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* „ - . The following interesting account of the life work of Edgar J. Hollister is sketched bv Mrs. Grannis, who has had the opportunity of personally ob serving some of the results of his wonderful activity. Except for Dean Hollister’s retiring modesty regarding his own performances, Mrs. Grannis says that it would be possible to pre sent many more stimulating incidents of difficulties overcome. All in all, his life work is doing much not only for American agriculture, per se; but for the advancement of the idea that brainwork-farming pays, and *hai there is as promising a field in this line of endeavor as in any of the mer cantile or industrial occupations. Through Toil to Tcuimpb. By Anna C. Grannte. It is a far cry from a Canadian farmer boy in the sixties to the Dean of Agriculture to-day in a rising insti tution in the West, yet. by the applica tion of science to practical farming, such a change has been wrought by Edgar J. Hollister, a soil expert of wide reputation. No agricultural college opened its friendlv doors to this young pioneer, nor was the Canadian government so deeply interested at that time as now, in its farming population. Books on the subject were few and fell woefully short of the mark, yet he knew neither discouragement nor dismay. A call from western Ontario, his birth place, came in 1873 and in re sponse, some time was spent in set ting out peach orchards, the work los ing its irksomeness because of the study which accompanied it. More over, at this point a company was en gaged in reclaiming some twenty-five thousand acres of land by the drainage of an inland lake. The young man as sisted in some of the surveys and was in touch with the chief engineer of the work. His enthusiasm was aroused by the anticipation of the re sults which would come from the ad dition of sueh a large acreage, which hitherto worthless, was now. by re ducing it to cultivation, to be made productive. After some further years of study and preparation Mr. Hollister became interested in the organization of a com pany for the development of a large tract of swamp. The land was cleared of brush and reclaimed to cultivation, buildings erected, ma chinery installed and a system of farming, very nearly perfect, was established. Fields of six acres wore made to produce an income of $3,- 000.00 each, while others of four acres produced $1,800.00. Of the latter sl,- 200.00 was net; while thirty-five acres was made to yield $14.000.<X) gross at an expense of $8,000.00. Of course, these wore special crops such as cel erv, onions and other vegetables SLOW PROCESS OF NATURE. In some instances five years is the period allowed for the reclamation of land by the slow process of nature after the drainage has been obtained. Even then these lands may fail to produce paying crops, because of their deficiency in essential elements such as lime, potash, phosphoric acid and magnesia. These are some of the forces which go to make stability in plants. It is true that such lands con tain a large percentage of nitrogen, accumulated from the decomposition of vegetable matter annually produe and in low places. However, this nitrogen, which would produce growth were it available. Is in an unknown quantity and available only when sufficient moisture is present, yet does not pro duce the same results upon crops as nitrogen derived from other sources, such as bone, dried blood or barn yard manure. To make these lands productive ini mediately after drainage, it is neces sary to correct their acid condition by the' use of lime and by disintegration of the soil particles, thereby increas ing their powers to retain water and absorb oxvgen. These forces together, will act on potash and the three abso lute essentials to plant growth are ni- i ■ M WINONA BOYS SELECT- FOR S^EED. trogen. phosphoric acid, potash, and phosphoric acid and make them available as plant food. Mr. Hollister visited Florida and se cured a tract of land which for five years was used experimentally. Al though he was in one case much handi capped by inadequate drainage, which It was not found practical to improve, the results were, however, very satis factory. ~ . In 1895, in Canada, the next held of operation, a phenominal success re sulted In eighteen mouths. Here Mr. Hollister proceeded upon the theory that, climatic conditions being equal, certain crops are adapted to certain soils, and that planting those which will bring the greatest revenue will enhance the value of the land, inspire the people with enthusiasm and en courage development in all lines of trade. For example, Kalamazoo. Michigan, was once surrounded by bogs and flats worth scarcely SIO.OO an acre. After the incoming of the Hollanders, who began raising celery on these supposedly worthless la * , $000,000.00 was brought annually to the town by the sale of this vegetable. In ten years’ time the land increased in value to SOOO.OO an acre. In 1890, a trip was made to Colo rado where the people were farming under irrigation, and here the growers ' DEAN B. J. HOLLIS'! KU. were taught the economical use of water and the method of creating a favorable environment for plants. A visit was made to Maryland, where experiments with soil and plant life added still further to the experiment er’s fund of knowledge, but in 1001, the most difficult and seemingly im possible work was to come. i.e.. the reclaiming of tidal lands on the north shore of Long Island Sound. The De partment of Agriculture already had had a man in the field, who had re ported the feasibility of reclamation but by slow processes, and that in vestigation revealed too many failures. In spite of this, Mr. Hollister had sufficient knowledge, gained experi mentally, to suggest success, added to which was the further information gained during a four years’ residence in Washington, D. C., for the express purpose of consultation and co-opera tion with the experts of the Depart ment of Agriculture. An experiment was first made on a small tract on the south side of Long Island, where the salt bog had simply been taken up and thrown inside of a dike, con structed of lumber sufficiently strong to withstand the tide. This bog was made smooth and even, and chemically treated in the month of August. By the ' t of October the surface was covered with a beautiful growth of tame grass six inches high. This might certainly be termed, “A Quick Process Route.” Work on a sixty acre tract on the north side was begun in June and completed in December of the same year. On this land, covered the previous autumn with salt water, nine hundred bushels of turnips were produced on two acres during the lirst season. Rye, oats, celery and vegetables throve on the same tract. The following year twenty acres wore seeded to meadow land in April. By August it was covered by a beauti ful turf, strong enough to hold up cattle pastured thereon. The remain ing portion of the sixty acres pro duced luxuriant crops of vegetables and corn. A year later the meadow yielded four tons of hay to the acre and was considered a great demon- stration of the productiveness of these lands under applied science. MAKING SEA LAND PRODUCE. Another equally successful experi ment was conducted by this “W izard of the Soil” on this same tract, viz., the transforming of a five-acre tract of sea sand to a loamy condition. The soil was first treated with chemical fertilizers and in the fall rye was sown, which covered the ground in winter and made a full growth th a following spring. This crop w plowed under in June and followed by i a crop of corn sown broadcast. The corn was plowed down in the f4lj and the sand lot planted in rye. It ivilf be seen that in this process nature was being assisted by moisture and sun light to change sand into rye and corn stalks. Then the sand, by the natural process of decomposition of these grains, brought about a complete change in the physical condition of the soil. The work of this interesting man attracted the attention of many people pursuing scientific agriculture, among whom was H. J. Heinz, the pickle manufacturer —57 kinds —who is in terested not only in the culture of the vegetable kingdom but in the tel’ ~t ual growth of boys, and through his I activity Mr. Hollister was elected Dean of Agriculture at the Agricul tural Institute of Winona Lake, In diana. Here he was seen last sum mer. handling his crops of embryo farmers who seemed imbued with his enthusiasm and whose first harvest received encomiums from five thou sand visiting farmers, who unani mously adopted resolutions endorsing the work, EDUCATING FOR SMALL ARMS. A plan is now taking tangible form, which will lead to the establishment of small farms comprising five to twenty acres each. On these farms young men will be taught combined scientific and practical agriculture. They will also demonstrate the pos-* sibility of getting an income and genu ine happiness from their investments which may well be envied by the salaried man or the man of moderate capital in the city. It is believed too, that this work will have a wholesome effect upon the farmers throughout the country. An increase of even SIOO.OO in the revenue of each farmer when multiplied by five million, would establish the prosperity of the Ameri- , can Nation, the bulwarks of which are its farming population. Mr. Hollister is also directing a work of reclamation of a large tract of salt meadow on the Connecticut coast which, when reclaimed, will be used for the purpose of intensive farming, thereby firmly establishing ! the fact that these lands may be used to furnish employment and bring j wealth and happiness to the people. Thus each day reveals some new progress, and farming, that once seemed a hopeless, hapless drudgery, is being shown a golden highway to an ever increasing success. Value of Alfalfa to Farm Animals. The Bureau of Animal Industry of the Department of Agriculture has re cently published a study by I. D. Graham of the use of alfalfa for the growing and fattening of animals in the Great Plains region. The results attained by experiments, while of in estimable value to live stock growers in the region mentioned, may well be STUDENTS CLEANING OUT A DRAIN AT WINONA. considered by stockmen in other sec tions. Some of the questions considered in the experiments were the composition and digestibility of alfalfa, the calcu lated cost of nutrients supplied by al falfa and other feeding stuffs, the value of alfalfa hay cut at different periods of growth, alfalfa as a pastur age, soiling, and hay crop, alfalfa meal, and the value of alfalfa, fresh and cured, for different kinds of farm ani mals and for poultry. The importance of this crop as a honey-producing plant was also considered. Finely ground, kiln-dried alfalfa hay, called alfalfa meal, has given sat isfactory results as feeding stuff. The commercial article is made from se lected alfalfa and mixed with sugar beet molasses in the proportion of 75 per cent, alfalfa and 25 per cent, mo lasses. Horses and mules, it is stated, thrive on alfalfa pasture, and while alfalfa is too rich a food for mature horses un less used in combination with some other roughness, it is an excellent feed for young ones, as it seems to contain just the elements necessary to develop bone, muscle, and consequent size. Caution should be used, however, in feeding alfalfa to horses, particularly if they have not been accustomed to it. Like other concentrated feeds, it seems to stimulate all the physical processes to such an extent that vari ous disorders of the digestive system may appear. This is particularly no ticeable in the urinary and perspira tory glands. When alfalfa is fed to horses in con siderable quantity the grain ration must be proportionately reduced and an abundance of other roughness fur nished. When horses have attained a mature age and it is desirable to change from other hay to alfalfa, this change must be very gradual, and the alfalfa selected for this putpose should be more advanced in growth at the time of cutting than that which is to be fed to cattle or sheep. Asa general statement, very ripe alfalfa hay is the best to use for working and driving horses, while that prepared in the usual way—that is, cut when the field is about one-tenth in bloom —is better for the colts. In any event, horses that are fed alfalfa hay must be given abundant exercise. For dairv and beef cattle and for sheep, alfalfa has given very good re sults. As regards the use of alfalfa hay for pigs, it is considered better to cut it early, so that a larger proportion of leaves may be saved and conse quently a larger proportion of protein conserved. While late cutting, after the leaves have fallen somewhat and the stem hardened, is better for horses; for pigs, especially growing pigs, the crop should be so harvested as to save the largest number of leaves. Experience teaches also that the third or fourth crop is better for pigs because it is softer and more pal atable. It is always wise to provide some sort of a trough or rack with a floor in it for feeding alfalfa to hogs. Alfalfa in its green state, or when used as hay or ensilage, is a first-class poultry food. Poultry will pasture on it during the summer and thrive. It is best for poultry to use the last cutting of alfalfa, as it is softer in texture, has a larger proportion of leaves, less woody matter, and is more succulent than any other cutting. While poultry of all classes will eat alfalfa hay, or at least the leaves from it, and thrive, it is undoubtedly a better practice to chop or grind it and mix it with a grain ration. A good practice is to steep the alfalfa hay in hot water and let it stand for several hours before feeding. The Irish Potato . A rich, sandy loam is best suited to the production of Irish potatoes, and the fertilizers employed should contain high percentage of potash. The main crop of Irish potatoes for family use should be grown elsewhere, but a small area of early ones properly belongs in the garden. The preparation of the soil should be the same as for general garden crops. In a recent bulletin on farm vege tables. the department of Agriculture recommends that for late potatoes, the rows should be 2 1 ' 2 to 3 feet apart, and the bills 11 to IS inches apart in the rows. Lay off the rows with a one-horse plow or lister, and drop the seed, one or two pieces, in a place, in the bottom of the furrow. Cover the seed to a depth of about 4 inches, using a hoe or a one-horse plow for the pur pose. One to three weeks will be required for the potatoes to come up, depending entirely upon the tempera ture of the soil. The ground may even freeze slightly after the planting has been done, but so long as the frost does not reach the seed potatoes no harm will result, and growth will be gin as soon as the soil becomes suf ficiently warm. As soon as the plants appear above the ground and the rows can be fol lowed. the surface soil should be well stirred by means of one of the harrow toothed cultivators. Good cultivation should be maintained throughout the growing season, with occasional hand hoeing, if necessary, to keep the ground free from weeds. Much de- I pends upon cultivation. Toward the last the soil may be worked up around the plants to hold them erect and pro- tect the tubers from the sun after the vines begin to die. When the tubers are fully ripe the vines will be quite dead, but digging should not be do laved too long, as the potatoes will make a second growth in case wet weather should set in, and weeds will start seriously interfering with har vesting the crop. On a small scale, dig with a spading fork, and on a large scale, use either one of the spe cial digging machines or a turning plow, which latter will cover up a good many potatoes. A late crop may bo planted during May or early in June in the North, and harvested late in autumn, when the frost has killed the vines. After digging the potatoes, they should never be allowed to lie expose ! to the sun. or to any light while in storage, as they soon become green and unfit for table use. Early pota toes especially should not be stored in a damp place during the heated part of the summer, keeping best if coy e. ‘d over in a cool, shady shed until the autumn weather sets in, after which they can be placed in a dry cellar or buried in the open ground. The ideal temperature for keeping Irish potatoes would be between -* ( i and 40° F., but they w.d not with stand any freezing. A thousand bushels of potatoes have beeu raised on one acre. How many farmers, who chance to read this, have raised 200 bushels on an equal plot? And there are some who can not grow 100 bushels on their acre. — Mary was Piseascd. Mary had a swarm of bees. And they, to save their lives,. Must go wherever Mary went — ’Cause Mary had the “hives.” There were about one million deaths in India from plague last year. A set of Scottish bag-pipes costs from $25 to $250. Japanese jinrikisbas are being estab lished in the principal cities of eastern Asia. There are 4,537 textile factories in Japan. 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C, Estabilshed 1869. ‘ I o/v WHICH SIDE I I OF THE DESK AHE I I YOU? Kafnro tho i’oclt WOfkS With bl3 HTld IS D&id fOT hlB IflfsOT, Thl 1 imp* . oMWr ofcuuloir ot. mw• M ■*■* “ |i “* S“r£fw“Tb?w ?0U ho. improve yoor t Mon orto Monl.‘ || Ks|l nation and better salary, without loss of time, without neglecting y j I l0 ‘C 5 bJSJTw JnS ill.y <o *■> -* p| ““ThiSSSfof ■. .nO too. In nr] 7 ev.rj-tlßto..ni1 frole-to.O.lOth.K^lnnW Sg| of their tucceti to the day they filled in this coupon. \vhynotjou. 9m IT COSTS NOTHING TO FIND OUT. „ Cnt This Out and receive free-‘'IOOX Stories of Success” and "The Story of McHale. ||| I I INTERNATIONAL CORREsFoNDENCE SCHOOLS, Box 917SCRAWTOH, PA I | Please explain, without further obligation on my how “ I larger salary In the position before Moh_j^have^aarked^jC^,i H I * Bookkeecer Textile Mill Sopt. ' Building Contractor , ■ r I Stenographer Civil Service Ctvil Engineer I Advertisement Writer Chemist Arch. 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