Newspaper Page Text
1 HTHE FCHO’S 17ARM TYEPARTMENin
I . —, I 1 I live cinrr I■ I HDRTIGULTURE 1 I W SOUTHERN AoBIGCLTUHE X fST] M A S<w‘ ! JL i , ■ if >ssi ” ,j !. E 1 g GOOD FEEDING ALWAYS PAYS Pj*or and Skinny Young Cow Can Be Made to Produce Milk and But terfat of Quality. Often the young cow that is poor i and skinny can be made to produce i u lot of milk and butterfat. Professor | Erf of Ohio State university told of j such an instance. A young Jersey cow had been bred in the southern part of Superior Milk Specimen. Ohio and fed only the poorest kind of feed. Under these conditions she j produced about 2,200 pounds of milk : a year. Now, under different manage- I ment, she is producing 12,000 pounds | of 5 per cent milk! Good feed and ! proper management made the dif- | fcrence. SUCCESS IN DAIRY BUSINESS One of Best Breeds Should Be Selected and Followed, That Herd May Be come Uniform. For best success in the dairy busi ness one of the dairy breeds should he selected and followed, that the j herd may become uniform, care being taken to get good cows with which to start. There is more difference in the cows of any breed than there is In the different breeds, says one writer. A profit can only be expected from good cows, so better start with five ! good cows than 20 poor ones. With five you will find satisfaction, less ; work and more profit. If you expect to raise the heifer calves for future use be sure they are not only sired by a registered bull, hut that his ped igree for great production of milk and butter runs back for five or more ; generations on both sides. We cannot all see our way clear to begin with registered cows of high i merit. Good grades can usually be | bought costing but little more than ; scrubs and by careful breeding a herd ; will soon be raised which will be both j a pleasure and a profit. KEEP MILK IN HOT WEATHER Whether Intended for Table or Cream ery It Must Be Sweet to Secure Highest Prices. It is no trick at all to keep milk sweet in cold weather, hut in hot weather it mupt be handled very care- j fully. Whether the milk or cream is intended for the table, the creamery, or the milk market, it must be sweet ! if it is to bring the best price. To | keep the milk sweet just two simple 1 things must be very carefully looked ; after: 1. It must be cooled as completely ml ns quickly after milking as possi- , Me; and, 2. Absolute cleanness of pails, cans, j and cows must be secured. Souring | takes place because little invisible plants called bacteria get into it in dirt or by lurking In the corners and seams of poorly cleaned pails and cans. The remedy is plain. Keep the bac teria out by using seamless pails and cans and seeing that absolutely no dirt or dust gets into the milk in the stable or anywhere else. WHOLESOME WATER FOR COW Whether in Barn or Pasture, Animals Should Have Free Access to Fresh Supply Twice Daily. The average cow under normal con ditions will drink about nine or ten gallons of water daily. Whether in the pasture or in the barn, cows should have access to an abundance of fresh water twice daily. Unless there are good flowing, springs, the best water comes from wells and may be pumped by windmills or gas engines. It is un wholesome for them to drink from stagnant ponds or streams, but clean, running streams are not objection able. REMOVE ALL DISEASED COWS Animals Not 6n Healthy Condition Should Be Taken From Herd and Milk Kept Separate. Cows not In healthy condition should be removed from the herd and their milk kept until the animals are restored to normal health. Milk from diseased cows should not be used for human food. Serious udder trou ble, causing garget or bloody milk, must be cured before the, milk la usable. •. -- * • ■ PRODUCING EGGS IN SUMMER Better Methods of Caring for Eggs and Proper Packing Would Reduce Needless Loss. Losses in eggs during the summer months fall directly upon the farmers. Dealers know that an average of 15 to 18 per cent of eggs marketed during the summer is either a total or a par tial loss; hence prices, they say, are based upon good eggs only. Better methods of caring for the eggs and better packing before they are shipped would reduce this unnec essary loss. A few definite rules for the pre vention of loss in summer eggs are formulated by the poultry division at the Pennsylvania State college: (1) Produce sterile or infertile eggs. (2) Keep eggs in a cool, dry place. (3) Have clean nests and plenty of them. (4) Do not keep the eggs near kerosene or decaying vegetables. They absorb odors readily. (5) Market the eggs fre quently. Holding does not improve quality. KEEP MOTHER HEN CONFINED Loss of Chicks by Exposure Largely Preventable by Keeping Hen in Ventilated Coop. It is not good poultry management to allow the mother hen to range un restricted with her chicks. With such freedom the hen frequently takes her brood through wet grass and, as a re sult, some are chilled and die, espe cially the weaker ones, which are like ly to be left behind. The loss of young chicks which follows such a practice is large and mainly preventable. Fur thermore, the food which a brood al lowed to range with the hen obtains goes very largely to keep up the heat of the body and the chicks do not make as good growth as they other wise would. Chick losses of this nature can be largely prevented by shutting the hen in a coop. Any style of coop which is dry, ventilated and can be closed at night to protect the brood against cats, rats and other animals, and Mother Hen in Coop. which, while confining the hen, will allow the chicks to pass in and out freely after they are a few days old, will be satisfactory. The hen should ' be confined until the chicks are j weaned, though a small yard may be attached to the coop, if desired, to al low the hen to exercise. The fence can be raised from the ground far enough to allow the chicks to go in or out, but not high enough for the hen to escape. By using a coop the chicks can find shelter and warmth under the hen at any time and the weaklings, after a few days, may de velop into strong, healthy chicks. STRICT STANDARD FOR EGGS A/hen Well-Established Produce of First-Class, Fresh Article Will Bring Highest Price. By C. S. ANDERSON, Colorado Agricul tural College, Fort Collins.) The day of standardization in the egg market is here. When eggs sold for a cent apiece, the claim “an egg Is an egg” was accepted. With our present increased prices, the con sumer naturally Is asking for great er quality and higher standardization In the products he buys. A number of our best markets are now demanding that eggs shall weigh at least 24 ounces per dozen. They must stand a candling test, be clean, uniform in size, shape and cdlor of shell. When rigid standards are well es tablished the producer of first-class fresh eggs will receive a premium and will no longer have his prices governed by the ungraded, poorly handled product PICK FEATHERS FROM GEESE As Soon as Fowl Is Killed Dip It in Hot Water Three Times, Then Wrap in Blanket Much of the trouble experienced when picking geese may be avoided If the gqpse, as soon as dead, is dipped la water almost at the boiling point three times and then wrapped tightly In a blanket or other material which will hold the steam. This will thor oughly steam the feathers and down, so that it will come off easily. Don’t allow the goose to remain wrapped up more than a xuu nuouu : •tt' .f • ;v. :. , v HORSES PREPARED FOR SHOW Some Extra Care and Attention Need ed for Draft Animals—Feed Brood Mares Some Grain. Draft horses that are to be shown at the county fairs need some extra care and attention. To show at an advantage horses should be in good condition, well mannered and well groomed. Brood mures and young horses on pasture should be fed some grain for a considerable time before they are shown. The amount of grain will depend on the condition of the animal and also on the pasture. Equal parts of corn and oats have been found to be a good mixture to feed. Stal lions and work horses that are to be shown should be fed enough grain and hay to put them in good condition. A little grass or green feed of some kind is useful as a conditioner and as aa appetizer. Draft horses are shown at halter ex cept in the case of draft pairs. It Is good form to show mares aud young horses with rope halters. Halters made from half-inch rope are prefer able except for foals when halters made from three-eighths inch rope are more in keeping with the size of the animal. Draft stallions are shown with heavy bridles. Horses should bf Ready to Take a Prize. tuught to stand and to lead before they are brought into the ring. Most horses show to good advantage when stretched slightly. It is advisable to exercise all horses to be shown for considerable time before the show, both at the walk and at the trot. Find a level strip of road and let the ani mal walk and trot back and forth over a space of 100 feet for 10 or 15 min utes each day so that he may know what is expected of him when shown. Always stand a horse with his front feet on slightly higher ground than his hind feet. SUPERIOR TONICS FOR SWINE Hogs Are Especially Sensitive to Lack of Variety in Feed—Satisfactory Mixture Given. (By DR. R. H. WILLIAMS. Animal Hus bandman, University of Arizona, Agri cultural Experiment Station.) Hogs are omniverous animals and es pecially sensitive to a lack of variety in their feed. Under domestication they make rapid growth and it is hard ly possible to supply them with suffi cient quantities of all the food nutri ents they require to make the most economical gains. On this account they often become restless and have a craving for certain constituents lack ing in the diet. The following mixture has given satisfactory results: Charcoal, 8 pounds; air-slacked lime, 8 pounds; common salt, 6 pounds; hardwood ashes. 8 pounds; powdered sulphur, 4 pounds; powdered blue stone, 2 pounds. These should be thoroughly mixed and kept in stock so that a small sur ply may be before the hogs at all times. A low box makes a useful con tainer. Such a mixture is especially cheap and will return big profits in the way of increased gains. It should be mentioned that this preparation is more of a tonic to keep the hogs in good condition rather than to safe guard them against disease. At the ! present time we have no hog food that will save pigs from contracting or dy ing from hog cholera. This tonic, however, has a beneficial effect in mak | ing the animals more vigorous and | maintaining them in better condition to i overcome the attack of diseases. CAUSE OF SCOURS IN LAMBS I Very Often an Examination of Water Supply Will Reveal Trouble With Young Animals. One of the causes of scours In lambs Is filthy water. We generally look for | the cause in the feed, but quite often It Is due to impure water. Everybody is familiar with the disturbance in the human family which follows the use of bad water. The stomach of the iamb even the sheep, is quite as susceptible to danger from this source as is that of the shepherd. We often *ee flocks on fairly good pastures, that ought to do well so fur as feed is concerned, showing a lack of thrift and i general dullness for which there seems to be, at first thought, no ap parent reason. Very often an exam nation of the water supply will reveal •he cause. THE SEA COAST ECHO. BAY ST. LOns. MISSISSIPPI ORCHARD mms C OR LIME-SULPHUR MIXTURE Complete Directions Given for Making Solution Necessary for Spraying Fruit Trees. (By S. M. COOK.) Provide yourself with a good, tight barrel, and a zinc tub or pot to heat water in; heat the water to boiling point, then take two or three buckets of boiling water and put In the empty barrel, cover the top of the barrel with oilcloth and sacks. Let the water remain in the barrel about ten minutes, then pour out the water and put in 25 pounds of sulphur, and empty six cans of concentrated lye upon the sulphur; then add three bdekets of boiling water, cover up barrel well and let it brew for 15 to 20 minutes; then stir up well, adding two more buckets of boiling water and ten’ pounds quick or unslaked lime (not slaked); cover top of barrel again and let the mix* Spray Mixing and Filling Tanks for Spraying on Large Scale. ture boil for 20 or 30 minutes. Then stir up well and add two more buckets boiling water and ten pounds more lime; let this boil for 20 or 30 min utes, keeping the cover on barrel as much as possible, after 30 minutes’ more boiling add two buckets boiling water and ten pounds more lime; let boil 30 minutes, then add more water (two buckets boiling water) and stir up thoroughly; add ten pounds more lime; let this boil for 30 minutes, then strain out into another barrel and add water enough to make 100 gallons in solution. This is ready to be sprayed on the trees. By this method you cook the mixture about two and a half hours. Several barrels may be started at one time and treated in the same manner as above. BAGGING GRAPES IS FAVORED While Not Profitable in Commercial Vineyard, It Will Prove Successful in Small Patches. While it is not profitable to bag in a commercial vineyard, it will always prove successful in a home vineyard. By bagging the ripening period can he held back for two weeks. Besides, when grapes are thoroughly sprayed and bags put on immediately, there is nof so much danger of rotting. Bag ging keeps birds and bees from injur ing the grapes, therefore, more per fect bunches are produced. Place the bunch in a strong three pound paper bag, such as is used in a grocery store. Fold the corners and pin securely around the stem just above the grapes. A small hole about one-half Inch in diameter should he cut in one corner of the bag at the bottom to al low water to run out. The bags are not costly, but it takes some time to put them on. In the home vineyard it is a very paying proposition, as it gives you a longer ripening period and more perfect bunches. PLAN TO PICK RASPBERRIES Assign Two Pickers to Each Numbered Row and Keep Chart and Record at Packing Shed. In picking raspberries, number the rows, then assign two pickers to each row, and keep a chart and record at the packing shed. In a field of 40 to 60 long rows it is very difficult for pickers to find their own row aftei* taking a carrier of fruit to the pack ing house unless the rows are given some distinguishing mark or number. By this plan we know just what rows are picked, and can check up the work of each picker. Let the pickers use four-quart car riers and as soon as the baskets are filled bring them to the nearest pack ing shed and their card punched before they receive any more basinets. Pickers are not allowed to take any extra baskets with them to the field. FRUIT PACKAGES ARE SCARCE Far-Sighted . Fruit-Growers Have Placed Their Orders and Many Have Supply in Storage. It is impossible to place too much emphasis upon the importance of se curing without delay an ample supply of fruit packages. All far-sighted fruit growers have placed thier orders and many have their packages safely stored in a convenient shed. Reports from Florida already indicate a short age of potato barrels and baskets, a condition that will undoubtedly be come more serious as the season ad vances. The New Jersey State Agri cultural college advises all growers, large and small, to secure quotations and place orders immediately for all the new fruit packages that they will requfre for the marketing of their crop, ♦ROAD* BUILDING MOST ECONOMICAL OF ROADS Macadam Is Regaining Favor With Modern Builders, Who Arc Now Looking at Annual Cost. A few years ago road builders joined in a universal requiem for thf old-fushioned water-hound raacadait road in New York state. It served Its purpose when vehicles were all horse drawn, it was acknowledged, but with the advent of motor vehicles it was laid aside with the muzzle loaders crinolines and other prides of depart ed days. But recently the macadam road has come back again into favor. This is because road of flclals are now judging the cost of a road by its total annual expense, including maintenance and sinking fund. On this basis it has been dis covered that a macadam road is ar yy.V'*. : : .. w : ♦ Macadam Road in New York. economical one for certain- classes ol travel. This was the opinion expressed at the recent meeting of the New York State association of County Highway Superintendents by many of those present. Practically all the recent roads built by these men have two courses ol broken stone, and frequently it is pos sible to build the roads with a lowet course of cheap local stone, using tle more expensive stone from a distance for the upper course only. This re duces the first cost without causing any reduction in the life and strength of the road. When they are finished they are sometimes treated at once with tar or asphalt, but usually this treatment is deferred long enough for travel over the road to reveal any weak spots, so they can be repaired be fore the oiling is done. It is this de velopment of efficient and economical methods of maintenance with the help of road oils which has led to the renaissance of water-bound macadam in New York. It is one of many recent indications that where the work of maintenance is thoroughly done and cost records of it are properly kept important light is thrown on the best types of construction to carry travel of different classes and intensities. PLAN FOR ROAD MANAGEMENT Essential to Successful Highway Ad ministration Outlined Briefly- Cut Out Politics. Summarized briefly, the essentials :o successful state highway adminis tration, as demonstrated by the ex perience of the various state high way departments, are as follows: (a) The elimination of politics as a fac tor in state highway work; (h) the control by the state highway depart ment of all work on which state funds are expended; (c) adequate appro priations for continuous maintenance of highways under efficient , super vision from the day the highways are completed; (and) state supervision as to surveys, plans, and specifications of roads and bridges constructed un der bond issues, and supervision of such other road and bridge work as requires considerable cash outlay and the exercise of engineering skill and knowledge. —Yearbook United States Department of Agriculture. QUESTION OF BETTER ROADS Poor Policy for Farmer to Refuse to Listen to Arguments for Improve ment of Highways. It wouldn’t do any of us any harm to look thoroughly into the question of better roads. Don’t be narrow enough to take one side of the question and refuse to listen to any facts or opinions advanced on the other side. A man told us the other day that he had been trying to talk to another man who had an entirely erroneous opinion in regard to the federal aid proposition. “He literally wouldn t listen to me,” he said. “His head was so full of the wrong idea that no sound seemed able to penetrate it.” To listen is not necessarily to be con vinced, and to refuse to listen Is to refuse to be broad minded enough to hear both sides and form a real opin ion.—Twentieth Century Farmer. Grading and Drainage. The first step in the making of good roads is grading and draining. The next is dragging, and the next step, in most localities, as long as the cost of a good grade of asphaltic road oil re mains below 6 cents a gallon, will hr oiling. Increase of Trunk Roads. The aid now rendered by the fed eral government to the states win rap idly Increase the proportion of good trunk roads. This co-operation is al ready under way In many states. MOST COMMON OF CANTALOUPE TROUBLES ||^ SPLENDID FIELD OF ROCKYFORD MELONS. When blight attacks the cantaloupe, then the hopes orf the grower wilt as well as the leaves of his plants —It Is usually a hard case to cure. Leaf-blight Is the most common of cantaloupe troubles. The leaves be come covered with light to dark brown, generally circular spots, which increase in size and finally coalesce, resulting in complete wilting and cur ling of leaves. The spots commonly show fine and rather Indistinct concentric markings, such as are found in the common al ternate blight of potatoes. The leaf stalks and vines' are also affected. HANDLING BROOD SOWS Summer Feeding, Breeding and General Management. Practice of Producing Two Litters a Year Should Be Encouraged Where Conditions Will Permit, Say Specialists. (From the United States Department of Agriculture.) The practice of having brood sows produce two Utters a year, as followed in some of the hog-raising sections of our country, should he encouraged, ex cept where short seasons and severe winter weather prevent, the swine specialists of the United States de partment of agriculture advise. Sows Intended to farrow fall Ut ters should be bred not later than the end of June. Those *Jmt are in breed ing condition after weaning their spring Utter should he bred the first time they come In heat. There are generally a few sows in the herd that are thin and run-down in condition after weaning, and these should he fed a little heavier for a few weeks before breeding to insure a large Ut ter In the fall. The date of breeding should be recorded so as to determine the date of farrow. The gestation pe riod of a sow is 112 to 115 days. The sows should be watched closely to see if they come in heat after they are once bred, so that they can he rebred. The heat period is every 21 days. After the sows are bred they should be turned into pasture, aud fed very little grain during the first part of the summer. Breeding stock must be kept hard and healthy, and to ac complish this roughages must consti tute a large part of the ration. Al falfa, clover, bluegrass and Bermuda are permanent pasture crops which furnish excellent summer feed for sows. Rape, soy beans, cowpeas and sorghum are especially adapted for swine feeding. Their use will reduce the necessary daily grain ration to one pound or less per hundredweight of sow during the grazing season, which is a large saving in favor of pasture. Plenty of water, shade, and space to exercise are other essentials for the production of strong, healthy litters. The sows can run together in the same pasture within two or three weeks of the farrowing date. At this lime those that are due to farrow should be separated from the herd and placed in a -separate paddock or pen, where they can farrow their pigs un disturbed. Keep the sow on pasture if possible, and provide dry, well-ventilated quar ters free from draft in which she can farrow the pigs. KEEP WATER SUPPLY IN SOIL Prevent Evaporation of Moisture by Running Harrow Over Grain Fields After Each Rain. The winds are rapidly evaporating the water supply from the grain fields. This would not occur if the harrow were run over the grain as soon after each rain aa the land crusts over. The young weeds would also be killed, the soil aired, the grain invigorated and better yields result. When you first break land, do not allow the clods to dry and remain through the summer. Use *he harrow while the 'clods axe and easily broken- The blight is caused by a fungus, which may at least be checked- by spraying with bordeaux. The first application should be made when the vines are from 12 to 18 inches long, and then every two weeks during the season. The bordeaux mixture should be of the usual strength—six pounds of bluestone and six pounds of lime to 50 gallons of water. The greatest care must he taken to get down on the under side of the leaves with the spray. Use a hand pump on small plots veith a fine spray. If this does not save them, nothing caa MANY ADVANTAGES OF MULES Preferable to Horse Because He Will Take Better Care of Himself in Hot Weather. That the mule has certain decided advantages as a work animal. Is the opinion of Dr. C. W. McCampbell, as slstant professor of animal husbandry In the Kansas State Agricultural col lege. "For the man who does not know how or Is unwilling to give his horses a reasonable amount of care, the mule Is the better animal because he will take better care of himself than will a horse,” said Doctor McCampbell. “The mule naturally Is more able to stand hot weather than Is the horse. He will slow down when the work becomes hard and the weather hot, whereas a horse will begin to fret and thus will be even more likely to become over heated. Hence a mule Is safer In the hands of a careless or Incompetent driver.” The mule requires less grain and will readily consume more roughage than will a horse doing the same amount of work, pointed out Doctor McCampbell. The mule Is less subject to digestive disorders. Another impor tant consideration Is that a mule does not depreciate In value as much from age and hard usage as does a horse. GRASS ESSENTIAL TO GEESE Fowls Are Partial to Such Grasses as Are Found on Swampy Lands —They Enjoy Range. Geese are grazers, and grass is as necessary to them as water; the rank est. coarsest grass, such as the cattle would reject, seems to be their choice. They are partial to such grasses ns are found on swampy lands, of which, perhaps, no more profitable use could be made. They likewise enjoy a range In the stubble field where they can find young grass and herbage spring ing up amongst the stubble, and where considerable corn can be picked up that otherwise would be lost. CHICKENS MUST HAVE GRIT Easy and Inexpensive to Keep Good Supply Before Fowls—Valuable as Feeding Gauge. It is so simple and Inexpensive to keep a supply of good grit constantly before one's fowls that there Is really no excuse for failing to do It. If they nibble at the grit a bit, and yet eat more of shells and charcoal, that Is the normal condition. If they begin to consume, suddenly, large quanti ties of grit, it Is one of the best pos sible signs of indigestion and bowel disorders. Thus, grit may be a valu able feeding gauge. INFERTILE EGGS KEEP BEST There Is No Germ to Develop and Start Decomposition—Hard to Keep Fertile Eggs. Fertilized eggs begin to germinate at 7TT degrees of temperature, and during the summer It Is almost Im possible for producers to keep them below that temperature. Infertile eggs keep very much longer than fer tile ones even at a high temperature, for there is no germ to develop and start decomposition. Deterioration of this kind of eggs consists largely lu evaporation and such eggs would be classified aa st&la.