Newspaper Page Text
LATEST ADDITION &.*
TO ARCTIC MAR^g^ . : —r-.:-- 1 ■■ ■ m&L. !&>,■ ' '”" _—- \ — l l \V\*\V t—rl a T HAS often recurred in polar exploration, as in many other phases of ta man activity, that the so called last word te not the final one. When the remarkable series of arc tic exj>editions came to an end, after years of fruitless search for the long-lost Sir John Franklin, the fleet commander, Sir Edward Belcher, write “Tlxe Last of the Arc tic Voyages." No one was more surprised than Belcher when McClinLock’s search in the Fox was initiated, and the final record was made of Franklin’s death and of the discoveries of his ship mates. And then followed that line of heroic American explorations which opened up the wondrous wa terways of the West Greenland coast and thus unbarred the hitherto closed gates to the very pole. In years just passed, when the stir ring dispatch came announcing that Berry had reached the north geo graphic pole, the acme of his ambi tious struggles of a quarter of a cen tury, the word went round that arc tic exploration was at an end. Even that virile and indomitable df scendant of the Norse Vikings. Roald Amundsen, was deterred from that arctic voyage on which he had already started. Turning the prow of the pram from Bering strait he sailed southward, and, scaling high antarc tic peaks wjth Norwegian ski and dog orawn sledges, attempted the south geographic pole. When the year 1912 opened there was noted a widespread recurrence of popular interest in arctic fields of research, so that there were no less than six expeditions initiated, ex cluding those of Russia. The Dane, Koch, and the Swiss, de Quarvain, crossed the Greenland icecap at dif ferent points. The German Schroder- Strau z, found disaster and death in North Bpitzbergen. Meanwhile the Canadian, Stefansson. planned to reach the hypothetical continent long forecast by Americans. The Ameri can. McMillan, sought definitely to outline Crocker Laud. The French man. Braver, re-explored that Franz Josef Land which his father was first to traverse. Amundsen now starts via Bering strait to drift northwest ward with the ice floes of the Sibe rian ocean. These all represent w hat may be called foreign and idealistic exploration, as compared with the Russian expeditions, which are do mestic and economic. Before describing the discoveries of Lieutenant Wilkitzky, the Russian, it will be well to set forth foreign in vasions into the Siberian ocean near est to Nicholas Second Land. First in order is the expedition of 1880, commanded by De Long, which drift ed northwesterly from Bering strait until the Jeanette w ? as crushed by the ice, Nansen followed in the FTam, adopt ing De Long’s plan. The drift of the Fram was a practical continuation of that of the Jeanette, though no land was seen, and the ship passed into deep water about 250 miles to the north of the new Siberian islands. The most important addition to the hydrography of the Siberian ocean, time and means considered, was made by Capt. Edward H. Johanesen, in the sailing schooner Nordlaud. Leaving Cape. Mouritius, Nova Zembia, he found the ocean ice-free, so that he crossed to Cape Taimur, near Cape Chelyurskin. On August 16, 1878, he discovered in 77 degrees 42 minutes north latitude. 86 degrees east longi tude, an Island named Eisanikeit (Lonely island), scarcely more than 100 miles to the west of Nicholas Sec ond Land. Most interesting w*ere the experi ences of Byron A. E. von Nordensk jold. the greatest, all phases of action and of knowledge considered, of arc tic explorers. In his unique voyage, the circumnavigating or Asia, he reached on August 19, 1878. the north point of Asia. Captain Chelyuskin, which he determined to be in 77 de grees 36 minutes north latitude 103 degrees 17 minutes east longitude. As he was the first known visitor to the cape since its discovery by Chelyus kin by sledge journey in 1742, its surroundings were carefully noted. Nordensjold sent his supporting steamer, the Lena, seaward to dredge. She was stopped by heavy and very close ice in about 77 degrees 45 min utes north, some 75 miles south of Nicholas Second Land, to which she made the nearest approach hitherto on record. The discovery of Nicholas Second Land is simply an incident in the eco nomic development of the Russian em pire. The general public is unaware of the astounding potential resources of arctic Russia. Its are&s extends half way around the world —through Kerosene Cans in Demand. American empty kerosene tins are largely used in India as receptacles and for fulfilling many of tbe purposes for which iron buckets and pails might be used.” writes Consul Henry D. Raker, on special service in the east. “Handles are attached to empty tins, which are thus utilized for carrying water about in a household, and in many cases they are filled with sand and deposited in large government and private offices for emergency in case of fires, when the sand may be Laborers Felt Their Power. The period that followed the black death was the golden age of tbe English peasant. Says Piers Plow man: “The laborers that have no land and work with their hands deign no longer to dine on jthe stale vege tables of yesterday; penny-ale will not suit them, nor bacon, but they must have fresh meat or fish, fried or baked, and that hot and hotter for the chill of their maw. Unless he be highly paid he will chide, and bewail tfc* time ho was made a workman. fficholsr& Lsrsict erna' /<& re/stion fo ihe North £ky/e ICB degrees of longitude —while the distance across it exceeds by many hundred miles that from the north ernmost point of North America to the Isthmus of Panama. The survey of these remote regions was but one of the many progressive improvements for Russia initiated by that luminous character, Peter tihe Great. Planned in his last years, this most extended of geographic sur veys ever attempted was known as the Great Northern expedition; it lasted 17 years, from 1725 to 1742. Its results gave fame to Bering. Mura vief. to the to Prontschischef and others. In later days they were followed by Kotzebue, VVrangel, Anjou and Sannikof. How Russia has persistently pursued a maritime policy for the develop ment of Siberian trade has been fully set forth by Gen. J. de Schokal sky, Russian imperial navy, in vari ous publications. Safe routes of nav igation to and from the valleys of the Yenesei, of the Lena and of other lesser rivers are absolutely essential for the prosperity and development of this habitable empire, which is half as large again as is the United States. Siberia is no longerr a coun try of convicts, but a land swarming with pioneers, a wondrous leaven among its 10,000,000 of inhabitants. Routes via the Kara sea and around the north end of Nova Zembia have been tested, but neither has been found same for commercial ships year after year. It was then suggested that a satisfactory route could be found by entering Bering strait. This would enable Russia to obtain a Siberian out let, with Vladivostok as the main port, to which would be shipped the prod ucts of the vast region to the east of Cape Chelyuskin. In the summer of 1912 two power ful ice-breakers, the Taimyr and the Vaigatz, made safely a voyage via Bering strait to and from the Lena. Soundings anu surveys were made en route, but ice conditions around Cape Chelyuskin prevented the ships from returning to Russia through The Kara sea. Early in July, 1913, the ice breakers Vaigatz and Taimyr left Vladivostok to prosecute their surveys and to re new their efforts to round Cape Chel yuskin and return to St. Petersburg through the Kara sea. The expedition was under command of General Sergelef/imperial Russian navy, who was incapacitated by a stroke of apoplexy. Lieutenant Wil kitzky, imperial navy, succeeding to the command, made a running survey of the Asiatic coast from the Kolyma river, latitude 70 degrees north, longi tude 160 degrees east, to Cape Chel yuskin. It is the first time that this cape has been visited by a ship com ing from the eastward. Wilkitzky's hopes of completing the circumnavi gation of Asia were destroyed in longi tude 96 degrees east, where he found an impenetrable barrier of solid ice. As the sea was open to the north, he decided to explore this unknown area of the Siberian ocean. To his astonishment, he soofi sighted high peaks, the summits of anew land. In latitude 81 degrees north, longitude 100 degrees east he landed, hoisted the Russian imperial colors, took pos session of the land in the name of the czar and named it Nicholas Second Land. Wilkitzky followed the land north ward, finding it with a continuing northwesterly trend. In latitude 81 degrees north, longitude 96 degrees east, he found a pack of solid ice, which forbade further progress, though the land reached as far as the eye could see. Retracing his course, the southern extremity of the new land was found in latitude 79 de grees north, longitude 104 degrees east, whence the coast took a trend to the northeast. The land is thus easily flung on the blazing fire an thus extinguish it. “Empty gerosene tins have also a wide use as containers of whee (clari fied butter used by the natives), and they are also put to use as flower pots; often they are flattened out and small holes pierced in them to serve as win dows or peepholes, through which the ladies of zenanas or harems may look out of their houses without being seen themselves. "These flattened out tins also are much used as roofing for many of the . . . Then be curses the king and all tbe king’s justices for making such laws that grieve the laborer.” Even tbe peasant with a fixed inter est in the soil was strong enough in many cases to extort a charter from the lord of the manor with rental at eight cents an acre per annum. Our Flowers in Winter. Plant foods are necessary to pre serve thrift throughout the winter. Some use a tea made from poultry droppings, bat extreme care must be known to extend through more than two degrees of latitude, with a coast line of nearly 200 miles. While data to that effect aife lack ing, it is probable that Nicholas Sec ond Land consists of a number of close lying islands, similar to Franz Josef Land. Its high, abrupt cliffs, and many isolated peaks seem to sus tain Wilkitzky’s opinion that it may be of volcanic formation. Despite the fact that vegetation was scant at the landing place, the land evidently abounds in arctic game. Traces of reindeer were visible, polar bears were seen, and bird life was abundant. Off shore many walrus were seen. The large collection made by the Russian officers of specimens relating to the geology, the fauna and the flora will throw much light on its physical con ditions. In the way of general knowledge it is evident that the continental shelf of Asia is broader than has been gen erally supposed, being from 200 to 350 miles or more in width. When forced from the southern shores of Nicholas Second Land by the ice pack. Wilkitzky found the ocean to the east quite ice free. He steamed easily along the seventy ninth parallel, through the sea where De Long and his gallant companions drifted for months, ice-beset until the Jeanette sank. Some additions and corrections were made in the number and posi tion of the De Long islands. Most im portant was the discovery by Wii kitzky on Bennett island of the diaries and records of Baron Toll. This Rus sian explorer visited this island by sledge in 1902 and doubtless perish ed on his attempted return journey to Kotelnoi island. The scientific world will* await with interest the last mes sage of this intrepid Russian scien tist, who gave his life to advance geographic knowledge to Russian do minions. It is a happy coincidence that this very year a memorial tablet to Baron Toll is in process of in stallment on Kotelnoi island. Coal Now From Spitzbergen. The vast coal fields of Spitzbergen are at last being opened up, and by an American. John M. Longyear of Marquette, Mich., who has a title to 170 square miles from a Norwegian company, reports that his company has shipped 35,000 tons this year. The Engineering and Mining Jour nal says that a deposit of about 60,- 000.000 tons exists in Spitzbergen. The mines are worked by from 250 to 300 men and although the shipping season lasts but three months, mining is carried on throughout the year. But Spitzbergen is still a No Man’s Land and the northern nations of Europe look upon Mr. Longyear and his American company as interlopers. In fact, Russians have already invad ed the company’s territory and taken away a cargo of coal. Consequently the Americans are in a quandary a* to what to do. Old Mother Hubbard, A rare discovery has been made in the realm of literature —nothing less than the author of “Old Mother Hub bard," whose lines, unprotected by copyright, were appropriated by suc cessive editors of Mother Goose with out the least bit of a “thank you." The discovery of the name of the au thor was made by a clergyman of the church of England, the present vicar of Yealmpton, in County Devon, who has given the news of his happy finding to the press. He says that the author was Sarah Catherine Martin, who wrote the imperishable rhyme more than a hundred years ago, and that Mother Hubbard herself was housekeeper to the squire of Yealmp ton. The pronunciation of this name is not given, but taking the hungry dog of the poem into account, one may guess It off as yelp-ton. poorer houses of natives. Empty kerosene oil tins sell for about four cents each.” Beer Drinking Discouraged. There is a general tendency through out Germany to discourage the use of beer by the factory employes during working hours, a custom which has been quite general for many years. Many of the factories now absolutely prohibit the drinking of beer in the factory and provide their employe* with tea at a very nominal sum. taken that it Is well diluted, and there is more'or less trouble with in sects as a result We have found liquid ammonia, though a less com plete plant food, much more agreeable to use. Applying once a week when the plants are watered, using a teaspoon fnl to each quart of water, keeps the plants in growing condition, and with healthy foliage. Of course there are several commercial plant foods, bat this is cheap, convenient and easily avails hia. THE 6SA COAST ECHO, BAT ST. LOUIS, MISSISSIPPI COLD WEATHER DISHES ABUNDANT NUTRIMENT FOR THE BODY IN WINTER. Appetizing Method of Preparing and Serving Veal Cutleta—Com Bread * Its Beet —Recipe for Vir ginia Smothered Chicken. By LIDA AMES WILLIS. Veal Cutlets ala Maintenon. —Pro- cure two pounds of veal culets, having them cut three-fourths of an Inch thick. Trim neatly, then diiy each one first in beaten egg, and then In pounded cracker crumbs, seasoned with salt, pepper and a bit of mar joram. Wrap each cutlet in half a sheet of buttered letter-paper or heavy paraffin paper, well buttered: lay on a greased broiler, and broil over, or exposed to, a clear fire, not hot enough to scorch, however. Turn oft en. When they are done, have fresh papers ready to put the cutlets in if those enveloping the cutlets become discolored. The edges of the papers should be fringed and twisted to se cure the juices of the chops. Veal cooked in this manner is delicious, as all the juices and flavor are retained. Baked Squash.—Cut in pieces as for serving, remove the seeds and stringy portion, brush with molasses, season with salt and pepper, and bake until soft. Add butter and serve from the shell. Trifle. —Get half a dozen little sponge-cakes (lady fingers or slices of stale sponge-cake may be used). Also a dozen fresh macaroons. Make a thick custard with three eggs, two tablespoonfuls of corn starch mixed with a third of a cupful of sugar, and two-thirds of a pint of milk. Scald the milk, turn It over the eggs and sugar and cook over hot water until thick; then set away to cool. Arrange the sponge-cake in a glass dish and moisten with a gill of cream, flavored with vanilla. Sprinkle powdered su gar over the cake. Then spread a layer of raspberry jam or strawberry jelly over this. Add the macaroons and pour the cold custard over the whole. Heap whites of eggs, beaten stiff, over the top. sweetening them slightly, or whipped cream in place of the eggs. Chill thoroughly before serving. Corn Bread—Sift one cupful of yel low cornmeal, and one cupful of flour, and put together. Add one teaspoon ful of baking powder, and half a tea spoonful of salt. Beat two egg yolks light; add a pint of milk and a table spoonful of melted butter. Stir this into the meal and flour, and last of all stir in gently the beaten whites of the eggs. Pour the batter into a thoroughly well-greased breadpan. The batter should be two Inches deep. Just before it is placed in the oven, pour carefully Into the middle of the batter, a cupful of sweet milk. Do this very gently, and do not stir It. Bake in a moderate oven for at least three-quarters of an hour. When done, cut into squares with a hot knife, split open and butter and eat while hot. Virginia Smothered Chicken.—Split a tender chicken dow r n the back and lightly season w r ith salt and pepper. Put into a roasting pan with a cupful of hot water and bake in a hot oven until tender. As soon as It begins to brown, make a paste of tw r o table spoonfuls each of butter and flour, spread over the chicken, and then baste every ten minutes w-ith the pan drippings until the chicken is a nice brown. Take out the chicken and keep hot. Place the pan over the fire and pour in a cupful of rich milk or thin cream, and stir until it boils up. Season to taste with salt and pepper, and pour over the chicken. Garnish your dish and serve. Baked Apples. Select apples with the same degree of hardness and rather uniform size; remove the cores. Unless the skins are very tender it is best to pare them. Water sufficient to cover the bottom of the bake dish should be added if the apples are not juicy. Bake in a quick oven. Cover the first ten min utes, then remove the cover just be fore finished. Serve with cream or the following dressing: To the white of one egg, beaten stiff, take one cup of malt honey or meltose. which has been heated, but not to the boiling point. Pour the hot honey over the beaten egg white and beat until light in color. Flavor with lemon, vanilla or orange. Fried Oysters. Select large fine oysters, drain and dry with a napkin, lift with thumb and forefinger on either side of the eye or hard portion; dip into bread crumbs and then into beaten egg. and again into bread crumbs. It is seldom necessary to add salt to the crumbs, but a little pepper, black or red, as preferred, is an improvement. After crumbling, pat the oyster between the hands and lay upon a platter to dry well before frying. To fry. Im merse in deep hot fat In which a piece of bread will brown nicely. When the oyster comes to the surface it is done. Drain and keep upon a lot platter until all are ready to serve Entire Wheat Bread. Two cupfuls of scalded milk, one quarter cupful of sugar, one-third cup ful of molasses, one teaspoonful of salt, one yeast cake dissolved in one quarter cupful of lukewarm water. 4pUr and two-thirds cupfuls of coarse entire wheat flour. Add sweetening and salt to milk; cool, and when luke warm add dissolved yeast cake and flour; beat well, cover and let rise to double its bulk. Again beat and turn Into greased bread pans, having one-half full; let rise again, and bake. To Keep Fruit Coke Moist. The best and most, simple way to teep a fruit cake is by means of a fresh apple. When a large cake is made, which is necessarily rich, and consequently only small pieces served at one time, lit is a problem how to keep it In the best condition. If kept in a dampened cloth, as Is cus tomary, you are apt to forget to wet it from time to time. The apple must be removed as soon as it begins to wither and anew one pvt in t&e box. PAYS. TO KEEP AN INDEX For One Thing, It l Good to Be Able to Turn to Any Recipe Needed at the Moment. Few women outside of business and academic circles realise the conveni ence of the card catalogue system, says the Christian Science Monitor. One energetic woman who had been a very successful secretary made an efficient housekeeper and homemaker because she remembered in her mar ried life the devices that Lad helped her in business. She had a number of catalogues to indicate the state of her household supplies—linen, etc. —but the most interesting of all w*as her card catalogue cook book and menu index. It was just like a library catalogue, being composed of a cou ple of drawers in a little cabinet filled with cards on which were typed reci pes. Those cards were grouped under appropriate heads and made readily accessible through a number of guide cards headed, Dinners, Soups, Entrees, Salads, Meats and Desserts. When faced with the problem “What shall we have to eat today?’’ she simply ran through her cards for the meal in question and often found the recipe for a dish she had quite forgotten about. For use as a cook book this arrange ment is much more convenient than the old book form. The collection of recipes grows rapidly, too, as it isso easy to paste on a card a newspaper clipping or a recipe from a household magazine, and slip the card into its proper place whore it does not get lost, as loose papers have a habit of doing. The catalogue outfit is quite inexpensive and the utility of the scheme will certainly repay the orig inal trouble of making. HOUSEHOLD HINTS When making a cake mix the spices and baking powder with the flour before it is sifted. To distinguish cotton from linen moisten a spot of the material. If the material wets through instantly it is pure linen; cotton does not take up moisture so quickly. Black walnut furniture or furniture made of any dark rich wood should be occasionally with a soft rag dipped in paraffine oil, then pol ished with another soft rag. There is,always a cause for a flick ering kerosene oil light. Either the top is clogged, the wick or chimney is a misfit or a draught of wind may be blowing into the room. To clean velvet stretch it taut, pile upward, over a basin of boiling water. As the steam rises through the velvet have a second person brush it brisk ly with a clean brush. When the eyes ache relieve them by closing them for a few minutes. If there is a burning sensation bathe them with hot water, to which a few drops of witch hazel has been added To test silk, fray out the threads and break them. If they snap easily, it is not good. The wrap thread run ning lengthwise should be of equal strength with the wool thread running crosswise. When frying doughnuts it is a good idea to have a dish of boiling water on the stove. As each cake is dene, lift it out with a fork and dash quickly into the boiling water and out again. If your kitchen is small and crowd ed, take - out the kitchen table and have a hinged shelf made. A shelf answers every purpose of a table and can be put down out of the way when not in use. Oyster Cocktail. Cut a cover off stem parts of six even sized sound green peppers, scoop out insides, remove seeds from covers as well as stems, and place in six small, deep oyster plates with shaved ice all around. Place 48 freshly open ed small Blue Point oysters in a bowl, add six drops tabasco sauce, six tablespoonfuls freshly and very finely grated horseradish. Mix all well to gether, then evenly divide oysters in the six green peppers, place cover? on and serve with a teaspoon on each olate. Bombay Special. Take half a pound of finely grated fresh cocoanut, boiled eight or ten minutes in a pint of milk. Beat five eggs lightly with quarter of a pound of fresh butter and sugar to taste. When light and well mixed, strew with a penny sponge cake, grated and crumbled; stale lady fingers will an swer nicely. Stir gradually into the cocoanut and milk, which should have time to cool. Add brandy, and pour into a dish lined with good puff paste, and bake from 30 to 45 minutes. Mince Meat. Four cups of chopped meat, four cups of suet, 12 cups of apples, four lemons, six cups of raisins, four cups of sweet cider, four cups of meat juice, six teaspoons of salt, four teaspoons of cloves, eight teaspoons cinnamon, two teaspoons mace, four teaspoons allspice and five cups of sugar. If a richer mince meat is desired, use two cups of sweet cider and four cups of sweet cider boiled down to two cups. Cranberry Jelly. Boil five cupfuls of cranberries in one cupful of cold water until they become thoroughly soft. Rub through a sieve and put the pulp again into the saucepan and let it come to the boiling point. Then add four and one-half cupfuls of sugar: cook four minutes and remove from the fire. Strain through a fine Sieve and set aside to harden.—Woman’s World Apples in Bloom. Cook red apples in boiling w ater un til soft. Have the water half sur round the apples and turn often. Re move skins carefully that the red color may remain, and arrange on serving dish. To the water add one cupful of sugar,•' grated rind of on© lemon and Juice of on© orange; simmer until re duced to one cupful. Cool and pour over the apples. Serve with cream sauce. Pineapple Salad. Place slices of pineapple on lettuce leaf. Cover slice with grated cheese. Over this put mayonnaise and on top sprinkle ground nuts. If desired put maraschino cherry la center. gDIISKWI* I ■ ' r 1 3 rr V x > PREPARATION FOR MODERN CORONATION IN THE long roll of England’s kings, running back into the re mote mists of legendary lore which enshroud the early rulers, the record of the coronations stands out with peculiar distinctness. A coronation, it would seem, is a func tion that impresses itself upon a man’s mind. It ,is something that is not forgotten. Even the ancient chroniclers, who romanced upon so many subjects, were inclined to stick to the sober truth when it came to describing the events that attended the coronation of kings. For that is what the coronation nas always meant in Christian lands. A temporal ceremony it undoubtedly is. Some of the elements in it are essen tially earthly, involving the pledging of homage, the granting of fealty. But overshadowing all these is the vast, subtle influence of the spiritual signifi cance which attends as sumption of a bauble crown, a bauble only in outward shape, because it is symbolical of so many other things that are not to be understood in so many words. Perhaps it will not be amiss to cast an eye backward over England’s his tory and review some of the corona tions of the past. It seems strange to find that Alfred the Great, who rivaled Charlemagne in the tradi tions of the splendor of liis reign, should never have been crowned as people understand the word today. He began to reign over Wessex in 872, but by 886 he had gained sway over most of the present land of England, exclusive of Scotland and Wales. When he attained to this magnificence he was formally elected king of Eng land by the soldiers of his army, who clashed their swords on their shields and shouted his name. That was how Alfred was crowned. Elevated King on Their Shields. Edward the elder's coronation in 901 was much' the same. It took place on Whitsunday at Kingston-on- Thames and his soldiers followed the good old Teutonic custom of elevat ing him on their shields. Edward the Martyr, however, was officially anoint ed and at St. Dunstan at the same spot in 975, which shows that already the enthronement of a king had taken on a particular re ligious significance in the eyes of the Saxons, who were the Englishmen of that day. No more would the votes of wild warriors, the clamor of sword on buckler, and elevation upon a platform of shields to the accompani ment of shouts of savage approval constitute the consecration of an Eng lish king. Harold, last of strictly English kings of Saxon stock, was crow ned by Alfred, archbishop of York, in West minster abbey on January 5, 1066. Per haps of all England’s coronations none was ever more dramatic than that Sore at heart over the breaking of his forced oath to Duke William of Normandy, terribly worried by the threatened double invasion of his realm, torn this way and that, con scious that he was surrounded by Norman spies, he occupied a situation w hichonecanreadily appreciate. Look ing down the misty vista of the crowd ed nave —much the same then, more than eight centuries ago, as it is to day—streaked with the winter sun light falling through the high win dows, perhaps he saw across the in tervening months to the glory he should win at Stamford bridge, and beyond that Ihe threatened shadow of Senlac field. Visions of Harold Hardrada, the sea king of the north, of the traitorious Earl Tostig, of the stout house carles of the Saxon thanes, of the long lines of armored Norman men-at-arms, and archers that came up the Senlac the day of that last great fight—all these throng through the echoing isles of Climate and Sleep. Climate has something to do with the amount of sleep required by a man. In India, for Instance, sleep overtaxes people in the most unexpected too ments. Speaking at a dinner given in his honor at Simla when he gave up the post of finance member of the council. Sir Guy Sleetwood Wilson re called his first budget statement be fore the council. “The day was ab normally hot and close, even for Cal cutta in summer time. Partly dWing to the heat, but partly no doubt ow ing to the wearisome effect of my first attempt at oratory, one by one every single member present went to sleep; and it is the simple truth that after a while 1 actually fell asleep myself in the course of the delivery of my statement" This surpasses the feat of the late duke of Devonshire, who paused in the middle of his maid en speech in parliament to yawn. Raincoats at Ten Cents. A man In Illinois has invented a process to produce and market a rain coat that can be retailed from 10 oents up. These coats are made in Westminster, hovering over the tomb* of soldiers and statesmen of the past. They are part of the heritage of that Saxon England bequeathed to the gen> erations that followed her, part of the memories of Harold, the son of Godwin, whose eye was pierced by a Norman arrow just before the shield wall broke aud Saxon England passed. Slaughtered People Who Cheered, On Christmas day of that satno year, or less than 12 months later, another coronation was held in West' minster abbey, w’hen Aldred of York, he who had placed the crown on liar* old's fallen head, did like office fof the conqueror. A saturnine memory, that coronation. Outside, in thb streets of the little village that clus* tered about the gray walls of the min* ister, the people were gathered ao cording to the old English custom to shout their acclaim of their new ter. But the Norman soldier on guard about the fane took the shouts to mean a threat that an attack was imminent, and that swept down upon the village and massacn .1 all the inhabitants. So that Duke WU* liam began his new reign with slaugh. ter and oppression that formed a ter rible climax to the tragedy at Senlao, So one comes down to the company tively civilized crowning of Henry VIII. and his consort. Catherine of Ar agon, by William Warham, archbish* op of Canterbury, on St. John the Baptist's day, being also a Sunday aud midsummer day of 1509. Aud after that came * the only crowned queen regnant of England, the beautiful and ill fated Lady Jane Grey, who f signed her accession proclamation on Jul>£ 9, 1553, and before the month was out was a prisoner, held fast in “Bloody Mary’s” grip. Ten days was thj length of her reign, one of the sad deal interludes in English hlstory. Mary, first of that name, was for mally crowned in Westminster abbey on Sunday, October 1, by the cardinal bishop of Winchester. That corona* lion was big with coming events, protestantism hung in the balance, the future of the nation, the happiness of the people. Elizabeth followed Mary, being crowned on January 15. 1559, and if possible the occasion was yet more portentious than any that had preceded it. It determined the fate of England. It marked the beginning of the English renaissance, of the budding of new thought and feeling, of the growth of the nation’s oversea traffic, and of the inception o(* that series of bitter shrewd blows als the sea power of Spain that ultimate ly gave England the right to claim the supremacy of the ocean. When John Whitgift, archbishop of Canterbury, placed the crown on the head of James I. and his consort, Anne of Denmark, on July 25. 1603, in the same historic abbey, it marked another stage in the development of Great Britain. For England had* ceased to be England now. She was Great Britain and Ireland, just aa later she was to become Great Brit ain and Ireland and the empire of India, and the dependencies over seas, James I. wore a crown heavier than any of his predecessors had worn. It is interesting to note that Heu*' rietta Maria, consort of Charles 1., refused to be crowned with him. be cause, being a Catholic, she did not wish to be consecrated in a ceremony of the Protestant church. One won ders if Charles, as he sat on the “stone of scone,’ “the stone of des tiny,” on Candlemas day. 1626, was able to visualize the scene in West minster hall, June 26, 1657, when AL iver Cromwell sat on that same seat 1 and heard himself proclaimed lord protector with ceremonies almost equal in splendor to those of a corona tion. the regulation slip-on style, from aft integral piece of waterproof paper. Their production cost will be no high, er than 5 cents each, and even that; figure can be lessened. The coat can be folded up to fit in an ordinary en* velope and is particularly adapted to being carried in handbags. The coat* can be made of oiled paper or paraf. fin, vellum parchment paper, which gives the appearance of silkiness at ft short distance. The original idea wa* for the coats to be worn only once, but, after a trial, it was demonstrated that they could be utilized success'* fully two or three times. The coats am reinforced where the buttons ai% sewed on and also where the button holes are cut. There are only twt seams, both running underneath tbfti arms and down the sides. These seams are cemented by ordinary glut* An Alibi. Patience —“A Mr. Stout claimed! that Peggy’s dog btt him.” Patrice —“And what was the ottfc come?" “Why, Peggy said it was lutpoealMa as her dog was a vegetarian."