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TANARUS" HE FCHO’S FARM DEPARTMENT |
| —STTir —I 11 j\ live STOCK I ■' I HORTICULTURE I I W I SOUTHERN ASRKMtIIWE I POULTRY I B\J I 680D R6A6S j ■ [All BY ABLE WRITERS | BJ | By U. 5, DEPARTMENT OF ASRItULTUBE | t INCREASE IN DAIRY PROFITS Breeders Find It More Profitable to Have Cows Freshen in Fall- More Milk Produced. Because more milk would be pro duced in the year and calves would be, raised cheaper, farmers find it most profitable to have their cows freshen In the fall months. Cows bred now will drop calves by early fall. The cow gives a large flow of milk at the beginning of the period of lac tation. In the spring the milk yield, which gradually falls off, Is suddenly Increased when the cow is turned on fresh pasture. Calves bora in the fall need mainly milk and eat little grain during the period of winter feeding. When spring comes they are ready to be turned on pasture. Spring calves consume milk and grain during the cheap pasture season and require the same high priced feeds during the following win ter, when they are older and thus eat more. The fall-born calf at the same age needs only pasture. At the Ohio experiment station some calves bom in the fall were raised fur about $5 less than others born in the spring. Under average farm conditions this difference would be fed to fall-born calves on pasture, while those at the station were given grain because of a shortage of pasture. SKIM MILK FOR DAIRY CALVES Found to Be Nearly Equal in Value to Whole Milk in Experiment at North Dakota Station. In feeding the dairy calf, the aim is to cut down the period of whole milk feeding. At the North Dakota ex periment station, two lots of four calves each were fed as follows; Whole milk first three weeks both lots. From then on lot A was fed one-half whole milk and one-half skim milk till six months old. Lot B, after three weeks old, was fed skim milk with flaxseed. Just enough flax was added to supply as much fat as was given the calves in lot Ain their whole milk. Each calf S! <■ Promising Young Holstein. was given two gallons of milk a day. The whole milk calves made the best gains the first three months but during the next three months the skim milk calves nearly caught up, the four lack ing but 15 pounds of weighing as much as the whole milk calves, and several expert cattlemen who examined the two lots pronounced the calves in lot B in as thrifty a condition as those m lot A. The saving in using skim milk and flax In place of the whole milk amounted to sl9 per calf for the six month period. The grain and hay cost the same for both lots. NO CURE YET FOR ABORTION Rare Opportunity Offered Proprietary Remedy Sharks—Handle the Herd Properly. (Bv GEORGE H. GLOVER. Colorado Ag ricultural College. Fort Collins, Colo.) The proprietary remedy sharks have found in contagious abortion a rare opportunity. Beyond the appro priate handling of the herd and dis infection there is nothing to offer at this time. The following brief state ment is found in a recent United States department of agriculture folder: “It should be understood that no effective cure for contagious abortion has yet been found. Do not depend on drugs and proprietary remedies.” CLEAN MILK WINNING FIGHT Making Gains Because of Demands of People—Takes Good Dairy to Score 75 Per Cent. Clean milk is winning its figbt slow ly, and dirty milk is losing out —be- cause —clean people buy clean milk. It is a good dairy that mill score 75 per cent on the government score card. The only milk that is better than certified milk is the milk the suck ing calf gets from its mother. In scoring this milker we are obliged to give 100 |per cent on method and equipment # RMM FAVORITE BREEDS OF GEESE China Has Abundance of White Feath. ers of Swan's-Down Texture— Emden Is Popular. China geese are said to be the old est of all breeds. Their feathers are very abundant and of swan’s-down tex ture; snow-white, with flexible quills. People who pick the live geese report the yearly yield of one pound and over. They originated in China, where for centuries they have been bred to lay. They begin to lay when six months old. They are good breeders when one year old, ns they mature so early. Emden geese are also pure white and their flesh is white, firm and free from down or pin feathers. They are a great favorite in the market and Splendid Pair. sometimes bring from 2 to 4 cents per pound more on account of their fine appearance when dressed. It Is not easy to distinguish the sex of geese, especially of the Toulouse variety. Both sexes are of the same color but the gander is somewhat larger, has'a larger head and carries himself more erect. There is an em harassing likeness between the male and the female and out of the breed ing season it is almost impossible to distinguish them. The voice of the female is coarser than that of the male, she is deeper in body, and a trifle slimmer in the neck. The call of rhe gander is loud and shrill while that of the goose is merely an answer to it. SPRING WORK WITH TURKEYS Dften Necessary to Hatch Eggs by In cubator or Chicken Hen —Plan to Brood Pcuits. Turkey eggs are hatched with tur key hens, chicken hens and incubators. During lire early part of the laying season there are often a number of ?ggs on hand that should be hatched oefore any of the turkeys finish laying their first eggs and become broody. When this occurs or when it is de sired to have the turkey hen lay more than one litter, some of the eggs will have to be hatched under a chicken hen or in the incubator. Before the poults are hatched, say a week, turkey hens should he allowed to take some of the eggs that are incu bated. They can he given a few eggs from the incubator or from under ;hicken hens and allowed to hatch the poults. Another plan is to slip a newly matched poult under a turkey hen at night and by morning she will be glad :o take the whole brood. PRACTICE OF DOUBLE MATING Found to Be Necessary In Some Breeds, Like Barred Plymouth Rocks and Brown Leghorns. (By F. W. KAZMEIER, University o Wisconsin.) The phrase "double mating system," refers to a practice of making one mat ing to produce standard males, and another mating to produce standard females. Double mating Is necessary in some breeds, like the Barred Ply- Barred Rocks Owned and Bred by Alphonse Leppert mouth Rocks and Brown Leghorns. The Standard of Perfection requires such colors in the plumage of these birds that cannot be realized in a true mating. Double mating is a serious neces sary feature as long as fanciers con tinue to require an artificial standard lor some breeds. This practice in the long run works a detriment to the welfare of the breed. Fanciers should pet together and require a standard of these breeds that can be realize from a trus single mating. JARJVf CONTROLLING LICE ON HOGS Important Factor In Development of Animals—Crude Oil Gives Satis factory Results. (Kansas State Agricultural College.) Control of lice on hogs is an impor tant factor in their development. Crude oil not only kills lice, but in addition destroys the nits, softens the skin and brightens the hair. Many hog dips are on the market, which ore widely used, but the use of crude oil gives more satisfactory results, in the opinion of Ray Gate wood, instructor in animal husbandry in the Kansas State Agricultural col lege. This oil may be applied by the use of patent hog oilers, but as a rule these are not satisfactory for they are expensive and many do not apply the oil in a satisfactory manner. One of the most satisfactory meth ods of applying crude oil is to drive as many of the hogs as possible at one time into an inclosure in which there is a cement floor. Oil may then - | Healthy and Vigorous Hog. be applied to the hogs with an ordi nary sprinkling can. They rub against each other and the oil becomes evenly distributed. They should not be let out of the pen until this is accom plished. MILLIONS LOST BY DISEASE Annual Loss Caused by Contagious Abortion Places Heavy Tax on Breeders—No Cure Known. Twenty million dollars, and a good deal more, is the annual loss caused by contagious abortion of cows. The loss several years ago was placed at $20,000,000, and since then the disease has spread widely. Consequently it is safe to say that the loss now is a great deal larger. It is, in fact, a heavy annual tax on the cattle man. Contagious abortion is a germ dis ease. No reliable cure is known. The problem is, therefore, largely one of prevention, says Farmers’ Bulletin 790, issued by the United States de partment of agriculture. Prevention and control, however, are not a lazy man’s job. Eternal vig ilance is the price of success. Suggestions may be found in the bulletin referred to, which may be ob tained by addressing Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. HOGS NEED GOOD PASTURAGE Cheap Pork Cannot Be Produced in Pens—Supply Plenty of Grazing of the Right Kind. It will be necessary to plant a suc cession of pasture crops for your hogs If you do not have sufficient perma nent pasture. Cheap pork cannot be produced in pens; the hogs must have pasture crops that supply plenty of grazing of the right kind. Even where one has but one brood sow and expects to raise two litters a year, some grazing must be had to give the proper gains on the pigs. Make your arrangements for pasture crops for your hogs. ATTENTION TO YOUNG LAMBS They May Be Expected to Grow Rap ( idly If Properly Cared For— Good Pasture Needed. Lambs require considerable atten tion when very young, yet they may be expected to grow rapidly if they are properly carg£ for. They need a good pasture where there is green food, shade and water. And when penned at night with the ewes they should have dry, cool, sani tary quarters where the danger of parasites is reduced to a minimum. When a few sheep are cared for properly one may expect a herd in a short time. IMPORTANCE OF GOOD TEETH Neglect Will Cause Failing Off In Flesh or Lack of Appetite in All of Farm Animats. Many ef the ills that attack the human family have been found to have their rise in neglected teeth. This is also true of animals, and a falling off in flesh or lack of appetite in horses, cattle, sheep or other animals should cause the owner to look first to tt ieeth. - ■ T ■ I THE SEA COAST ECHO. BAY ST. LOUIS. MISSISSIPPI GOOD ROADS SURFACE OF IMPROVED ROAD Oval Should Be as Flat as Character of Material Employed and Lay of Land Will Permit. “Everybody agrees that the surface of a road must be oval in its contour.” says Farm and Fireside, “but not all understand that this oval ought to be as flat as the character of the road material and the lay of the land will permit. With brick or concrete con struction the oval may be very flat, be cause the traffic makes no ruts to car ry the water lengthwise of the road, nor does the pavement soften and de velop depressions when kept in con tact with water. But broken stone (water-bound macadam), being sus ceptible to penetration by water, and subject to great damage if frozen while soaked, must be given a higher oval; and for gravel roads a still steeper pitch is demanded. “As for earth roads, the steepness must be governed by the combined Influence of a number of factors. Per haps the leading factor is the quality of the earth in each particular case. And next might be placed the pres ence or absence of ‘seeps’ or ‘spouts;’ while another of these vital factors would be the longitudinal pitch of the highway.” OIL FOR ROAD IMPROVEMENT When Properly Applied Good Surface Is Obtained —Experiments Being Made in Missouri. (By E. T. M’CAUSTLAND, Missouri Ag ricultural College.) Attempts are now being made In several parts of the state to keep dust down by the use of road oils. Super visors should be careful to investigate the quality of oil they use before put ting it on the highways. It is not gen erally understood that there are two distinct types of oil on the market. One of those oils has an asphalt base which serves as a binder on the road as soon us the lighter oil evaporates. The other has a paraffin base and is to all intents and purposes a lubricat ing oil. This kind of oil, however, does not hold the road hard, or is not bind ing. It leaves the roads musty and sticky. Road oiling, properly done, gives a good surface. The City of Joplin has done some of this work on its roads that have already carried heavy traf fic more than a year and now look as good as asphalt pavement. Any Missourian may send samples of road oils to the Engineering Experi ment Station University of Missouri. Columbia, and have them examined at I . Iff T Oiled Highway in Missouri. a moderate cost —merely enough to pay for the use of materials in the laboratory. Some time ago the experi ment station issued a bulletin giving complete information on the quality of various materials throughout the state for road-making purposes. This bulletin is still in print and will be sent free. Its title is “Investigation of Road-Making Properties of Missouri Stone and Gravel.” $1,500,000,000 FOR ROADS Predicted This Amount Will Be Spent in Next Five Years on Highways of United States, “It is predicted on good authority that from $1,000,000,000 to $1,500,000,- 000 will be spent on the highways of the United States in the next five years,” says Lincoln Highway, the organ of the transcontinental highway association of that name. “Herein lies the proof of the general interest on the part of all of the people in road improvement, an interest which went soaring with the passage of the Bank-* head-Shackleford act allowing $75,000,- 000 of federal funds to the various states for this purpose.” Money for Rural Roads. Under the federal-air road act, within the next five years $160,000,000 will be spent by federal and state gov ernments in improving rural roads. Reduce Cost of Hauling. Good roads reduce the cost of haul ing produce to and from the farm as much as 25 cents per ton-mile. Beautify Roadsides. Why not plant parts of our roadside: with suitable native shrubs or perer Dials? a %AaM ° Ikikmikiiii BERRIES AND SMALL FRUITS Frequent and Thorough Cultivation During First Growing Season Is of Utmost Importance. Small fruits of all kinds, strawber ries, raspberries, blackberries and grapes, must be cultivated frequently and well during their first growing sea son if they are to do their best. All of the small fruits, during their first year of growth especially, should be cultivated as often and as well as standard garden and field crops. The best berry and grape growers cultivate their young plants on an average of about once each week during the grow ing season, never allowing any grass or weeds to make a start, writes J. S. Woods of Missouri, in Farm Progress. Small fruits during their first year’s growth, like young corn, are relatively shallow-rooted, hence the cultivator may be run rather deep between rows. It is not always necessary to cultivate them deeply, but it is an advantage if the soil is hard or Is full of trash that should be broken to pieces. In many cases small fruits are planted in soil that needs stirring and mixing to a considerable depth, and in such cases it is well to run the shovels of the cul- V, Luscious Strawberries. tivator deeply for the first few culti vations in order to mix the soil till it Is of even grain and thoroughly friable. During the latter part of the grow ing season, and during a spell of dry weather, cultivation of small fruits should be shallow and as smooth as possible for creating a surface dust mulch and preventing as much as pos sible of the loss of soil moisture. The cultivator for this purpose should have from five to fifteen shovels or teeth. It is very important to cultivate cane fruits and grapevines well for strong, early growth and for heavy fruiting with mature plants. Mulching and working the mulch into the surface soil is very beneficial to all small fruits. Grapes will grow better and fruit earlier and heavier if they are given deep and clean cultivation from early spring till the middle of the sum mer. NECESSARY TO PRUNE TREES Removal of Dead, Dying, Diseased and Excessive Wood Is Essential Part of Orchard Work. Pruning is a necessary part of or chard practice, according to C. W. Rapp of the department of horticulture of the Oklahoma A. and M. college. An unpruned tree is much like an un trained horse —both can work, and will work well, if properly trained, accord ing to Mr. Rapp. It is true that an untrained tree will produce some fruit, but it will not do its best. Much of the energy that should be directed toward fruit produc tion will be used to produce useless wood. The tree will grow excessive ly and will often become misshaped. Proper pruning—the removal of dead, dying, diseased and excessive wood —together with the proper shap ing of the tree, Is an essential part of successful orchard practice. Such treatment must be followed If the or chard is expected to produce fruit as It should. DESTROY APPLE-TREE BORER Numbers May Be Greatly Reduced by Removing Common Service Tree, Food Plant of Bugs. . The roundheaded apple-tree borer may be greatly reduced in numbers by destroying the common service tree when in proximity to orchards. It has been found that the tree is a favorite food plant of the insect. RENEWAL OF OLD ORCHARDS Many Old Trees Brought Back Into Profitable Fruiting by Use of Modern Appliances. Since the advent of dynamite, tree surgery, spraying chemicals and the pruning knife it is now possible to bring many of the old trees that are not too far gone, back into profitable fruiting. BALDWIN IS MOST POPULAR Leads All Varieties of Apples Grown in United States—Ben Davis Is Close Second. Estimates on the total production of 35 leading varieties of apples in the United States show Baldwin leading with 13.4 per cent of the total crop; Ben Davis a close second, and North era Spy third. Fourth place is held by the Winesap and fifth by the Greenin FARMERS AWAKENED TO MERITS OF HOG ? 3M-jGir ’ •' , y# aBBMMWw&*. .--' -■•• ? POLAND CHINA SOW IN FIELD CONDITION. ptt&CrCr(rererCr£rCrbirCr£rCrCreretlr!rtr^^ | Meat by the Hog Route. | The meat supply of the country can be increased more quickly by a. the “hog route” than by any other. The country’s need to augment s> a its supply is great, but prevailing high prices alone should be sufficient & Inducement to farmers to raise more hogs. The prospect of success p j£ never was brighter. The high prices ruling in nil markets show that x£ the demand for pork is in excess of the supply.—U. S. Department of *■ 5 Agriculture. i> No branch of live stock farming is more productive of satisfactory results than the raising of well-bred swine, if conducted with a reasonable care, ac cording to the specialists of the bu reau of animal industry, U. S. depart ment of agriculture. Hogs fit into the modern scheme of farming on nearly every farm, and are one of the most important animals to raise both for meat and for money. They require less labor, loss equipment, and less capital, make greater gains per hun dred pounds of concentrates fed, re produce themselves faster and in greater numbers, and give a quicker “turnover” of money than any other animal except poultry. Farmers of the South and West particularly have awakened to the merits of the hog and are rapidly increasing their output of pork and their bank accounts. The hog lias no rival as a consumer of by-products and numerous unmark etable materials which but for him might he wasted. Kitchen refuse, not only from farms but also from hotels f Demand for Pork Is Keen. * S— j * Disease, such as cholera, Ims been taking a smaller toll the past * season than in recent years; more purebred and high-grade hogs * iji are available than ever before; prices of hogs are now past the 10- * * cent level; demand for pork for home consumption and for export is * x keen. All of which means that the farmer who does not raise hogs is * losing a chance to increase the supply of pork and thus serve the J * country and at the same time expand a profitable phase of farm- # * ing„—U. S. Department of Agriculture. % **3M'****3M-*********************************** USE FOR EVERY ACRE Importance of Utilizing Waste Land Cannot Be Questioned. Fat Hogs and Prime Beef Cannot Be Made Without Good Feed—Means for Farmer to Add Materially to Meat Supply. With prices for fat hogs quoted at sl4 a hundred pounds on the Jackson ville market, and prime cattle at $lO and sl2 a hundred, the importance of putting every available acre into use cannot be questioned. The fact that a 200-pound hog is worth S2B, and an 800-pound steer is worth nearly SIOO, is of no importance to a farmer un less he has the stock to sell, says A. I*. Spencer of the University of Flori da extension division. Prime beef cannot be made without good feed, and as there are thousands of acres of waste land in Florida that at some time have been under culti vation, these lands can now be put to a practical use. The cost of plowing and preparing the land for velvet beans should not exceed $3 an acre. A peck of bean seed can be bad for 75 cents or less. If the crop is planted in good condi tion the beans should yield from 12 to 15 bushels per acre, which if pastured off by cattle will feed two steers for 30 days and put them in fair condition for killing, or will fatten one steer into prime beef. There is an opportunity for every farmer in Florida to take advantage of this means of adding to the meat supply and at the same time to make a profit from the beaus and to improve bis land. Each year thousands of cattle on Florida ranges die from lack of feed, says Mr. Spencer. This condition can be overcome by the Increased acreage of velvet beans that can be planted this year. EARLY SEEDING3 OF ALFALFA Should Not Be Clipped Until 12 to 15 inches High Unless Weeds Threat en to Choke Out. Spring and early summer seedings of alfalfa, unless the weeds threaten to choke out the young plants, should not be clipped until they are 12 to 15 inches high and beginning to bloom. The cutter bar of the mower should be set high, ns the alfalfa is likely to be injured if cut low. and restaurants, when cooked before being used makes an excellent feed. The value of skim milk as a bog feed is known on every farm though not always fully appreciated. In the neighborhood of many large dairies pork production is a very prominent and lucrative supplement to the dairy Industry. To prevent tuberculosis, all milk and milk products should be cooked before being fed to lings. To control hog cholera, use sanitary precautions and anti-hog cholera serum treatment. Give your hog every chance to be come meat. The hog is also a large factor in cheapening the production of beef. Hogs are placed in the cattle feed lots to utilize the corn and other feeds the cattle have failed to digest and which otherwise would be wasted. Hogs following steers in many cases have increased tin? profit per steer by from $0 to $9. Hogs should not be al lowed to follow dairy cuttle unless the cattle are tuberculin tested. PLANT SORGHUM FOR FODDER Crop Is Uninjured by Warmest Weath. er of Summer, Ordinarily Making Best Growth Then. (By J. F. NICHOLSON, University ot Arizona.) Sown any time from April to the end of July, Club-head and Amber sorghums usually give a heavy yield of fodder. The saccharine sorghums also when planted In rows and cultivated, produce a fair quality of sirup. For age sorghums are quite easily cured in tlds climate, but are often fed as they stand in the field. Seed does not germinate promptly and the young plants grow thriftily, however, until April of most years. Little Is gained by planting before the daily maximum temperatures begin to be So to 90 de grees and the minimum temperatures are over 45. They are uninjured by the warmest weather of summer, or dinarily making their best growth then. They are all killed when the mercury falls below 30, this usually occurring during November. A good crop may be secured ordinarily by planting any time from April to July. If the mois ture supply is sufficient under dry farming, the earlier planting is best; if it is not present sufficiently to bring the crop up, the later planting is to be recommended, for the summer ; rains usually begin then and will carry i the crop to maturity. WATER FOR CALF IMPORTANT Erroneous to Think Because Young Animal Drinks Milk It Does Not Need Any Water. Many feeders fail to realize the ira ; portance of providing the young call [ with plenty of water. It Is a mistake 1 to think that because the calf drinks ; milk it does not need water. After the calf Is two weeks old it should have access to plenty of fresh, clean water at all times, and when it Is old enough to eat roughage it should have access to salt. HORSE LIABLE TO SUNSTROKE Sunbonnet Can Be Purchased for Few Cents Which Will Afford Some Protection. Horses are just as liable to sun ' stroke ns men. A sunbonnet can be } bought for 25 cents which will go a I long way toward protecting them. A i bucket of water and a big sponge j should always he kept in the field dun 1 tug the excessively not weather.