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osnonr: : t Ki->i i 7 , CHE Homan Campagua has a quality which is unique, which differentiates it en tirely from any other T~l scenery of plain or tnoun- Pynm tain upon our world’s sur face. It stirs the imagina if. lion; it either uplifts or depresses us according to our mood, and very much too. I think, according to our race and inherited instincts and tradi tions It has some thing of the mystery of the sea. even where it is bounded by that surging line oi Sabine moun tains; above all, it has the immense, the eternal tradition of that world-city of past empire and present faith, which reaches us so in tensely when, look ing from the high ground of Tivoli or the Alban Hills, we see the mighty dome of St, Peter’s, a misty mass in the far distance, brood- ing as it wore, over the city which 1 es scarcely distinguishable at its feet, 'be Campagna of Rome," said Gregorovius, “is nothing else than the land of which is separa ted from Tuscany by the Tiber !• rnrn the time of Constantine the Great the name of Latium has fallen into disuse, and that of Campania has been used in its place; and in the middle ages this name indicated a great part of the so-called Ducatus Romanus.” Since the middle ages the district has been divided into two parts, the Campagna, which com prises the inland district, and the Mari tirna, which extends along the sea coast as far as Terraciua. Nature herself has divided it by mountain and plain into distinct compartments. It is divided into three plains. First, the Campagna around the city, w’atered by the Tiber and the Anlo, and hemmed in by the Alban and the Sa bine mountains, the hills about Ron ciglione, and the sea coast; secondly, the great plain in which the Pontine Marshes are situated, bounded on the one side by the Alban and Volscian Hills and on the other by the sea; and, lastly, the valley of the Sacco, which runs down between the Vols clan and the Equian &nd Hernian hills. A glance at any good ma> such, for Instance, as even the one given by Baedeker in his “Central Caly and Rome’’ (page 380), will help us to follow out the geographical divi sions given as above by the great historian. We shall see there Brac clano with its lake on the northwest, Subiaco to the far east, on the west the sea line, and in the very cen ter Rome herself, with the Tiber winding down to her from the Um brian uplands. And the same identi fication of the Campagna with theojd Latium. the Latina Telhts ("Latin Land”), extending along the front of the Mediterranean for 120 miles, as with a superficial area of 1.245 square miles, has been followed by Signor Cervesaro in his w ork on "The Roman Campagna,” though he uses the Argo and the Palude (the cultivable land and the marshes) as expressing two essential and very important divisions of this vast area "The general color of the Cam pagna," says this writer, "is a tawny red. paler where it undulates over the terraces of the slopes, greener in the fiats where it expands into broad meadows, and the whole wide plain from one horizon to another is bathed in a glorious sea of light. It is that wonderful, mysterious light, the ‘color of the air of Rome' of which foreign writers speak; overhead, depths of sapphire blue which towards the horizon melt into a limpid opalescent haze, where every color, every vapor is etherealized and transmuted by the dreamy transparency of this fairy light. Under it the silent plain, starred by asphodels, to the Greek emblems of Hades, and flooded by pearly re flections, seems an Elysian field, w here time is naught, and w here every reality becomes only the fleeting as pect of an ever-vanishing illusion. . . . The sapphire light that enfolds it, ennobles it indescribably, seeming to widen the horizon, and to open tip mysterious, unfathomable distances behind its transparent veil Dreams take shape and grow in this air.” Chateaubriand, too, had written of this Campagna. "From its barren soil rises the shadow of the great city. It is more than difficult, it Is impossible to describe what one parting shot was hot one Traveler Didn’t Get His Suitcase in Time, but He Had a Little Satisfaction. Here is a story that was told at a recent dinner by Dr. Allerton S Cush man. director of the Institute of In dustrial Research. Washington, when reference was made to sacrifice jolts: Some time ago an esteemed citi zen went to the package room of a big railroad fora suitcase he had checked f Cheerful News. The eminent physicians had been called in consultation. They had re tired to another room to discuss the patient’s condition. In the closet of that room a small boy had been con cealed by the patient’s directions to listen to what the consultation de cided, and to tell the patient, who de sired genuine information. “Well, Jimmie,” said the patient when the boy came to report, "what did they say?” i couldn't tell you th:t ” nd the — v / - j OF aEaPWfy i|f; fr: J|H|Wp ~ y v^SvtaßgLAi-f’ ■ ■’ * Hi Ijpll /,: OJ&yJXOUZTig JZf mZ'&OJMZirr feels when Rome bursts on one's sight In the midst of her lost domin ions; she seems to rise from a tomb in which she had been laid to rest. . . . A host of memories press in. overwhelming and thrilling the soul at the sight of this Rome which twice assumed the* dominion of the world." And, not to dwell too insistently on this side of our subject—this mystery of space and light, blended with the past sense of a tremendous destiny, “which destroys the weak, incites the hero to greatness, and is fateful to all”—who has expressed in any lan guage more tersely or more intimate ly the emotion it inspires than our Robert Browning, in his "Two in the Campagna?" The champaign with its endless fleece Of feathery grasses everywhere! Silence and passion, joy and peace. An everlasting wash of air, — Rome’s ghost since her decrease Such life here, through such lengths of hours, Such miracles performed in play. Such primal naked forms of flowers, Such letting Nature have her way While heaven looks from its tow'ers! It was natural that these qualities, pictorial as well as artistic, of the Roman Campagna should prove an irresistible attraction to the painters of landscapes; and. in fact, without going back so far as the days of Claude of Poussin, within our own age and in my own experience Poing destre and Arthur Strutt, both of whom I knew in rny student days at the British Academy of Rome; Henry Coleman, who, only a few months be fore his recent and lamented death, had described to me within the walls of the same academy his own experi ences of the romance of life among the herdsmen of the Campagna; Ono rato Carlandi, who happily is still among us in Rome, a genial figure in her art life and one of the famous "Twenty-five of the Campagna” to whose excursions in that magic dis trict I have been invited; Nardi, who Is well known in this country, and Pazzlni, who deserves to be better known; and. lastly, that master of every branch of his art, Aristide Sar torio, whose kindness has placed at my disposal a superb set of reproduc tions from his own studio of the Campagna to illustrate this article — all these have been under this spell, have been gripped by this wide deso lation with an intensity which no beauty of foliage,. or sea, or snow peaked mountain can seem to equal. The population of the Campagna is largely nomadic, though there is a permanent settled race, not very nu merous, using a language which Is a mixture of Romanesque dialect and Abruzzese —the word "buttero” (cat tle-driver), for instance being a cor ruption of "bourn ductor.” The no madic people who come down to the field work differ very much among themselves according to their “proven ance,” but are largely recruited from the Abruzzi. Among them the Aqulla men (Aquilani) are prized as good hedgers, the Rieti men, for sowing; the huntsmen and olive-pruners come down from Umbria and Sabina: and a few hours before, and being in some thing of a hurry, he tried to beam up : on fhe grip juggler that he stacked up against. “Ix)ok here, old pal,” he earnestly entreated, "my train leaves in just three minutes. Can’t you get that suitcase of mine?” “You are not the only man on earth," was the grouchy rejoinder of the grip juggler. “You will get your suitcase when your turn comes.” W hereat the traveler subsided. He saw what he had collided with and boy. “I listened as hard as I could, but they used such big words I could’t remember much of it. AH I could catch was when one doctor said: “Well, we'll find that out at the au topsy.” His One Rival. “One or the other of us,” muttered the young man who awaited his be loved in the front parlor, “is going to be turned down tonight!” And he glanced ferociously at the solitary par lor lamp glowing near the piauo. BZ/7TmAOIZ JIT TS&XK £f m£ CArtPA(?m~ wonted solitude. But only a part ol this vast tract around the farm steads is under cultivation at all Beyond this lie the vast tracts grazed over by oxen, horses, and buffaloes, and by the sheep, who, in the winter are driven down to graze on the plain and, as the summer advances, are slowly driven up from the scorching heat into the hills. In conclusion, let me give a ‘few words to my illustrations. Signor Sar torio has spent much of his time dur ing the last years in the Campagna, studying most intimately its scenery and the life I have described. The re sults of his work have found expres sion in a series of brilliant pictures, a number of which have now been exhibited in the Venice International exhibition; and I think it is not too much to say that the undoubted suc cess these exhibited pictures have achieved is due not only to their un deniable artistic merit, but also tc the fact that they constitute a very precious record of the conditions ol a life which may before long have passed away. SELWYN BRINTON. HE CATCHES BIRDS AT SEA Barber on Ocean Liner Uses Whis tling Brown Linnet Most Success fully as a Decoy. The barber of the Atlantic liner Minnetonka finds anew and profita ble pastime in catching wandering birds during the vessel’s voyage across the ocean —his profit arising from the selling of the birds on his arrival in port. All sorts of birds come on board he says, and he finds a ready sale for many of the rarer specimens. His chief assistant in capturing the birds is a whistling brown linnet which lures the wanderers aboard from its cage in an open port. The vagrant flyers alight on hearing ita whistle, and presently flutter inside Then the port is closed, and the strange birds are soon made prisoners. “I have caught hundreds of them, and I supply the London zoo regular ly,” said the bird catcher. “On a re cent homeward voyage the linnet lured a snowbird. It was the first one the zoo had been able to secure in i years. What the birds require when they first alight on a ship is not food, but water, and it must be boiled. “Gulls follow a ship all the way across the Atlantic. American gulls are regular convoys as far as the Eng lish channel, where they desert us, and follow a westward bounder home again. The English gulls follow a liner over and back in the same way. The gulls like emigrant ships best, be cause the more passengers there are the greater the quantity of scraps thrown overboard.” A Mind Reader. “What makes you "sure your con gressman is not speaking his mind frankly and freely?” “The weather,” replied Farmer Corntossel. “If he spoke frankly and freely he wouldn't offer any remarks except motions to adjourn.” / prepared to pay the penalty of his rashness. One long exasperating min ute the grip juggler loafed! Then an other! Finally the suitcase was pro duced. “Thank you!" freezingly remarked the traveler as he faded away. “If you ever lose your job here, come to me. I need a man to chase snails.” So He Keeps at Work. When a man does not want to take a vacation it is a sign that he fears that he will not be missed at the shop. Revenge. It is possible to heap “coals of fire” upon the head of one w ho has offended us, and do it with such vicious intent that there is no merit in the treat ment so far as we are concerned. The kindness that springs from a generous and forgiving spirit is one thing, and the seeming kindness which is secret ly Intended to humiliate the foe, and to place ourselves on a pedestal is quite another matter. Revenge Is the same spirit whether it hurls benefits or brickbats. —Selected. these different no mads, who are g'ener ically known as “guitte," keep very much to their own clan and locality, the men of the Marches never mixing with those of Aquila. nor even of on© village with another. They live in miserable huts, or caverns, or sleep in the open. They are victims of the tavern landlord, or storekeeper, as from him alone they can get the necessi ties of their poor life, and were exposed, until recently, at any rate, to the ravages of the malaria fever. When the work of the land is over and harvested these no mads take their de parture, and the Cam- ■ pagna returns to its 1 THE SEA COAST ECHO, BAT ST. LOUIS. MISSISSIPPI iDWBWi wffwm ROAD DRAG BOTHERING MANY Implement Cannot Be Used to Advan tage Except When Ground Is In Right Condition. The road drag is giving the public, the politicians and the county super visors a world of trouble, troubling them, we sometimes think, more than the drag itself, troubles the roads. It Is such a foolishly simple thing, so cheap and so easily made, that the average man off the farm, and not a few on the farm, are prone to think: Can there any good thing come out of such a Xazareth? It seems to be impossible by any legislation that has been enacted, to ln<2uce farmers generally to use the drag. The townsmen with automo biles soundly belabor the farmers for not using it, and sometimes hound the farmers along these automobile roads Into using it when it is a damage in stead of a benefit. The inherent difficulty In using the drag and making legislation effective is this, tljat the drag cannot be used to advantage except when the ground is in the right condition, says a writer In Wallace’s Farmer. It is of no use at all when the ground is very* dry. and often a damage. There is but one way that we see of making it thoroughly practical, and that is for the farmer himself, who knows when it has rained and when the roads should be dragged, to get out and use it on the road alongside his own farm ■Occasionally w r e hear of a county su pervisor w'ho calls up his neighbors by telephone, and tells them that now is tfle time to drag the roads, and per suades them to do it, with wonder fully good results. Btrf it does not al ways rain over the whole of a super visor’s district at the same time. We shall have to depend on dirt roads in the corn belt for a long time to come. Not altogether; for w r e shall have some gravel and brick and ce ment roads on the main traveled thor oughfares; but nine-tenths of the roads must be dirt, and must be kept In shape by use of the drag. A few r weeks a j££> we traveled along a road admirably adapted to dragging, and at the crossroads was a road ma chine costing a large sum of money. It was evidently managed by a man who had no faith in the drag, and who had been spending the people’s money in digging up the side of the road and putting the sod on the middle of it, as though sod would make a good road. Vegetable matter la a fine thing in the corn field, but you cannot pos sibly make a good road until you get Week-End Traffic on an English Good Road. rid of it. Why, at great expense tc the county and the township invest in a road grader, and then spoil the road by putting all the rubbish into the middle of it? We don’t believe we shall ever have good roads in lowa until the farmer is given charge of half the road along his line, and the owner of the adjoin ing farm the other half, and is then persuaded to drag his half after every rain, assuming in the first place that it has been drained and graded. This will give us the best of roads when they are good. It will not give us good roads all the year around. There is a time of the year when dirt roads will poach up. That cannot be helped —but the better they are graded and the better they are dragged at the proper time, the better they will be come. and the less they will poach. When on the good roads train, near ly ten years ago, w'e tried to appeal to farmers to keep their roads dragged whether they were paid for it or not, for love of their farms and their com munity. They should be paid for it, provided the work is properly done, either by remission of taxes or actual cash; but if not, pride of their farm should induce them to drag it. Progress and Prosperity. Our public highways are the ave nues ever which all the people may travel. They are the avenues which all our marketable farm products must pass before reaching the chan nels of trade and commerce. Good roads mean progress and prosperity, a benefit to the people who live in the cities and an advantage to the people who live in the country. They mean the economical transportation of mar ketable farm products, the necessaries of life at a minimum cost. Lime Is Essential. The need of lime in the laying and breeding of stock ration is very im portant. In one dozen ordinary sized eggs there are nearly four ounces of lime. This element is best supplied by giving cracked oyster shell in hop pers. Skim milk also provides life to a certain extent in palatable form and alfalfa or clover are satisfactory sources of supplying lime. Vote for Themeelvce. Farmers are voting for themselve* when they vote for improved roads. HARVESTING FALL AND WINTER APPLES ______ _ AiiL x - ... j. Apples as They Gro w on Long Island. (By M ROBERTS CONOVER.) That apples may reach maturity, properly, it is necessary that they de velop under normal conditions. Wormy or diseased apples ripen pre maturely and will not keep. Fruit that is to be kept for winter, must not mellow on the trees, nor soon after picking. Healthy winter apples are yet imma ture in late summer. That is why they do not ripen under the warm August sun that mellows the pears and peaches and fills the purple grapes with sweetness. At this time, winter apples should not have colored, nor quite attained to their full growth. During the early fall when the days are shorter and the heat less intense, maturing of the winter apples is slower than with summer varieties and this process seems to insure firmer flesh and tougher skin than is the case with summer varieties. During late September and early October, the sap flow is gradually les sening. The leaves turn to yellow and brown. The apples are now’ fully matured, colored and as far as growth is concerned, ready to.come off —but nature will yet do something for the fruit. The succulent vegetation which developed the squash and pumpkin, has been severed from their fruits by the careful grower, but this rule need not apply in the case of the winter tree fruits. The tree having withdrawn its exub erant sap flow, the fruit does not stand risk from frost. Under the influence of the cool nights the skin of the ap ple brightens and toughens. COMBATING INSECT PESTS IN ORCHARD Remove All Refuse, Such as De cayed Fruit. Dead Leaves, Limbs and Trees. The orchard should be thoroughly cleared of all refuse such as decayed fruit, dead leaves, limbs and trees, after harvesting the fruit. There is only one way to produce good fruit and that is to keep the orchard in a healthy condition and as free as pos sible of the many ravenous pests, that would, if not held in check, quickly de stroy it. Where rubbish is allowed to remain in an orchard, especially through the winter season, it makes a good har bor for insects; but if removed and burned will destroy a large portion of them. Every sucker, dead limb and tree should be removed from the orchard as well as all refuse under the trees for upon these useless branches and trees and under the rubbish winter the enemies which next spring will lay the eggs which will produce thousands of pests. *There are many insects and fun gous growths which never begin their attacks until the trees are commencing to die from some other cause, but hasten the death of sickly trees and then spread to the others. Some persons will often permit dead trees to stand year after year in their orchards to decay while others will simply cut the trees down and pile them until the insect life which they contain has developed into myriads and passed on to attack the nearby living trees. Dead trees should never be cut down and the roots left in the ground. They must be taken out roots and all for the roots contain insects which if not re moved will pass to the roots of other trees. Two of the most destructive insects we have to trees are the root borer and the bark beetle. They are both easily detected. The root-borer can be found near the surface boring its way into the roots while the presence of the bark-beetle is noticeable by the limbs and body of the trees containing small holes as though a charge of buckshot had been fired into them. If these enemies are allowed to run their course the result will be the death of the trees. The birds are our best friends and the very best means of destroying all insect pests and should be encouraged to live and nest in the orchards. There Is scarcely a bird that- -is not worth more than its weight in gold because of the many insects it destroys It is stated there are about 365 in jurious insects which are known to feed upon the apple alone. ——■ \ - Use Dry Hands in Milking. The cows should be milked with dry hands. The common practice of wetting the teats is unsanitary. Milk into a close covered bucket and empty each cow’s milk at once. Keep the supply can clear away from the stable and pour the milk into it as fast as it is milked, straining it at he same time through a fine metal i,7- or flannel strainer. This ability that fruits and veg etables have for strengthening their tissues in the autumn sunshine, is called curing, and while vegetables and many fruits must be separated from the parent plants to perfect this process, the winter tree fruits aro- nat urally subjected to this curative proc ess in that the tree no longer lifts such quantities of sap to the fruit, and the stem instead of conveying mois ture, becomes merely a means of sus pending the fruit in the sun and air where it cures. The wise fanner likes to see two or three frosts upon his apple crop be fore he gathers It. The next essential is to gather the fruit without bruising it. Hand picked they must be for winter keep ing. After gathering, the fruit should not be allowed to lie long in heaps upon the ground, but should be sorted and kept in a cool, airy building until bar reled. Double-headed barrels are used for those apples destined for storage. The finest specimens are placed at the bot tom and top of the barrel with good fruit in the center. Only fair apples are used for this. Specked or bruised fruit is rejected and sold in open barrels for imme diate use. The barrels are shaken lightly, in order to insure their being full. A good heading device is imperative where a large crop is to be handled. Apples to be held for shipment or stored for home use, should be kept' in a temperature ranging between 32 to 40 degrees—neither higher or lower. GOOD TREATMENT NEEDED BY PLUMS Dropping of Fruit Before Maturit> May Be Prevented by Giv ing Proper Attention. (By BESSIE L. PUTNAM.) There is a common complaint among those who have pium trees, that the plums always drop before maturity. This can be easily prevented by prop er treatment. It is usually due to lack of nourishment, late frost, or the curculio —most frequently to the lat ter, though often the two enter as damaging factors. In early spring while the ground is still frozen, mulch heavily with horse manure. This serves the double pur pose of supplying the necessary plant food, and of holding the frost in the ground, and retarding the growth of the buds until danger from frost is over. After the weather becomes set tled, the coarse part of the mulch should be raked off and removed, leav ing the fine part to contribute its richness to the soil. Just before the buds open, spray with paris green.or london purple for curculio. using in proportion of one pound of the arsenite to 300 or 350 gallons of water. Stone fruits re quire a more dilute solution than ap ples. Paris green is less liable to bum the foliage, though we have ourselves used the london purple for years, with no bad results. Hy mixing the arsenite with twice its bulk of lime one may guard against injury to the leaves. A cheap, tin pump, costing only a dollar, has proved all that is needed for the spray, though if one wished to use bordeaux mixture, the brass pump would be required. Never spray when the trees are in bloom, as tins will be fatal to any bees in the neighborhood: besides, the best time for the preservation of your fruit is just before the buds open. Just after the petals fall, and still again two weeks later. If this is thoroughly done there will be no more trouble from curculio. When the trees are small enough to be easily handled, jarring every morn ing into sheet spread for the purpose, will lead to the capture of this pest, as it goes up from the ground to its work. The insects’ method of work is this: It cuts a tiny flap out of the embryo plum, deposits its egg, and leaves it to hatch, where the larva will find the table literally spread for it. Plums are rich, wholesome, deli cious. No other fruit requires so lit tle trouble in gathering or prepara tion; few are so well liked. Insure Good Milk Flow. Unless a cow’s feed is very moist she must have a large quantity of drinking water to insure a good flow of milk. Feed up to the highest notch all of the time cows are b°ing milked. Nature Gives Warning. It is a wise saying, “As ye sow so also shall ye reap.” You are sowing disease and shall reap death. Fre quently nature is long suffering and kind. She gives the warning in time to avert the penalt v EXERCISE FOR BROOD SOWS Animals Should Be Kept in Yards and Pens Where They Can Avoid Narrow Gates and Ooors. (By G. E. MORTON, Colorado Agricul tural College.) Brood sows should bo allowed plenty of room to exercise in, up to about two days of farrowing time. They' should be kept iu yards and pens where they will not be obliged to pass through narrow gates, over boards, doorways, or through low doorways where they are obliged to bend their backs to get through. Any one of these is likely to result in dead pigs at birth* It is a good idea to feed w f hole oata scattered on the feeding floor or ground for a week or two prior to farrowing, so that the sow will bo forced to exercise in getting her feed. When about due to farrow, the sow should be put into a pen which has been fitted with wallguards, where the pigs may find safety after birth. The ordinary pig guard is useless because it is neither high enough from the floor nor far enough from the wall, and the space underneath fills up with straw so that the pig is crushed almost as easily as if the guard were not there. For thin, active sows a large pen may be used. For extremely heavy, fat sows, it is best to have a pen space comparatively small, so that the sow cannot turn around quickly and thus step on her pigs. The sow should not be fed heavily just prior to farrowing, nor just after farrowing, but should have a thin slop for a few days so that there may be no tendency to con stipation. If there is any such ten tency, a dose of epsom salts should be given in the swill. The bedding in the pen should be kept absolutely dry as dampness will very quickly cause death loss among young pigs. Within a week or tW’o the sow and her litter should be moved out to a colony hog house, where they will get more exercise. When the pigs are tw’o or three weeks old, two or three sow's may be turned together. SELECT THE BEST STALLION Too Many Farmers Are Neglecting Matter of Patronizing Good Sire, Thereby Reducing Profits. (By ,1. S MONTGOMERY, Minnesota Experiment Station.) The progressive farmer who keeps brood mares is confronted with the problem of choosing a stallion tc Fine Specimen of Clydesdale. which to breed. In many cases it is merely a question of eliminating the worst, as there are many communities that are not supplied with a good stallion. In many other cases, how ever. the saving of five dollars on a service fee plays an all-important part. Fifty-five per cent of the stal lions licensed in the state are grades or less than grades, which show's that too many are neglecting the matter of patronizing a good sire, and are thereby reducing their profits. A sav ing of five dollars on a service fee often means a loss of SIOO or more when the coP is two years old. When looking at a stallion It is well to -ask yourself: “How much would he be worth as a gelding? If his colts are like him. will they be good market geldings? How much improvement will he make when bred to the average farm mares? The an swer to these questions will decide whether the horse is a suitable sire or not. in answering them it should be kept in mind that good feet and legs are the first essential of a mar ketable horse. If the stallion does not have them he cannot be expected to produce them in his offspring. The state license which the owner of a stallion must show is the best guide to the breeding of the stallion. Feeding the Hogs. Moldy feeds occasionally kill lots of hogs. At other times they seem not to injure them: probably It depends on the stage which the ptomaines have reached or passed. Anyway, there Is no use in taking chances by feedine molded, heated feeds to high priced hogs Rye and corn finely ground make a good slop for hogs on pasture of al falfa or clover. For hogs in the pen this slop is somewhat too fattening and shprts or middlings with more protein will give bettor growth unless some tankage is added. Preventing Milk Fever. Ewes with very light udders should be .fed very lightly on grain for about three days, so as to prevent milk fever. After this period they should be fed well to continue their milk flow, so that nice, plump, fleshy lambs of the kind that bring good prices may be raised. Care of Exhausted Horse. A horse exhausted and reeking with sweat should not be allowed to stand in a draft, no matter what the weath er may be.