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Mr. William A. Radford will anewer questions and glv< advtcs FRXE OF OOfiT on all subjects pertaining to the •abject of building, for the readers of this paper On account of his wide experience ae Editor. Author and Manufacturer, be la. without doubt, the highest authority an all these subjects. Address all Inquiries lo William A. Radford. No. 171 West Jackson boulevard, Chicago, Dl, and only enclose two-cent stamp for reply. The most economical house to build and to occupy afterward is nearly square, of medium also, full two sto ries in height, with a good, daep cel lar and an attic big enough to act as a buffer against beat in summer and cold in winter. Such houses give more room according to the size of the foundation and roof than any other design. The house here illustrated Is typical of this style. It is 31 feet wide by 38 feet from front to rear—proportions that work to good advantage. There are certain geometrical combination* that work to a disadvantage In a square house, but are easily overcome £beq you add a few feet to the ngth. One of the difficulties is the stair way, which interferes with the proper laying-out of the rooms in every short house. Stairways In dwelling-houses have caused more gray hairs, and sent 'more architects to early graves, than any other feature in house building. There was a time when a rough lad der fashioned with an ax answered the purpose. It was made with the trunks of two trees for sides, and sec tions of smaller trees for rounds. There was a hole through the upper floor and usually an effort was made to place the opening where the roof was high enough so you could miss kitting the knots on the rafters with your head. Prom that time to this, stairways have grown in complexity until we think we have them about perfect. This plan provides a projection which holds about half of the stair landings. The projection also offers an excuse to’work in four windows for light and for general effect. The lighting of a modern stairway is an other recent improvement on anything that former generations were familiar with. This arrangement Is a combination affair going up from the kitchen and from the front hall, and down from the kitchen to the cellar. On the sec ond floor the going up to the attic and down stairs is equally good. The stair way looks well, and it is very con venient and satisfactory. A house built in this manner has an other advantage, and that Is in heat ing. It is so compact that from one to five tons of coal per year may be saved, as compared with the amount required in some old-fashioned, loose jointed houses that are no more roomy and offer no more accommodation. Under this house is a splendid cel lar that is as light as some of the best rooms ’in houses built a dozen years ago, when small, narrow- win dows were in fashion. In a basement like this you can place a modern heat -111 i iyllifel | -t'/usc £~Jj I *s/rr.-.\e xcom Lj n I mmmm *l'Z L £,r*- *ee xoom I “— l=^ First Floor Plan. lag apparatus that will take care ot the temperature in 4 the coldest weather; and the attention required will not worry a person more than • few minutes twice a day. Makers of hot water heating plants and hot air furnaces are In very close competition. Improvements are being added every year, until both systems seem to be about as near perfect as human Ingenuity can make them. A hot air furnace big enougb to heat this house comfortably in zero weather can be installed for about 1125. A hot water heating system will cost more, the difference depending largely on the kind of radiators and the extra attachments; probably |260 would be tbe minimum, and SSOO would be rather extravagant The hot water plant will use a little less coal, be cause hot water Is a better medium through which to convey beat Wbtie no accurate estimate can be given without figuring the actual amount of heating surface and cubic air space, on general principles it may be said that, taking five years together, tha coat of on# system is about the same as the other. There are arguments in favor of both systems for houses of this site. With hot air you can get the fresh, pur* air from outside, and send it into every corner of the house. My belief is that families using hot air furnaces that are properly installed enjoy bet ter health than those who use hot wa< \ LJH cmammmm /L-,1 \ I I m4M*£/r vL —-a Second Floor Plan, ter for heating; but. unfortunately a great many hot air furnaces are ar ranged to take the air from inside tha house. This loses the most valuable asset that should ordinarily be placed to the credit of the hot air furnace. However, either system should em brace a thorough plan for constantly changing the air In the rooms through ventilating flues. But, I am sorry to say, this is a subject the American people have paid very little attention to. It is destined to occupy our atten tion more as years go on and we learn more about the germ theory df dis ease. It is not necessary to mention steam heating for a small dwelling. The economy of steam comes in when we have a larger building to heat. I like to plan houses like this, be cause they are so thoroughly complete when properly built, as they should be, from cellar to attic, with all the essen tials carefully worked out. It is Just as important to balance up all the me chanical features of*a house as it is to look to and adjust all the parts of a machine. Mechanics have more to do with our comfort and health than most of us realize. A small fire in the cellar may be made to supply hot wa ter to the laundry tubs, to the kitchen and to the bathroom, so we can have hot water to use at any* hour of the day or night. 1 often think that we accept the many modern improve ments in our houses without due ap preciation. 1 want to call attention to the upper balcony in the rear of the bathroom. Since carpets have been abolished, and ail good houses have hardwood floors, rugs have become very fashion able- It seems necessary to have rugs cleaned once a week or once a month, according to the amount of service re quired of them; and this upper bal cony facilitates the work of cleaning. The rugs may be carried out and leit In the sun, and swept on the floor or whipped over the balcony railing, so much easier than to carry them down to the yard. It is another contrivance to save work and promote sanitation. Not to Be Intimidated. In a certain New York town there lived an eccentric character whom every one called “Uncle Hi,” In his old age Uncle Hi “experienced relig ion,” and one night was asked to lead the prayer meeting. As he could neith er read nor write, the request might easily have daunted him had he been a less courageous man. But Uncle HI was not one to be daunted. Very sol emnly he rose and drawing his un usually tall form to its greatest height said: “Brethren, sing the one thou sandth Psalm.” After a silence, broken only by an occasional titter, someone said: “There aren’t as many as that” “Sing as many as there be, then!” thundered Uncle Si. —Youth’s Com panion. ' * Breaking ft Gently. “Good morning. Mrs. McCann.” said an Irish laborer to a lady at the wash tub. “An* the top of the mornin* to you. Mister Mullin,” she replied. “Ol fought,” said he. “Oi’d shtep in fsay ’ure husban’ has shtopped shmokin’. Mrs. McCann.” "Saints be praised! Ifs seventy-five cints a monf he'll be savin'.” “OTm layin' beta he won’t” ■H Mr. Halite. “H wo. Uhtta- kta pip. In U. pawdor (Mtarr u’ k* dropiwd tka *- " r_ . , -*•* -' '; ~r ' ___ •, TV INSECT ENEMIES OF TOBACCO Damage Dona by Paata Drawing Larg er Each Year Throughout the Country—Eaay to Control. The United Statee produces appron knately l,odK),006,000 pounds oftobaooo ovary year, but the bnat/i who grow *h< enormous crag pay each year a large dividend to Insert pasts. The number of serious tobacco peats is not large, and most of them are subject Leaf Injured by Leaf Miner. to easy methods of control. Yet, re* gardUiess of these facts, the damage to tobacco by insects is growing heavier year by year. True, not all of this loss is preventable, but a large amount of lose may be avoided by proper meth ods of sowing the seeds, cultivation, rotation and various other indirect as Sr ell as direct remedies which affect Che Insects themselves. The tobacco Leaf Miner is an in sect which is considered eesy to cen tral. The injury made by this insect Is manifested by large irregular blotches appearing on the leaves. These are at first whitish, but later become very dry and parchment4lke. Leaves injured in this way are unfit for wrapper purposes, as they tear rare easily. There afe two generations of the Leaf Miner each year, the winter be ing passed in the adult stage, the adults hiding away in trash found about the tobacco barns. The horse or bull seems to be the original food plant of this insect, hence all weeds of this type should be kept out of the tobacco. Frequent cultivation of the to bacco, stirring the soil up quite close Tobacco Leaf Miner. to the plants will bury the pupae so deeply that the adult moths will be unable to reach the surface. The larvae may be destroyed in the leaves by pinching them, and if a close watch is kept they may be destroyed In this way before they have done much damage. The leaves seem to be able to recover from slight injury, whereas if the larvae is allowed to continue Its work, the leaves never recover. FLOWER BOX IS MADE HANDY J Small Storage Tank Concealed Un derneath Prevents Suffering From Lack of Water. The Flower box herewith Illustrated Is to prevent the flowers from suffer ing for lack of water through neglect, says the Homestead. As shown in the illustration the two lower figures show the box in detail, the upper illus tration shows the completed box. The principal feature of the box Is a small storage tank concealed in .the lower section. The water is supplied to the plants through cloth wicks, or sponges, as needed. The wicks are \ ■ J • ‘\ _ -*'</ L * j t Handy Flower Box. simply placed in holes bored through the bottom of the top section, as shown at CC C. To renew the water In the tank without removing the top section a small metal pipe is placed in the end of the box, as shown at AA. A wire telltale is made by placing a cork on a wire and allowing same to float on the water in the tank, thus tell ing by the length of wire extending out through the tube, A, Just how much water la contained in the stor age tank. Plant food may also be fed to the flowers by making a solution of same and placing it in the storage tank. The box as shown may be made 'ornamental, as well as useful Resetting the Orchard. Uniformly poor results have fol lowed the replacing of trees that died immediately by other trees of the same kind. But If the hole is opened up in the fall ead allowed to lie un til in the spring, it is safe then to .plant out a tree of the same kind as that which died. The hole should be opened out a good deal wider and deeper than ne cessary to receive the new tree. The iparpoee should be to get out a large bartsef the dirt around the root eye tem of the first tree that occupied the SCRAPING BARK FROM TREES In Case of Ordinary Healthy Tree Treatment Is Advocated by Penn sylvania Zoologist An to the advisability of scraping rough or - shaggy bark from apple trees, the state soologigt of Pennsyl vania has the following to say: This depends upon the conditions in general. I advise such treatment especially for rough, scaly bark on old trees; but If it be bark that has bsen roughened by the Injurious no tion of soli sprays, or by horning with fire or some other injury, I am eedlsfled it would be wrong, because this Is the trader bark hmwt**** just wind a scab of an is to a sore which It to protecting. Therefore, If the bark beneath be tender, so thst it would be injured by being scraped. It is best not to do It in the csss of an ordinary healthy tree It to certainly best, but at injured Ida ess. such as above mentioned, it to advisable to scrape gently, if at aU. On an old tree one cannot apply enough pressure withs short-handled hoe or bark scraper to do any injury, and this will remove many insect pests, such as coddling moth, woolly aphis and certain hibernating crea tures, and expose scale insects sod other pests to the action at the weath er, and at the insecticides to be ap plied before the leaves appear. SPRAYER FOR SMALL TREES Apparatus May Be Wheeled Along , Row of Plants With Delivery Pipe on Either Side. The spraying apparatus shown la the illustration may be wheeled along a row of plants or small trees as desired. The top of the tank Is adapted to serve as a platform. The Sprayer. delivery pipe has a pair of downward ly projecting arms, each of , which to provided with four nossles. The do ll very pipe may be swung to either side of the tank. JAPANESE PLUM VERY HARDY Will Grow on Almost Any Soil and Do Not Need Particular Coddling— Come On Early. Plums of the Japanese variety are popular with most growers, particu larly in the east, because they are hardy and come on early. Many of these varieties are the earliest in the market, and as they are always of good color, either cherry reds or light yellows, they sell readily and bring good prices. They will grow well on almost any kind of decent soil, and do not need to be particularly coddled, although they should have ail the care that any good fruit tree dewSrvee. These trees were planted four years ago In soil from which pine scrub had been grubbed only a few weeks be fore. The trees are bearing well and show fine color and great vigor. These Japanese plums differ from the domestic varieties in that its leaves are longer, thinner and smooth er, and it has a great tendency to produce lateral fruit buds on the an nual growth. Its fruit is mostly short, round and plump. The Japanese plum is less liable to Injury from curculio and black knot than the domestic variety. Mr. Ful lerton says that up to this time his trees have shown no signs of disease or attack from insects of any kind. Spring Planted Peach Trees. S. H. Fulton, a well-known peach grower, in a horticultural meeting ad dress, said that spring planting of peach trees is best for northern lati tudes. Prune thoroughly and head the trees low. Prom 10 to 14 inches from the ground is high enough. Thre limbs are better than more in starting the top. Practice thorough cultiva tion, and use cover crops later in th<e season. Low-hoed crops are best aa nurse crops when the trees are small. Let hogs have the run of the orchard until peaches begin to ripen. Use lime sulphur for the scale and peach-leaf curl. Pruning Currant Bushes. Pruning the currant consists of cutting away all dead wood, and thinning out the new growth as may be desired. Site for Garden. The fruit and vegetable garden should be situated in a well sheltered spot, having the full benefit of the sun and where the soil is well drained. I HORTICULTURAL | Trees that are well tended beautify a home. Fertilize the orchard for next sea son’s crop. Plum trges should be pruned about the same as apple trees. There is no phase of life Biat to not influenced by good roads. Gradually bring the hyacinth and narcissus into the heat and light Provide for the future by planning a small strawberry patch this spring. Go over the fruit and vegetables in the cellar,- and throw out those decay • •• ing. Unleached wood ashes are rich in potash, varying from six to forty pe* cent. The earlier sweet peas are sown the larger the number of flowers pro duced. Nearly all varieties of plums bear better crops of fruit when a number of varieties are growing near each other. Apple scab largely spreads about the Line of the first, second, and third sprayings. When grass is permitted to ripon Its seed. It loses the. largest part of its nutritive value. AT A MANII COURT Empress Dowager of China De scribed as Unattractive. •ha aM Paw Paopta Exoapt on Fee* aval Days, Whan Princes and Thar Wlvaa Are Entertained at tka Palaoa. Faking, China. —The correspondent o t the Manchester Guardian, in an ao* count of the Mancha court, than de scribee the empree dowager, Long Tu, widow of Bmparor Kwang Han: "Base la not, aa Tie Hal’s was, an attractive personality. She to a sMght woman between forty-three and forty-- seven years of ega, ugly according toi rhtneaa standards, with aa nnplcaa ratty sallow oomptazioo. She has none of the verve and sprightUnese of Tn Hal, but la odd, herd end adteoa talned. The parson who has meet In fluraoe over her to her chief eunuch. Ghaog Ta. “In Tie Hal’s day Chang Te waa a mare nobody; today he to exceeding ly wealthy and has for the last two fern been one of the most Influential men at court. Greatly above the aver age height, he combines with unusu al physical strength a reckless buoy ancy that has enabled him successful ly to face many difficult crises. Hto influence over the empress dowager to eneh that be bee been able almost to Isolate her. Tie Hal had about her favorite ladies In waiting. Lung To has none.” The dowager empress was then liv ing in the Yen Shon Tien, also called the Winter and the See Palace. “Bxcept on festival days the em press dowager tees few people. Then princes, ministers and their wives are Invited to the palace and entertained with theatricals. The theater in the Bea Palace stands in the middle of the lake and consists of four summer houses or pevilions connected by bridges. In one Is the stage and op posite It is the pavilion reserved tor the empress dowager and her lady guests. The pavilions at the skies ara occupied by princes and ministers. They are curtained, for men are not allowed to aee the empress dowager. Tills rule is strictly kept and thus there are no state banquets given at the Manchu court, and men and wom en feast separately.” Princess Tsai Hsun, wife of the em peror’s uncle, Prince Tsai Hsun, to A. ""!* 1 Pagoda in Forbidden City. described as the leader of Manchu so elety’s smart set. The correspondent says: “She is a very stout and rather loud woman, very fond of diamonds. It is only withlp the last four years that these have com© into fashion with Manchu ladies. Until then their value was unknown and they were thought to be only glass ornaments. But ladles like Princess Tsai Hsun and the prince regent’s wife go out a good deal. They are very fond of visiting Peking’s would-be music hall, the Ar cade —‘Peking’s Home of Talent,’ as It calls itself —and they delight to sit in legation drawing-roms at night time and watch foreigners ‘jumping.' Some of them have actually learned to dance.” IS WORSE THAN ST. HELENA Tristan d’Acunha Said to Be Loneliest Place on Earth—lnhabited by Farm ers and Cattle Raisers. New York. —When Napoleon waa sent to St. Helena it was thought that the loneliest place on earth had been assigned to him as a prison, says Harper’s Weekly. But St. Helena is 1,400 miles nearer a continent than is Tristan d'Acunha. Many hundreds of miles ofifocean lie between this island and its nearest neighbor. Tristan, in short, is a tiny oasis in a boundless wilderness of waters, go from it in which direction you will. It is a rocky and cliff-girt little isle with a solitary mountain a thousand feet high rearing itself from the midst. Yet on this lonely speck of rock and earth there lives a community seem ingly quite happy in its isolation from all the rest of the world. They are farmers, cattle raisers and shepherds. In the valleys of the island are fertile fields where potatoes mainly are grown. The food of the people con sists, for the most part, of beef, mut ton, fowls, potatoes and fish, Tristan used formerly to produce many fruits sad vegetables which can no longer be grown there. The reason of this is that the island for a long time was overrun by sats, which es caped from a ship that anchored there, and which the people have been un able, It is said, ever entirely to exter* minate. Furniture Stolen While They Slept Montreal. —Burglars, who have been unusually bold of late, entered the home of J. Seeley on Seaforth avenue, and while the family slept carted away the dining-room furniture and four trunksfull of property. Passereby, who saw their aleigk is front of the door and men carrying •nit furniture, believed the family was soring and did not Interfere. The Fifth Stenographer ♦ * By EDMUND MOBERLY (Copyright, mi, by Associated Literary Press.) Mr. Benjamin Holbrook, of the firm of B. Holbrook £ Company, jobbers, bad been absent from bis business for three weeks, and therefore entered bis office resolved to get back into harness as speedily as possible. After wading through a mass of accumu lated correspondence, he rang for his confidential stenographer. She failed to appear. A second and a third ring Were equally barren of result#. Mr. Holbrook grew Indignant. With a sav sge jab, he touched another button bn his desk, and In a moment Wat son. his chief clerk, stood at his el bow. "Watson,” be demanded, “why doesn't Miss Gay ley respond to her ealir "Miss Qayley was married while you were away." “An office romance?” “Yes,” responded Watson with a untie. “Smithers, one of the book keepers, Is the other guilty party." “Well, he got a sensible wife, con found bim. Give blm a ten per cent raise. At the same time be robbed me of a good stenographer just when she had become efficient and valuable. It strikes me these cases are becom ing pretty frequent in this office, aren't they, Watson.” “This Is the fourth in three years.” ‘‘Exactly,’* agreed Mr. Holbrook. “Four in three years, of which your own case was the first Matrimony is a noble institution, Watson, but It can bot be allowed to play bob with this business the way It has been doing. I propose now to get a stenographer who will regard this office as some thing more than a stepping-stone to marriage. Miss Cayley's successor must be at least thirty-five years old. You will advertise at once for a lady He Allowed His Mind to Wander. confessing to that many summers. If you cannot find her, I'll have to get a man —but I prefer the woman, if she exists.” Benjamin Holbrook had never been married. At the age when other men take unto themselves wives, he had been too busy smoothing the path of the newly established firm of B. Hol brook & Cos. over the thorny ways which infant industries must travel. Matrimony, he bad reasoned, must wait upon success. Success he had finally achieved, and now it waited upon matrimony. If questioned, he would not have been able to* say whether he had eluded matrimony or matrimony had eluded him, but now, at the age of forty, he was forced to confess to his friends that while it was still possible in his case, it did not seem very probable. Being a bachelor, he had never been able to fathom the mental processes which led a girl to abandon a comfortable salary in his office for the purpose of sharing the salary of a male worker in the same office, and in much less degree had he been able to understand the Jine of reasoning which led the aforesaid male worker to persuade her to do so. In employing office help, the head of the firm was able to discern merit at a glance. All his male subordi nates had good qualities. Ihe four women who hud reigned in brief suc cession in the office were h!l well en dowed in this p-spect—so well en dowed, indeed, that four of the male subordinates had discerned their merit even better than tlte boss, with the ie©ult that for the fifth time in three years that gentleman, with all a bachelors dislike tor change in the existing order cf things, faced the dis agreeable prospect of becoming ac customed to anew stenographer. It was this fact, coupled with the knowl edge that thero were yet several un married men in the office, all with good qualities, that led him to issue FIRST CLEAN THE SYSTEM Thing to Do In the Instant That the Presence of Tuberculosis Is Suspected. The fever of consumption is not pri marily due to the presence of the tu bercle bacilli in the system. Indeed, unless theie are other conditions which causS the bodily temperature to rise It is Inclined to be sub-normal. One of the Interesting revelations of modern medicine is the fact that these germs may exist a long time in the human body without there being any rise of temperature whatever. This is plainest seen in a tubercular abscess, but it is also seen in the many cases in which for long periods there is no fever. What does cause the fever in the earlier stages is a dis ordered state of the alimentary canal. The stomach and bowels become de ranged and full of toxins which, be coming absorbed, poieop the system and cause the temperature to rise. For years it has been the., practice of the writer to reduce any temperature to his edict concerning the age of the next woman who should grace his es tablishment Watson’s advertisement brought! but one applicant to Mr. Holbrook— a handsome, somewhat sad-faced wom an, whose gown of black well became the slender plumpness of her figure. “I am Miss Holmes," she stated! simply. “1 have come in answer to your advertisement for a stenogra pher.” "Thirty-five years of age, or old er?" added Mr. Holbrook. “1 am able to meet that condition." 4 , was the calm reply. The head of the firm was forced td confess to himself that she did nod look it. “Have you had any experience la this capacity?” he asked. “None, whatever,” she answered.! “But I have a good education an<4 have fitted myself carefully for such) a position, and 1 feel 1 can meet aH| the requirements set forth in your} somewhat unusual advertisement.” “It was a little out of the ordinaryj wasn’t it?” “Yes.” “But there was a reason for It] During the last three years 1 have! lost no less than four stenographers! through matrimony. It was a desirei to secure someone who would view! business as other tban a stepping-* stone to marriage that prompted that! ad.” "I can safely say that there Is no prospect of my making such use of It,” replied Mies Holmes. A trial showed that she was weH equipped for the position. Mr. Hol brook reflected, also, that bo had! never recognized so many good quali ties In an applicant before. He there-* fore engaged her, and In a few weeks! found reason to congratulate himself;! for she developed an efficiency even! above that of her very efficient pre-| decessors. In a few months he began! to regard her as indispensable, an 4 found himself regretting that she near him In office hours only. And then It came. He was dictat-* ing to her one day, he on the on© side! of the big, flat office table, and she! on the other, facing him. While! grasping for some solution to at knotty business problem, he allowed! his mind to wander. The plainly furnished office faded from hls_ vlsloni The table became a dining table, cov-j ered with snowy linen upon which! silver gleamed and crystal sparkled— such a dining table as one sees In s< home; but Miss Holmes faded from! the picture not at all. In his reverie he saw her sitting opposite him at the dream table —and then Benjamin Hol brook, bachelor, aged forty, cam 4 back to earth with a rush. He was in! love. He was certain of it, despite the! novelty of the sensation. j Mr. Holbrook was accustomed to andl j rect methods. “Miss Holmes, can you still safely say that there is no prospect of your making business a stepping stone to marriage?” he asked suddenly. Miss Holmes was also In a reverie* She came out of It in confusion. “I—l think so,” she managed to gasp. “Then there Is a doubt?" “Yes; there is a doubt,” she a<H mltted. “I ask you to give me the benefit of it.” “Oh, 1 am not thinking of resign ing,” she protested. “I am not asking you to give the business the benefit of the doubt. Miss Holmes; I am asking you to give it to me. I desire you to resign. Can’t you see what 1 am getting at? 1 love you. I want you to be my wife.” “Wouldn’t that he playing hob with the business?” she asked after a pause, smiling through her blushes. Mr. Holbrook rose from his chair and started toward her. She fled to the door in a panic and paused with her hafid on the knob. “The business is inured to such ex periences by this time,” he laughed, still going toward her. “Yon must re member that ray own romance lias a quartet of precedents right here In the office. However, it shall be the last; for ray next confidential stenographer shall be a man.” Miss Holmes covered her fade with her hands as he reached for her “If tliat is the case, B —Benjamin.” she murmured, “you might begin to look around for the man.” The English as Klaw Sees Thera. Mr. Marc Klaw, the American theat rical manager, who was quoted as saying that the English just about as emotional as a I.: in burger cheese,” writes that what he.really said was: "The English are a warm hearted people, but are usually about as demonstrative as frontage de Brie” (a large flat cheese). normal, especially daring the first stages of the disease, simply by wash ing out the stomach and effecting a complete cleansing of the Intestinal tract. Later on the fever is due to the absorption of broken-down lung tissue and to ptomaines, and so Is quite another story. When, therefore, tuberculosis is sus pected the temperature should be taken and if fever is present the per son should invariably go to his phy sician and have his digestive tract thoroughly cleansed, when by proper diet and outdoor life he will be able almost certainly to overcome the pres ence of the tuberculous germs. Reassuring. Marks —1 know your wife didn’t like it because you took me home unex pectedly to dinner la%t night. Parks —Nonsense! Why, you hadn’t been gone two minuter, oefore she nr marked that she was glad it was m one else but you,—Tlt-Biis.