* tho Illinois crop at least once. Tln-q the price was sent up to $l3O a ten, A tan of Illinois broom corn will make 1200 to 1500 brooms; a ton of Ok!a J hernia broom corn from 800 to 1000. Because of the necessity of harvest* ing the crop while it Is in its right stage of growth there is an unusually active*dcmand for labor through Ilia broom corn country the last two weekft in Awgust and the first two works in September. The tramp fraternity has learned this and tin* members of it begin to arrive in the broom corn sec tion on August 15. They are there for two purposes—to get employment for 51.50 a day and board and to do ns little work ns pos sible—at least so the growers say. They are picturesquely termed “broom corn canaries.” Whence they come no one kaoweth; whither they go is a.4 great a mystery. AH are panhandlers and refrain from supporting railroads with their “substance,” While many seem to be men of considerable capac ity the large majority are said to lie a very objectionable lot. Great swarms of these men are necessary to harvest, thresh and handle the crop in a hurry, and in the protest of the wives of the growers to cooking and caring foif those men is said to be found the ex planation of (he decreasing acreage in Illinois. Many big growers have gone out of the business in recent years be cause of their wives, though the broom corn crops brought higher revenue uu acre than any other crop grown. Tho Bearing Itcln The Duke of Portland, who holds the position of Master of the Horse at the Court of King Edward, described the bearing rein as vulgar at a recent meeting of the English Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. “To my mind,” declared his grace, “the bearing rein is vulgar, and its effect is by no means beautiful. It is ignorantly supposed to be the corb rect thing, however, among tkostiy who know no better.” * .. ... . ■ . .. Tim value of the Pennsylvania o I rles between Jersey City, New j Brooklyn and the Bronx is