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THE ECHO 15
The Official Journal iOF THE CITY OF BAY ST. LOUIS Subscription: $1.60 per Azur^fe ANTHRAX OR CH.VfBON DISEASE With Special Reference To Its Suppression. NATURE AND HISTORY OF THE DISEASE Antrax may be defined as an in fection due to specific bacilli which may attack every species of domestic mammal, and for this reason may be come one of the greatest scourges of animal life. Man is by no means im mune, although, fortunately, the mal ady as it appears in the human sub ject is usually less acute than the form seen in cattle and sheep. This jS probably due to the fact that the lesions in man occur most frequently from infection of the surface of the hands or feet, while cattle and sheep are more lik-ly 10 swallow the infec tious germs with their food, thus giv ing the germs immediate entrance in to the animal system, where they can exert their most harmful influence without check or control. Historians record an outbreak of antrax in the south of Europe in IGI3 which started with the cattle and spread from them to the populace, ultimately becoming a veritable scourge and causing the death of more than 60,0'00 people. From this it is very evident that the disease was far more virulent and far more in clined to attack all species of mam mals during these earlier centuries than it is at the present day. It is even recorded that many deer and other varieties of game animals were destroyed during these early periods. At the present time cattle and sheep are the chief sufferers, and the outbreaks appear to be limited to an imals that run upon low moist lands of a more o; less mucky character. In certain regions of the country, where the land is mainly hilly, it has been found that pastures exist in which there are w-t, low places, and that anthrax appears every season among the cattle of these farms if they are allow and to pasture upon these damp areas, but when goad fences are bu.lt athund them and the stock is kept up on the dry portions of the pasture the disease quickly disappears. Should the fence become broken down, allow ing cattle to invade the infected area at certain seasons of the year, they are very likely to contract anthrax. In fact, certain plats of ground of this and scrip.ion have been found to retain the germs of anthrax for several years, a circumstance which has led many investigators to declare that the anthrax organism ha; the capability of growing from year to year without any artificial aid or cultivation, if on ly planted upon suitable soil; that it will sprout and grow, producing the plant and later the seed, thus provid ing a perpetual source of infection for the stock that may chance to be allowed to linger on this area of growing anthrax plants. Because cf the remarkable tenacity with which certain plot? cf ground retain their infection, Pasteur in 1880 reached the conclusion that the car cases of animals dying from anthrax, iven though deeply buried, retained their many infectious organi ms and supplied them -with such an amount cf nutriment that they continued to multiply for years, and in this way produced an immense underground supply of virulent anthrax organisms. He decided further that these living infectious germs might to brought to the surface at any time through the agency of the earthworms, and that, having reached the surface, they of fered a very serious menace to any live stock that might wander into that vicinity. The e suggestions were very generally accepted by the medi cal* fraternity and for some years were taught as illustrative of the manner in winch anthrax lurks rn cer X '• tune: bet later investigations by Kitasato have shown that spore formation by an thrax bacilli is very incomplete at a depth of 18 to 20 inches below the surface of the ground, and at even; greater depths must be greatly sup- j pressed by the presence of the pro- j ducts of decomposition. Koch has further stated that earthworms ara\ incapable of Hiking up anthrax :por?s i and bringing them to the surface. Nevertheless, the fact remains that I certain circumscribed areas of ground I remain dangerous to stock 'Tom year to year. It is still an unsettled ques tion whether the anthrax germs grow and multiply each season upon infect ed lands when conditions of moisture and warmth become favorable or whether the ground b comes infected at some certain time with bacilli, from which spores? develop, which re main near the surface of the ground for years or until taken up by some susceptible animal. Careful experiments have proven than anthrax bacilli flourish and re tain their virulent properties in stagnant water for at Hast twelve months, and certain authorities claim to have obs:rved them multiplying with no other nourishment than that afforded them by muddy -water. A look at some of the most serious ly infected localities in this country will help us to understand the cond.- tions which tend to perpetuate the infection. Upon the rice plantations of the South, where the fields are an nually submerged to favor the start ing of the rice p’onts, many of the animals used in the cultivation of the crops contract anthrax and die as a result if driven over the. infected lands after the water has? subsided and a few days of hot weather have inter vened. Where tanneries are located upon or near to streams there is a great danger that anthrax will be brought to them upon hides and then be scat tered over the low lands lying down stream from the point where the tan ning process is carried on. This state ■of affairs exists especially near to those tanneries which work upon goat or sheep pelts from foreign countries. Infection >n the form of spore; ad heres to these hidjs so persistently that ordinary fumigation fail to de stroy it. and repeated outbreaks of the disease occur wherever such skins pyA unpacked and manufactured into leather. In making mention of this danger Professor Law writes: Since 1802 anthrax has prevailed along the banks of the Delaware Riv er for a distance of 40 miles in New Jersey and Delaware, destroying from 70 to 80 per cent of the farm stock. The great morocco industry on this river draws infected hides from Ind:a, China, Russia, Arica, and South America, and the spores are carried and distributed by the hides. Delafond studied the vitality of an ithrax bacilli in 1860. He placed some | blood from a sheep dead of anthrax in a glass container to which free access of air was granted. This was kept in a cool place at a temperature ranging variously from 45 degrees to 60 degrees F. (10 degrees to 15 de grees C.). When examined at the end of the fourth day it was found; that the length of the filaments was increased, but that their diameter had , remained unchanged. After eight to ten days their length was four or five time; as great as when first brought | under observation, thus proving that : a veritable growth of the* bacillus had ; taken place outside of ithe animal ; body and without the presence of an- j imal heat. In a letter from China to the Lon don Lancet we read: The disease which has been destroy ing cattle throughout this district continues its ravages, though with diminished virulence, probably be cause there is now a scarcity of sus ceptible cattle. The mortality has varied from 50 to 75 per cent of the infected animals. To determine the j extent of the disease I made inquiry j as to the number of hides exported during the first three months of this year. They say that more than 280,- 000 left Peking, and th'at half a mil lion would not be too high an estimate for the 'whole district. As no cattle are b p ing slaughtered, this repre ents, approximately, die loss of cat tle from the plague. - j.. —f-, The foreign firms that export hides, wool, bristles, and hair are in the hands of Chinese middle-men who roam about the interior buying here and there from the agricultural class es. I have been over some of the factories in Tientsin and have ob eerved the steps they take to clean the stuff before its export. Bristles and hair are thoroughly well boiled in soda solution, wool is roughly car ded and shaken free of as 1 much dust as possible by machinery, and hides are sort and out and packed with naph thaline. The exporters claim that any further disinfection than is now given would spoil their goods and increase their expenses. The real difficulty docs not lie with the Bacillus anthracis but with its spores, whose natural resistance is increased by their being embedded in the grease and dirt of the material while it is being dealt with in whole sale hulk in China. There can be lit tle doubt that the passage home through the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea in the warm hold of a ship is all conductive to their propagation and preservation, so that when the time comes for bristles and hair being carded and separated out by workers at home these spores are liberated in an active condition, ready for human infection to a much greater extent than is the case in-China. Aside from the danger of direct in fection to animals pasturing on in fected areas, there exists the added danger cf (inoculation through the agency of hay or other crops that have be n grown upon infected areas of land. The process of drying and curing the hay or forage does not lessen this danger, for drying favors the development of spores and these, mingling with the dust and fragments of the dried -forage, may be taken up by the wind and blown about, or may cause serious damage simply by be ing eaten bv susceptible animals. FORMS OF THE DISEASE. The disease may appear in one of three forms—apoplectic, acute, or subacute. The apopletic form ia most fre quently seen attacking cattle or sheep a: the beginning cf an outbreak be fore the animals of the vicinity have developed any degree of natural im munity to the infection. Here the animals present symptoms of cerebral apoplexy. They reel and fall, bloody liquid flows from the body openings, and death soon follows. If he body is opined and search is made for evi dence of disease, it may be quite im possible to detect any definate lesions or any change in the tissues. The acute form of the disease de velops more slowly, but becomes 'well established in twelve to twenty-four hours after the premonitory symp toms are noticed. In these cases the fever is intense (104 degrees to 107 degrees F.). The animal is greatly prostrated. Cerebral conges ;ion causes excitement, which is followed by drowsiness and , staggering gait. There is frequent passage of bloody urine, followed by convulsions and death. In this type of the disease, as well as in the apoplectic form, post-* mortem examination of the carcass may fail to reveal any definite les ions. The third form of anthrax, the sub acut?, is the most common. The sym ptoms are like those cf the acute form except that they are of slower development. Instead of becoming es tablished in twelve to twenty-four hours, one to seven days may be re quired. The fever is very high. Ser ious colics are often present. Local anthrax tumor- appear externally, fir t near the shoulders, neck, and head, and are usually due to local in jury or bruising, which gives rife to a collection cf bacilli within the blood vessels of the part, whose resulting inflammation gives rise to the swell ings or carbuncles. These tumors are at first hard and circumscribed, but later become cold, insensible, diffuse, and fluctuating. An examination of the carcass of an animal dead of an thrax of the subacute form will prob ably show many lesions or alterations. Hemorrhages may be found in almost all parts of the body. Serious infil trations may be present beneath mucou; membranes end skin. Th r re will be swelling of the spleen, the BAY SAINT LOUIS, MISSISSIPPI, SATURDAY, JUNE 30, 1917. liver, and the kidneys, and the blood wull be of a muddy or tarry appear ance and incoagulable. The cavities of the body contain more or lass bloody effusion, and the lymphatic glands are swollen and contain small hemorrhages. The red blood cells have become broken down in large numbers and the serum of the blood has been markedly reddened. The walls of the intestines may appear j perfectly normal, but hemorrhages ara frequently seen, especially in the j wa’.la of the duodenum. The subacute form is the one most | commonly met, >. and it is the only form which responds favorably to treat ment. Death ensues so quickly in the other two forms that attempts at treatment are of but litle use. Isolated or sporadic cases are usu ally of the subacute form, and are frequently limited to the formation of a tumor or carbuncle at the point of the body at which the infective germs first gained their entrance. THE ANTHRAX BACILLUS. The anthrax bacillus is a straight rod with ends slightly concave. It can net grow without the presence of air, but will grow in temperatures ranging from 55 degrees to 106 de grees F. It is not capable of motion, it measures 4 to 6 u in length and about 1 in breadth. The bacilli multiply by fission, or dividing into two, or they may multiply much as corn does by the formation of seed or spores, which sprout and produce anew anthrax plant when placed un der suitable conditions. This simile may he carried further, for, like a tender blade of com, the anthrax plant or bacillus may be destroyed very easily by the application of heat or cold, but the seed or. spore will re sist considerable heat and as unaffect ed by freezing, still retaining its vir ulence in spite of being subjected to either temperature. When cultivated artificially and grown in the laboratory, a luxuriant growth may be obtained by planting upon any of the culture media com monly used for bacterial growth. The organisms grow rapidly and produce dense, thick clumps on potato, gelatin, agar, or other solid material. They grow with equal readiness in fluid media such as beef broth, milk, etc., but will not produce spores while growing in media of this character, as spores can not develop except in the presence of free air or oxygen. METHODS OF COMBATING INFECTIOUS DISEASES Whenever attempts are made to control or suppress an infectious di sease a thorough study of its charac ter must be made, as the measures to bo applied will very largely depend upon the results of such investigation. Take fcot-and-mouth disease, for in stance. This has fciecome so firmly established in the flocks and herds of certain European countries, especially in the southeastern portion,’ that it is considered almost an endemic, and while the stock owners are constantly trying to suppress the disease, they never go at it with the fixed purpose of obtaining its complete eradication. But in this country the circumstances are very different. Here the out breaks have only occured after long intervals, and in every instance, save one, have been traceable to some definite source. The number of ani mals attacked in each outbreak has been comparatively small. Hence, in view of the rapid transmission of the infection, not alone by sick animals, but by men, dogs, or chickens that may chance to come in contact with infected cattle or stables, any dally ing, experimental measures must not be considered for a moment; and, tak ing this view of the matter, the im mediate slaughter of all infected and exposed susceptible animals has been insisted upon each time that the di sease has appeared within the borders of this country. How very different is the method of dealing with Texas fever. But these differences of treatment are only such as are demanded by the differences in the characters of the two infections. Texas fever is known to be dependent for its origin upon the bite of an in fected cattle tick, by means of which the minute parasite which destroys the blood cells of its victims gains entrance to the circulatory system, and multiplying rapidly breaks down so many blood corpuscles that fatal fever quickly results. To obviate this disease, all that is necessary is to keep the cattle free from contact with infectious ticks or to immunize them by die careful application of blood or ticks under proper precautions. Pres ent endeavors of the Bureau of Ani mal Industry toward the suppression cf Texas fever are being extended along these very lines. By establish ing and maintaining the Texas fever quarantine line, it is preventing south ern cattle from bringing dangerous ticks into northern pastures where their presence would quickly act as a scourge. The Bureau is also doing an immense amount of work in re moving all infectious ticks from cer tain regions of the South, not with a view to saving the cattle of these regions from death from Texas fever, because they have become immune to that disease, but for the purpose of making these cattle more valuable than they are at present, as they may be given free bills cf health for ship ment to northern points and northern markets just as soon as it can be shown that they originate in the tick free districts. Therj are a number of serious con tagious* diseases which terminate fat ally in almost every case of attack. For these no treatment is attempted, hut preventive measures may be ap plied with the greatest assurance that further spread may be stopped. Such is rabies. Once the disease develops, no known treatment will avail to save the patients life; but if inoculative treatment is applied soon after the victim is bitten by the rabid dog the the chances for recovery are excellent. In studies of the various (infectious diseases it has been found that one of the most desirable means of prevent ing their extension is to furnish the susceptible and exposed animals with artificial immunity. This is the case with tuberculosis, blackleg, anthrax, rabies, hog cholera, Texas fever, and the like. Many animals prove to be naturally immune to these diseases, . while ethers must be made immune by inoculation with suitably prepared materials before they are able suc cessfully to withstand attacks from the specific organisms which cause the | several maladiest Educated investigators the world ! over have expended a vast amount of effort and study an attempts to dis j cover and perfect the most effective and at the same time the most prac j ticable means of immunizing animals against the more destructive of the | infectious diseases. Immense amounts !of money have been appropriated for ! the advancement of these researches, j both from governmental sources and from gifts of private wealth. The goal sought by these searchers along lines of agricultural interest is the discovery of some means by which immunity may be conveyed to a large number of animate readily and at slight expense. VACCINATION AS A PREVENTIVE Satisfactory immunity is readily granted cattle at the present time against the ravages of blackleg or -symptomatic anthrax through the injection beneath the skin of the sus ceptible animal of some material con taining the living but weakened germ of the disease. The amount of this material is so graduated that it caus es the prompt development olf the very disease that ds being guarded against, but only in a mild and com paratively harmless degree. There is considerable elevation of temperature, and there may even be limited tumor formation, but only in the rarest cases does this type of blackleg, that has been intentionally produced by inocu lation, progressed so far that the ani mal is seriously injured. The value of artificially produced immunity in the struggle against this disease is shown by the fact that the losses of young cattle which reached from 15 to 20 per cent in certain infected localities previous to the discovery of vaccine :rcatment, have been reduced to one half of 1 per cent at the present time where vaccines are used. It is at once apparent that hard and fast conclusions can not be drawn favoring vaccination against anthrax from results obtained in the suppres sion of blackleg by the use of black leg vaccine. But there are a sufficient number off points! of similarity be tween the two diseases to justify con sidering the two together. They are sg similar that for many years no dis tinction was made between the two maladies, but all cases were called anthrax. The successful vaccination of cattle against either of these two troubles must consist in giving the animal that is to be safeguarded a sufficient ly severe attack of ine disease that is feared to provide the (body tissues with such a degree of resistance that no germs can be the sys tem in fatal numbed Sno. remain io find lodgmens and nature there. After such vaccination the animal is safely protected and can go- with perfect safety into fields that would have proven deadly before the vaccination was performed. Just how this immunity is obtained is still an open question, but it is very manifest that the attenuated or ganism is able by its growth to affect the tissues (some say the animal cells, others the fluid tissues) in such a manner that virulent organisms of the variety presented in the voccine can not possibly thrive, and without the rapid multiplication of virulent or ganisms within the animal tissues there can he no disease. Blackleg vaccine is prepared from the affected muscle of an animal dead of that disease. Anthrax vaccine is produced by the cultivation in beef broth of pure cultures of anthrax bacilli, hence may be manufactured in unlimited quantities without having recourse to any animal suffering from the disease. Starting with a thrifty culture of anthrax bacilli growing in a flask of bullion, Pasteur, in 1881, by a series of experiments found that subjecting it to a temperature of 108.5 degrees F. for twelve days would so lower the virulence of the organisms that they would only exceptionally cause death when injected into rabbits. Continu ing the attenuation by subjecting the bacilli to the same degree of heat for twelve days longer, or twenty four days in all, he discovered that he had in his possession a living culture of anthrax bacilli that had losrt; its power of killing cattle, sheep, rabbits, or guinea pigs, although still capa ble of killing white mice. This was the beginning of the practical prepa tion of anthrax vaccine, for he soon found that cattle or sheep when in oculated with the culture of twenty four days’ attenuation would survive the treatment and would gain a very material power in resisting infection from inoculations with bacilli of a high degree of virulence. This power of resistance is needed to enable them SPECIAL Excursion T O Moateagle and Sewanee^Tenn. And Return From Bay St. Louis $16.85 Ticket Sold July, 6,7,13,21 and August 3,6, 9, 16, 17 Information See Ticket Agent. S. I C. ALUMNI IN ANNDALSESSIONHERE ON SUNDAY LAST. Aug. J. Claverie President and Jos. P. McGinn Vice President for 1917-18 OTHER OFFICERS ARE Elected—About Fifty Mem bers Present —Banquet By Bro. Ceron, College Chef, Was “Some 7 ' Feast Af fair Thoroughly Enjoyed. Sunday was another memorable day in the history of St. Stanislaus College. The Alumni Association held its an nual meeting and banquet at the col lege. The attendance represented 1871 to this year’s class. In all about fatty graduates were in attendance. 1 At 11 A. M. the business meeting took place in the Brothers’ Community Room. The election of officers followed. Aug. J. Claverie, Class ’77, was re elected president for the fourth term; J. P. McGinn, Class ’O7, first vice presi dent; Linden F. Breaux, Class ’Ol, sec ond jvice president; Chau. J. Tossin, Class ’O4, third vice president; John Claverie, Class ’7l, fourth vice presi dent; Justin J. Green, Class ’OB, secre tary-treasurer; Gaston G. Gardebled, Class ’IG, assistant secretary-treasurer. The meeting adjourned to the old refectory where Bro. Ceron, the college chief, and his corps of assistants had prepared a splendid menu. Joseph P. McGinn acted as toastmaster and called upon the following who responded and made short addresses: Rev. Father John Prendergast, Bro. Berchmane, president of the college; Bro. Macarius, vice president of the coflege; Foster Commagere, coach; Justin Green, A. J. Claverie, Nat Tycer, Newton C. Guice, Aime Deramee, John Green, Prof. Li nus Koennen, Victor Lefebvre /and F. B. Jaenke. Mr. McGinn made a happy and most capable toastmaster, which added large ly to the success of the affair. Among the prominent alumni pres ent were John Claverie, the first gradu ate of the school, Class 71, John B. Bachino, August j. Claverie, Frank m. Tarut, A. L. Deramee, V. m. Lefebyre, Jr., F. M. Jaenke, J. P. McGinn, Justin Green, John A. Hoffmann. The p r ominent guests besides the members of the faculty were the Rev. Father Prendergast and Mr. Foster Commagere. A CARD. My term of office as County Health Officer expiring today, I wish to pub licly voice my appreciation of the co operation I have had from the people of this county while engaged in the per formance of my duties, and to express my thanks to one and all. The people from every part of the county have res ponded promptly and willingly to my efforts for better sanitation and better health, thereby gaining the desired re sults. The work must not rest here, however, it must continue onward, and for my successor I ask that his efforts be accorded the same liberal assistance and the same cordial spirit which in my public work proved of so much val ue. Respectfully, C. L. HORTON, M. D., Bay St. Louis, Miss , June 30, 1917. to withstand the injection of the sec ond and stronger vaccine, which, hav ing been subjected to attenuating heat for only twelve days, is possessed of considerable virulence. In his early investigations he made experiments upon a flock of 50 sheep. Half of these were vacillated with his attenuated culture of anthrax bacilli. Twelve days la:er they received an inoculation with stronger vaccine, and forty days after this the whole flock was inoculated with virulent anthiax culture. Two days later the vaccin ated animals were all sound, while the checks were all dead. Following this striking demonstra tion by Pasteur, 60,000 .sheep and 6,- 000 cattle were at once treated in France. The following year the same form of treatmem: was applied to 270,000 sheep and to 55,000 cattle. Since that time this method of vac cinating against anthrax has found very general application jn France whenever losses have occurred, mak ing is evident that certain fields or pastures have become infected with anthrax bacilli. Asa result, Nocard and Leclainche state that anthrax has disappeared from many sections in which dt formerly decimated the live s:ock and that the medical doctors at the same time reported a disappear ance of maligant pustules from among their human patients. Soon after this method of immuni zation by the use of at:enuated cul tures had become suitably tested and perfected in France, steps were taken to supply vaccinating material to other countries, and reports of its successful application were soon re ceived from Russia, South America, Australia, and other lands. Other investigators, fearing to use Vulcanizing--^ BAY REPAIR SHOP, MAIN ST. |'% A. G. | m Theatre rS pg m MONDAY: Ss Kobert Warwick in “Friday The 13th.” Brady-made, gjggj s&g —— gftg TUESDAY: m Marie Doro in “Castles For Two.” Paramount. KpS S&3 WEDNESDAY Caryle Blackwell and June Elridgc in “A Square SSS3 Deal.” Brady-made. THURSDAY: 5$S SJ!a John Barrymore in “The Man From Mexico.” fiScJ II ii f<3| FRIDAY SSS Kitty Gordon in “Her Maternal Kight.”Brady- Kfcw made. mi ©S§ gj3| SATURDAY: wsC§ Kathlyn Williams in “Out of the Wreck.” Also ClfKi A Comedy. Egg r®® the living 1 anthrax bacillus, even though greatly attenuated, have turned their attention to the produc tion of a serum that should possess immunizing powers equal to those of the attenuated organism. The immu nity granted by serum inoculations become effective very quickly, but does not last long unless reinforced by the addition of virulent ma'.erial at about the time that the serum is injected. At first the virulent mater ial was. injected a few days after the serum had been applied, but the latest recommendations are that they should Lu given s>in ftitancoAeiy; wneJ a iofe it is now customary to inject immu nizing serum into one side of the am imal’s neck and virulent .serum into the other side before releasing it. Very interesting facts have been .iisclosed through the efforts of vari ous investigators to perfect sera for mmunizing outbreaks of anthrax. It is well known that a very small amount of virulent blood will serve to convey the disease from an anthrax carcass to a healthy animal. A fly can easily carry enough on his pro boscis to kill a horse. It may safely be admitted that a single drop is suf ficient to cause the death of a horse; yet sobernheim has, by means of re peated injections, using cultures grad ually increasing jin virulence* pro duced such a high degree of immunity ■in a horse that it withstood the injec tion into its veins of 500 c. c. (about 17 fluid ounces, or more than a pint) of the most virulent anthrax culture obtainable. This is a good illustration of the word “immunity.” It is some thing that this horse in question has received into his system through Tie several inoculations of sera that en ables him to receive unharmed an in jection of living anthrax fully ten thousand times as large as the amount that would have sufficed to kill him previous to his immunization. Another peculiarity discovered by investigators along these lines is that a culture of anthrax bacilli that has once been attenuated can thin be cul tivated indefinitely without necessari ly causing any alteration in the degree of its virulence. If we let 100 represent the virulence of an active, ficsh culture, and 10 the degrees of virulence in one that has been greatly attenuated, it hay bben repeatedly shown that one can cultivate the at tenuated germs for many generations without causing any observable al teration from this virulence rating of 10; yet it only requires the single passage of this material through a white mouse to restore* its virulence at once to approximately 100. In this country the Delta lands of the Mississippi Valley are most thor oughly permeated with an.hrax in fection. The losses through anthrax have there been enormous, due in great measure to the large numbJr of valuable mules owned and worked upon the sugar plantations. Dr. W. H. Dalrymplc has or years been engaged in fighting this plague in Louisiana, and he reports as follows on the results of preventive inocula tion: Perhaps the most convincing evi dence of the beneficial effect of this method cf prevention in Louisiana is the fact that those localities which suffered most from yearly, or at least P'rodic, epizootics of anthrax, before vaccination became so generally ad apted, have experienced the past sum- I mer a wonderful degree of immunity I from the disease which, I think, we . must attribute to the fact that the ; use of the lymph is now almost gen eral in these sections and that greater attention is being directed to the more careful disposal of the dead animal, our people more fully appreciate its ; being the chief source from which this most deadly disease is spread. I believe wa are gradually solving ■ the anthrax problem in the Pelican State, and the progress we have al ready made is, I think, considerable and fairly satisfactory when we take int> account the erroneous and vis ionary ideas which prevailed up to ten or twelve ytars ago regarding the true nature of the disease and the most potent factors in causing its THE ECHO’S Job Printing Department k Complete lad Up-to-Dete POWER EQUIPPED TWENTY-SIXTH YEAR. No. 24 spread. I question very much if ten yearn ago a single dose of preventive vac cine was used or an anthrax carcass destroyed as a sanitary precaution against the spread of the disease in our State Today there are probably 40,000 or 50,000 doses of vaccine used, and carcasses are being much more carefully looked after, which 1 feel indicates some progress at least. The material which Doctor Dalrym ple used so successfully and which called forth the above encouraging re port was manufactured in accordance. with ’tb'She'dr.'s; rhuLwgs arid' hone is of a double inoculation wdth atten uated anthrax cultures. In carrying out tests for the deter mination of the reliablity of attenua ted living cultures the Bureau of Ani mal Industry has succeeded in immu nizing tost animals to such a perfect degree that they were able to with stand subcutaneous injections of ex ;rem?ly virulent anthrax cultures. Cattle, sheep, goats, 'burros, and a mule were subjected to these forti fying inoculations, and w-ere later proven to be immune to anthrax. The first injection caused hut slight dis turbance of the health of any animal, and only slight elevation of tempera ture. The second injection resulted in somewhat higher temperatures, and in a few cases in transient in difference to feed. The final test of their immunity was made with a pure culture of anthrax bacilli of the highest degree of virulence obtain able. The application of this severe test far exceeded in severity any poraturo and in rather general refu sal of food for a day or two; but this test for exceeded in .severity any chance for infection that the animals could have incurred by pasturing over inected lands), Pure an thrax bacilli were forced into the tis sues in great numbers, and the ulti mate survival and full recovery of the animals after this severe treatment offers the best possible argument in favor of preventive inoculation in all cases in which animals are positively known to be exposed to contact with anthrax bacilli in stables or pastures. The material used in vaccinating against anthrax has many dangerous properties, since it contains Hving anthrax organisms; hence it should [Continued to Page Eight.] professional Carbs DU. C L. HORTON, Physician and Surgeon, Office: GEX BLOG.. Miio t.. Horn 13 to 11 A. M. and 4t05 P. M Telephone 82 Residence —Carroll avenue. Phone 82. GEX & WALLER, ATTORNEYS-AT-L AW, Will practice in all civil matters in all State Courts and in all matters in the General Courts in Mississippi. DR. J. Q. FOUNTAIN, Physician and Surgeon, : BAY ST. LOUIS, MISS. Residence in Carroll avenue. Tele phone 142. Office in Hancock Cos. Bank Bldg. Hours, 10:30-12 M. 4-SP. M. DR. J. A. EVANS, DENTIST, Office: —In Hancock County Bank , Building. Hours frost 8 A. M. to 5:30 P. M. BAY ST. LOUIS. MISS. ROBERT L. GENIN, ATTORNEY AND COUNSELLOR AT LAW, Office—Genin Bldg., Main Street, BAY ST. LOUIS, MISS.